On this Day in German Royal/Imperial History


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On this day September 24, 1577 - Birth of Ludwig V, Landgrave of Hesse-Darmstadt in Darmstadt

On this day September 25, 1697 - Birth of Franz Josias, Duke of Saxe-Saalfeld, in Duchy of Saxe-Saalfeld.

On this day September 25, 1744 - Birth of King Frederick William II of Prussia at the Stadtschloss in Berlin, Kingdom of Prussia.

On this day September 26, 1796 - Birth of Ida of Waldeck and Pyrmont, in Rhoden, Principality of Waldeck and Pyrmont. She became the spouse of George Wilhelm, Prince of Schaumburg-Lippe.

On this day September 27, 1781 - Birth of King Wilhelm I of Wurttemberg in Luben, Kingdom of Prussia

On this day September 29, 1273 - Rudolph I was crowned King of the Romans.

On this day, September 30, 1785 - The wedding of King Maximilian I of Bavaria and Augusta Wilhelmine of Hesse-Darmstadt
 
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On this day, October 6, 1828 - Demise of Charlotte, Princess Royal, Queen of Wurttemberg. She was the wife of King Frederick I of Wurttemberg.

On this day, October 7, 1870 - Birth of Prince Friedrich of Hesse and by Rhine in Darmstadt. He was the son of Princess Alice of the United Kingdom.

On this day, October 10, 1741 - Birth of Carl II, Grand Duke of Mecklenburg-Strelitz

On this day, October 12, 1810 - The wedding of King Ludwig I of Bavaria and Princess Therese of Saxe-Hildburghausen in Munich
 
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On this day, October 12, 1810 - The wedding of King Ludwig I of Bavaria and Princess Therese of Saxe-Hildburghausen in Munich


One of their sons became King of Greece as Otto I in 1832 before being deposed in 1862.
 
On this day, October 15, 1795 - Birth of King Friedrich Wilhelm IV of Prussia at the Crown Prince's Palace in Berlin

On this day, October 16, 1751 - Birth of Friederike Luisa of Hesse-Darmstadt, Queen of Prussia. She was the second spouse of King Friedrich Wilhelm II of Prussia.

On this day, October 17, 1819 - Birth of Friedrich Wilhelm, Grand Duke of Mecklenburg-Strelitz
https://www.gettyimages.com/license/3300146

On this day, October 18, 1831 - Birth of Friedrich III, German Emperor and King of Prussia, at Neues Palais in Potsdam
https://www.gettyimages.com/license/3279508

On this day, October 19, 1658 ~ Birth of Adolf Frederick II, Duke of Mecklenburg-Strelitz

On this day, October 22, 1687 - Birth of Anton Ulrich, Duke of Saxe-Meiningen in Meiningen

On this day, October 22, 1858 - Birth of Augusta Viktoria of Schleswig-Holstein-Sonderburg-Augustenburg in Dolzig Palace. She was the spouse of Emperor Wilhelm II.
 
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On this day, October 19, 1658 ~ Birth of Adolf Frederick II, Duke of Mecklenburg-Strelitz

Grandfather of Queen Charlotte, wife of George III.

On this day, October 22, 1687 - Birth of Anton Ulrich, Duke of Saxe-Meiningen in Meiningen

Grandfather of Queen Adelaide, wife of William IV and 3x great-grandfather of Prince Albert, husband of Queen Victoria.
 
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On this day, October 24, 1829 - Demise of Luise of Hesse-Darmstadt, Grand Duchess of Hesse and by Rhine. She was the spouse of Grand Duke Ludwig I of Hesse and by Rhine.
 
On this day, October 24, 1829 - Demise of Luise of Hesse-Darmstadt, Grand Duchess of Hesse and by Rhine. She was the spouse of Grand Duke Ludwig I of Hesse and by Rhine.

She was also Prince Philip's 4x great-grandmother.
 
On this day, October 27, 1888 - Demise of Helena of Nassau, Princess of Waldeck and Pyrmont. She was the spouse of Prince George Viktor of Waldeck and Pyrmont.
 
On this day, October 27, 1888 - Demise of Helena of Nassau, Princess of Waldeck and Pyrmont. She was the spouse of Prince George Viktor of Waldeck and Pyrmont.

Helena herself was not historically remarkable but her family certainly was.

Her daughter Emma married William III of the Netherlands, and was mother of Queen Wilhemina. Her daughter Helena married Victoria's son Leopold.

Among her numerous siblings was Queen Sophia of Sweden, wife of Oscar II. Her half brother Adolphe became Grand Duke of Luxembourg after Wilhemina became queen of the Netherlands, which ended the union of the two thrones.
 
On this day, October 29, 1873 - Demise of King Johann of Saxony at Pillnitz Castle in Dresden, Kingdom of Saxony

On this day, October 30, 1668 - Birth of Duchess Sophia Charlotte of Hanover, Queen of Prussia, at Schloss Iburg in Hanover. She was the second wife of King Frederick I of Prussia.

On this day, November 5, 1755 - Birth of Charlotte of Hesse-Darmstadt, Duchess of Mecklenburg-Strelitz, the second wife of Grand Duke Carl (Charles) II of Mecklenburg-Strelitz, in Darmstadt

On this day, November 5, 1802 - Demise of Leopold I, Prince of Lippe in Detmold, Principality of Lippe

On this day, November 5, 1864 - Birth of Hilda of Nassau, the wife of Friedrich II, Grand Duke of Baden at Biebrich Palace in Wiesbaden, Duchy of Nassau

On this day, November 7, 1827 - Demise of Maria Theresia of Austria, Queen of Saxony, the spouse of King Anton of Saxony, in Leipzig

On this day, November 8, 1715 - Birth of Elizabeth Christine of Brunswick-Wolfenbuttel-Bevern, Queen of Prussia, the wife of King Frederick II of Prussia

On this day, November 9, 1918 - The abdication of Emperor Wilhelm II of Germany

On this day, November 13, 1801 - Birth of Elisabeth Ludovika, Queen of Prussia, the wife of King Frederick William IV of Prussia, in Munich
 
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On this day, November 13, 1801 - Birth of Elisabeth Ludovika, Queen of Prussia, the wife of King Frederick William IV of Prussia, in Munich
And her twin sister Amalie Auguste wife of King John of Saxony.
 
Not only German royals by marriage, but by birth as well. They were the daughters of King Maximilian I of Bavaria by his second wife.


The sisters had four full sisters (2 brothers, 1 stillborn, 1 died in infancy) and 3 1/2 sisters and 2 1/2 brothers from their father's first marriage.

The German families sure intermarried, seen with the siblings.

Amelie and another sister Marie Anne were married to brothers. Marie's husband was actually the elder brother, Frederick Augustus of Saxony, she was his second wife. He died in an accident and his brother, Amelie's husband, took the throne.

Then there were Ludovika and Sophie. Sophie married Franz Karl of Austria, and was mother to Emperor Franz Joseph (as well as Emperor Maximilian). Ludovika was married to Duke Maximilian Joseph of Bavaria, and was mother to Princess Elisabeth of Bavaria. Elisabeth would of course marry her cousin Franz Joseph, becoming the famous Empress Sisi.

One of their older 1/2 sisters was Princess Augusta who married Napoleon's stepson Eugene, and was mother of Queen Josephine of Sweden.
 
Not only German royals by marriage, but by birth as well. They were the daughters of King Maximilian I of Bavaria by his second wife.


The sisters had four full sisters (2 brothers, 1 stillborn, 1 died in infancy) and 3 1/2 sisters and 2 1/2 brothers from their father's first marriage.

The German families sure intermarried, seen with the siblings.

Amelie and another sister Marie Anne were married to brothers. Marie's husband was actually the elder brother, Frederick Augustus of Saxony, she was his second wife. He died in an accident and his brother, Amelie's husband, took the throne.

Then there were Ludovika and Sophie. Sophie married Franz Karl of Austria, and was mother to Emperor Franz Joseph (as well as Emperor Maximilian). Ludovika was married to Duke Maximilian Joseph of Bavaria, and was mother to Princess Elisabeth of Bavaria. Elisabeth would of course marry her cousin Franz Joseph, becoming the famous Empress Sisi.

One of their older 1/2 sisters was Princess Augusta who married Napoleon's stepson Eugene, and was mother of Queen Josephine of Sweden.

Yes, the sisters were very well-connected.

Another half-sister Caroline Augusta was the fourth wife of Emperor Francis I of Austria.

Their maternal aunt Louise of Baden married Emperor Alexander I of Russia while another maternal aunt Frederica was the wife of King Gustav IV Adolf of Sweden.

Through another maternal aunt they were first cousins of Marie of Hesse (wife of Emperor Alexander II of Russia) and her brother Alexander, who fathered the Battenbergs.

Their maternal great-aunts included Frederica of Hesse-Darmstadt (wife of King Frederick William II of Prussia) and Wilhelmine of Hesse-Darmstadt (first wife of Grand Duke Paul of Russia, later Emperor Paul I).

And Amalie Auguste was the mother of Kings Albert and George of Saxony and the maternal grandmother of Queen Margherita of Italy.
 
Still November 20th here:

1629-birth of Ernest Augustus, Elector of Brunswick-Luneberg. Husband of Sophia of the Palatinate (granddaughter of James I of GB). Their eldest son became George I of GB after the death of Queen Anne.
 
On this day, November 16, 1797 ~Demise of Frederick William III, King of Prussia

On this day, November 16, 1831 ~ Demise of Augusta, Duchess of Saxe-Coburg-Saalfeld. She was the spouse of Francis Frederick, Duke of Saxe-Coburg-Saalfeld.

On this day, November 17, 1887 - Birth of Ernest August III of Hanover, Duke of Brunswick

On this day, November 18, 1661 - Birth of Elisabeth Henriette of Hesse-Kassel, the fist wife of the future King Frederick I of Prussia

On this day, November 18, 1851 - Demise of King Ernest Augustus I of Hanover at Schloss Herrenhausen

On this day, November 19, 1754 - Birth of Karl Wilhelm. Duke of Saxe-Meiningen

On this day, November 21, 1860 - Demise of Georg Wilhelm, Prince of Schaumburg-Lippe

On this day, November 22, 1728 - Birth of Karl Friedrich, Grand Duke of Baden
 
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On this day, November 23, 1609 - Birth of Sophia Eleonore of Saxony, Landgravine of Hesse-Darmstadt, the wife of Landgrave George II of Hesse-Darmstadt

On this day, November 25, 1868 - Birth of Ernest Ludwig, Grand Duke of Hesse and by Rhine

On this day, November 26, 1647 - Birth of Maria Hedwig of Hesse-Darmstadt, the spouse of Bernhard I, Duke of Saxe-Meiningen

On this day, November 27, 1676 - Birth of Friedrich Anton Ulrich, Prince of Waldeck and Pyrmont in Waldeck

On this day, November 28, 1811 - Birth of King Maximilian II of Bavaria in Munich
 
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1329- birth of John I, Duke of Bavaria. His father Henry XIV was briefly considered for the German crown when Louis IV, Holy Roman Emperor considered resigning. His mother was Margaret of Bohemia. Margaret's siblings included Bonne of France (wife of John II) and Charles IV Holy Roman Emperor

1690- birth of Christian August, Prince of Anhalt-Zerbst. Best known as father of Sophie Auguste aka Catherine the Great of Russia. His son would die childless and Anhalt-Zerbst was divided and ceased to exist.

1253- death of Otto II of Bavaria. He was father of Louis (Ludwig) II known as the Strict of Bavaria. Ludwig beheaded his first wife Marie of Brabant on false charges of adultery, and later founded an abbey in penance.Ludwig's son Louis IV would be Holy Roman emperor. Another grandson of Otto II would be king of Hungary. Bavaria was devided between Ludwig and his brother Henry. Henry married Elizabeth of Hungary who was a daughter of Bela IV of Hungary. Due to his maternal grandfather, Henry's son Otto was offered the vacant Hungarian throne.
 
On this day, November 29, 1918 - Birth of Prince Friedrich Josias of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha
 
Nov 30 977 Otto II (Holy Roman emperor, King of Germany) lifts the siege on Paris after his rearguard is defeated by the Frankish forces of Lothar III. The two men were brother in laws. Lothar was married to Otto's older half sister Emma (Emma was the daughter of their mother Adelaide's first husband Lothar of Italy, Otto was her son from her 2nd husband Otto I Holy Roman Emperor). The French troops were under the leadership of Hugh Capet who would later become King of the Franks (he was a nephew of Otto's father).

Adelaide actually supported her son in law over her son, and left Otto's court to move to the court of her brother Conrad who was King of Burgundy.

1310-Birth of Frederick II, Margrave of Meissen, known as the serious.

912- Death of Otto I of Saxony called the Illustrious. He was the great-grandfather of the above Otto II through his only son Henry the Fowler.
 
On this day, December 2, 1767 - Birth of Leopold I, Prince of Lippe in Detmold, County of Lippe-Detmold
 
1848 following the abdication of his Uncle, Emperor Ferdinand, Archduke Franz became Emperor Franz Joseph I of Austria. He chose to go by his first two Christian names (had gone simply by the nickname Franzi growing up) as a nod to his great-grand uncle Emperor Joseph II who was known as a great reformer. Ferdinand should have been succeeded by his brother, Franz's father Franz Karl. Franz Karl though was unambitious and gave up his claim in favor of his son. Franz Joseph's mother Sophie had always known her son would be emperor, and had trained him from a young age. He grew up idolizing the rule of his grandfather.


1463- death of Albert VI, Archduke of Austria. He was the brother Frederick III, Holy Roman Emperor. The two brothers feuded over land for decades, with Albert being the stronger military leader of the two. He often kept his brother having to constantly move his court. Albert would die childless though and his lands reverted back to his older brother anyways.
 
On this day, December 3, 1764 - Birth of Augusta of Brunswick-Wolfenbuttel. She was the first wife of the future King Frederick I of Wurttemberg.

On this day, December 3, 1838 - Birth of Luise of Prussia, Grand Duchess of Baden, the spouse of Grand Duke Friedrich I of Baden
 
912- Death of Otto I of Saxony called the Illustrious. He was the great-grandfather of the above Otto II through his only son Henry the Fowler.


Otto was buried at Gandersheim Abbey in Lower Saxony,Germany however his tomb has not been preserved as most of the abbey's statues/monuments and altars were smashed up during an iconoclastic riot in 1543 during the Reformation .
 
On this day, December 5, 1916 - Demise of Augusta of Cambridge, Grand Duchess of Mecklenburg-Strelitz
 
1757- Battle of Leuthen. The Prussian army of Frederick the Great won a victory over the Austrian Netherland's army under the command of Prince Charles Alexander of Lorraine during the seven years war. Though a victory for Frederick, he suffered major losses including 2 of his main generals.

1969- the death of Princess Alice of Battenberg, mother of Prince Philip. Born in Windsor, she spent her childhood between Hesse (her maternal grandfather was Grand Duke), London and Malta where her father was stationed.
 
On this day, December 6, 1820 - Birth of Alexandrine of Baden, Duchess of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha. She was the spouse of Duke Ernest II of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha.
 
983- death of Otto II, Holy Roman emperor and king of Germany.He was the third son of Otto I The Great, and Adelaide of Italy. His three older brothers, having a half-brother from his father's first marriage, all died and he was crown prince by the age of two. He was succeeded by his 3 year old son Otto III. Henry II (The Quarelsome), a cousin of Otto II was the closet male relative to the toddler king. Henry was imprisoned at the time, after rebelling against Otto II. He was released from prison to serve as regent. Henry kidnapped Otto III and tried to usurp the throne. Otto III's mother Empress Theophanu and her mother in law got him to surrender.Theophanu would serve as regent for her son until her death. His grandmother Adelaide would serve as his final regent until he came of age.
 
On this day, December 8, 1875 - Demise of Leopold III, Prince of Lippe
 
1699- Birth of Maria Josepha of Austria, daughter of Joseph I, Holy Roman Emperor. She was Electress of Saxony and final queen of Poland. Cousin of Empress Maria Theresa. Due to her grandfather Leopold, Josepha actually was heir to the throne (Theresa's father Charles succeeded Joseph but on the understanding Joseph's daughters came before Charles') but gave up her claim to marry. Her younger sister Amalia and Amalia's husband laying claim to the throne led to the Austrian war of succession.


1708- coincidentally enough it is also the birthday of Francis I, Holy Roman Emperor, eventual husband of Empress Maria Theresa. He was the son of Leopold, Duke of Lorraine. His grandmother was a Hapsburg.


1780- and to keep the birthdate rolling in that family, you get Archduke Maximilian Franz, the youngest of 16 children of Francis I and Maria Theresa. He was archbishop-elector of Cologne. He is best known as the second patron of Beethoven.


1722- death of Elizabeth Charlotte of the Palatine. Granddaughter of Elizabeth Stuart, she was first cousins of George I of Great Britain. Her father was Charles I Louis, Elector Palatine. She married Philippe I, Duke of Orleans, younger brother of Louis XIV. Her son Philippe served as la Regent to Louis XV in the period known as the Regency.
 
On this day, December 9, 1806 - Demise of Franz Friedrich Anton, Duke of Saxe-Coburg-Saalfeld
 
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