December 2006 Newsletter: Royals A-Z

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Nov 26, 2003
It’s December, and I have a lot of windows left to open on my advent calendar, before Christmas comes on December the 24th. This year I went with the trusted and tried advent calendar, so, ideally, behind the windows, there should be chocolate pieces waiting for me. I say ideally, because one year, my youngest sister had discovered how to open the windows, get the chocolate, and close them again without anyone noticing. Opening a calendar window, and finding nothing, can be tremendously disappointing.

What shouldn’t be disappointing is this month’s newsletter. The TRF moderating team has pulled together and produced a gigantic newsletter, filled with pieces of trivia, for your enjoyment.

The letters of the alphabet, as they are connected to royals – From ABBA, to Zorreguieta – there’s plenty to read. Instead of hiding it behind windows, and only allowing you one per day, as the producers of my advent calendar does, we’re giving it all to you in the start of December, and it is up to you if you want to read it all in one go, or space it out, with one letter for each day. ;)

We’re also summing up the events of November, and attempting to project the events of December – so that you’ll know what to look for, and can share the events with the other members.

To those of our members celebrating Christmas – Merry Christmas, to those celebrating other holidays – Happy Holidays, and those without holidays to celebrate, I hope you all have a good December, wherever you are

Best wishes,
TRF Administrator, and Editor-in-Chief of the Newsletter

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As the forum keeps growing, naturally the moderating team will also continue to evolve. While we at the moment have a well-manned team, we're also always keeping a lookout for new, potential, moderators. If you have a special interest in one of our forums, and think you would be a suitable moderator, we're interested in hearing from you. Presently, we're keeping a list over applicants, so that we know who to contact should a position open.

If you think you have it in you to be a part of the team - take a look at this thread.

:king: :king: :king: :king:

There have also been several changes in the TRF Moderating team.
We have welcomed Lasse Pedersen and Suonymona as new Moderators.

tbhrc and Danielle, Super Moderators, have left TRF's Moderating team because of personal reasons. The administrators and the moderators wish to thank both tbhrc and Danielle for their endless efforts and dedication to the forum and we wish them luck in all their future endeavours.

To view an updated list over TRF's moderators: click here

:king: :king:
A reminder - the forum rules changed last month. If you haven't taken a look at them yet, they can be found here.
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2nd – Sofia of Spain (1938)
8th – Lady Louise Windsor (2003)
11th – Guillaume of Luxembourg (1981)
14th - Prince Charles, the Prince of Wales (1948)
15th – Peter Phillips (1977)
20th – Alexandra zu Sayn-Wittgenstein-Berleburg (1970)
26th – Louis Ducruet (1992)
29th - A girl was born to Prince Pieter-Christiaan and Princess Anita of the Nethlerlands: Emma Francisca Catharina.

State/Official Visits:

10/29th to 11/4th - Norwegian Crown Prince Haakon and Crown Princess Mette Marit and the state visit to India:
6th to 8th - King Abdullah and Queen Rania and the state visit to London:
6th to 16th - Queen Beatrix visited Aruba and the Rutch Antilles: Queen Beatrix visit to Aruba and the Dutch Antilles
23rd to 25th - King Abdullah and Queen Rania and the state visit to Kuwait: State Visit to Kuwait
18th to 22nd - King Abdullah and Queen Rania and the state visit from Singapore: State visit from Singapore
22nd to 26th - Official visit of King Juan Carlos and Queen Sofia to Canary Islands:
27th to 30th - Prince Charles' visit to Sierra Leone and Nigeria: The visit of The Prince of Wales to Sierra Leone and Nigeria

Other Special Events
3rd to 4th - Dutch Royals were present at the "Make a difference Day" Dutch royals in "Make a Difference Day": 3-4 November 2006
12th - British Royal Family was present at the Remembrance Day Service at the Cenotaph - Remembrance Day Service at the Cenotaph
11th to 21st - Princely Family of Monaco celebrates:
15th - Opening of the British Parliament by Queen Elizabeth II: Opening of the Parliament - November 15
28th - Opening of Jordan Parliament: Opening of Parliament - November 28, 2006
22nd to - Mary & Frederik's Private Visit to Australia November 2006
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1st - Princess Aiko of Japan (2001)
3rd - Prince Sverre Magnus of Norway (2005)
3rd - Duke of Anhalt (1941)
5th - King Rama IX of Thailand (1927)
6th - Prince Nikolaus of Liechetenstein (2000)
6th - Pablo Nolás Urdangarín y Bórbon (2000)
7th - Princess Bhajara Kittiyabha of Thailand (1978)
7th - Princess Catharina Amalia of the Netherlands (2003)
9th- Crown Princess Masako of Japan (1963)
9th - Prince Joachim of Belgium (1991)
13th - Prince Nicolas and Prince Aymeric of Belgium (2005)
16th - Archduke Lorenz of Habsburg-Este, Prince of Belgium (1955)
20th - Infanta Elena of Spain, Duchess of Lugo (1963)
22nd - Queen Silvia of Sweden (1943)
22nd - The Margravine of Meißen (1940)
23rd - Grand Duchess Maria Vladimirovna of Russia (1953)
23rd - Emperor Akihito of Japan (1933)
27th - Princess Antoinette, Baroness of Massy (1920)
28th - Princess Vittoria Cristina Adelaide Chiara Maria of Savoy (2003)
29th - Princess Kako of Japan (1994)


Dec 4 -
Dec 12 - HRH The Princess Royal of Great Britain and Timothy Laurence
Dec 15 -
Dec 31 -

State Visits:

Nov 30 - Dec 2 - Visit of King Abdullah and Queen Rania to India:
Nov 28 - Dec 4 - Visit of Prince Felipe and Princess Letizia to Mexico: Visit of the Prince of Asturias to Mexico
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Pregnancy is a foot in the royal circle. Join us in guessing names for the unborn babies:,, or

Another question that seems to be surfacing more and more, as the heirs in the newest generation turn out to be females, is the question of role of the royal consort. Is it more difficult for males than females to adapt to a royal life?
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Earlier this year, as we were brainstorming for potential topics for the newsletters, someone brought up making an A-Z of The Royal forums. At the time, some of us wish we'd known how much work it was going to be - and stayed far away from it.;) But, the idea lingered throughout the summer, and what you're looking at, or will be looking at, is the final result. We would like to thank the fantastic moderating team, without whom this would not have been possible, at all.

What we've done, is that the moderating team - brave souls that they are - have divided areas between them, and attempted to give some semblance of coverage. As the moderators are different people, with different priorities, they may have weighed their subjects differently in what has been included and what hasn't. It is, regardless of what might be missing, an extremely interesting read. We know we learned many new things from putting this together. :flowers:

We start on A - with Swedish Pop-group, ABBA, and their Dancing Queen - and we move on through the letters until we get to Z, and Zorreguieta, family name of Princess Maxima of the Netherlands. It is learning your ABC, the Royal way.

We hope you'll enjoy this holiday gift.

Avalon, norwegianne & Zonk,

If you have an idea of a subject that could be covered in a future newsletter, or interesting threads on the forum that you think we ought to feature - send us a PM.
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ABBA - Swedish Band from the 1970s. Consists of Agnetha Fältskog, Björn Ulvaeus, Benny Andersson and Anni-Frid “Frida” Lyngstad. They competed in Eurovision in 1974 with the song "Waterloo" and won the competition. Some of ABBA’s biggest hits were “Waterloo”, “Dancing Queen”, “SOS”. The night before the wedding of King Carl XVI Gustaf and Queen Silvia of Sweden in 1976, the group performed "Dancing Queen" for the engaged couple, although the song was not actually written for Queen Silvia. ABBA's last appearance as a group took place in January 1986 and never officially announced the end of the group, but as the have gone by the chances of ABBA working together again became increasingly slim.

Abir Muhaisen – adopted daughter of the late King Hussein and Queen Alia of Jordan

Act of Settlement. The Act of Parliament made in 1701 which lays down the rules as to who can succeeed to the British Crown. To ensure the Protestant Succession after Queen Anne, the Act disqualified Roman Catholics and named the Electress Sophia of Hanover (a grand-daughter of King James I) and her descendants as the legal heirs. As well as its effect on the Line of Succession, the Act is significant because it specifies that the Parliament and not the Monarch determines who succeeds to the throne.

Abdication - the resignation of a throne. Queens Juliana & Wilhelmina of the Netherlands and Grand Duke Jean, Grand Duchess Charlotte, & Grand Duchess Marie-Adelaide of Luxembourg, abdicated the throne in favor of their heirs

Abdullah I - was Emir of Trans Jordan under a British mandate, King of Transjordan, and finally King of the Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan. He is also frequently called King Abdullah the Founder, since he was the founder of Jordan. He was the father of King Talal, and grandfather of King Hussein of Jordan. He was assassinated in 1951.

Abdullah II – King of the Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan. He has reigned since the death of his father, King Hussein bin Talal. Married to Queen Rania of Jordan, he is the father of Prince Hussein, Princess Iman, Princess Salma and Prince Hashem.

Adolphe I, Grand Duke of Luxembourg (1817-1905)-Born Adolph Wilhelm August Karl Friedrich. Married Elisabeth Mikhalilovna of Russia, who died less than a year later. Married Adelheid-Marie of Anhalt-Dessau.
Children: Prince Guillaume Alexandre & Princess Hilda Charlotte Wilhelmine

Aiko - Princess Aiko of Japan, born 1 December 2001 the daughter of Crown Prince Naruhito and Crown Princess Masako. Her official title is Princess Toshi which means, “a person who loves others.”

Ainu – Indigenous people of Japan pushed north over the last 2000 years by the Japanese people. They were hunters, fisherman and trappers who believed that spirits were present in animals and the natural world.

Aisha Bint Al Hussein – the daughter of the late King Hussein of Jordan and Princess Muna Al Hussein . She is a graduate of the Royal Military Academy Sandhurst. Recently divorced, she is the mother of Auon Juma and Muna Juma

Akihito - Emperor Akihito of Japan was born 23 December 1933, the son of Emperor Hirohito and Empress Nagano. He became the 125th Emperor of Japan upon the death of Emperor Hirohito on 8 January 1989. He married Michiko Sh?da 10 April 1959. They have three children:
1) Crown Prince Naruhito, born 23 February 1960.
2) Prince Akishino (Fumihito), born 30 November 1965.
3) The former Princess Nori (Sayako), born 18 April 1969.
See Michiko Sh?da.

Akishino - Prince Fumihito of Akishino of Japan. See Fumihito.

Duchess of Alba
Doña María del Rosario Cayetana Alfonsa Victoria Eugenia Francisca Fitz-James Stuart y de Silva, more popularly known as Cayetana de Alba, is the 18th and present Duchess of Alba. She is the third female to carry the title in her own right. Doña Cayetana has more titles than any other noble in the world. She has eight other ducal titles, 15 marquesal titles, 19 comital titles and is 20 times a Grandee of Spain.

Al-Barakah Palace [Jordan]- In English, this would be the "Little Palace". It is situated a few steps to the north of Raghadan Palace and was built in the 1930s for the use of the then Crown Prince Talal (later King) and Princess Zein al-Sharaf. Following the latest renovation of Raghadan, this building was used in 1990 to accommodate the Royal Commission for drafting the National Charter. It was also used as working offices for His Majesty the late King Hussein and some officials of the Court. Most recently, it held the offices of the National Security Council.

Prince Albert – The consort of Queen Victoria. In 1857 the Queen persuaded the Parliament to officially grant Prince Albert title of “The Prince Consort”. After his death, the Queen remained in seclusion for many years and wore black for the rest of her life.

Albert I, King of the Belgians (1875-1934) - Born Albert Leopold Clement Marie Meinrad. Reigned from December 17, 1909-February 17, 1934. Married Elisabeth Gabriele Valerie Marie, Duchess in Bavaria, Princess of Bavaria. Died while mountain-climbing. Children: Prince Leopold Charles Albert Meinrad Hubertus Marie Miguel, Prince Charles Theodore Henri Antoine Meinrad and Princess Marie-Jose Charlotte Sophie Amelie Henriette Gabrielle

Albert I, Prince of Monaco (13 November 1848 – 26 June 1922) was the reigning Prince of Monaco from 10 September 1889 – 26 June 1922). Prince Albert was married to Lady Mary Victoria Hamilton (1850-1922), of Lanarkshire, Scotland, they had one child Louis II.

Albert II, King of the Belgians (1934-)-Born Albert Felix Humbert Theodore Chretien Eugene Marie. Current King of the Belgians (1993-) Married Princess Donna Paola Ruffo di Calabria.
Children: Prince Philippe Leopold Louis Marie, Princess Astrid Josephine-Charlotte Fabrizia Elisabeth Paola Maria, Prince Laurent Benoit Baudouin Marie

Albert II, Prince of Monaco[/font] (Albert Alexandre Louis Pierre Grimaldi; born 14 March 1958), styled His Serene Highness The Sovereign Prince of Monaco, is the head of the House of Grimaldi and the current ruler of the Principality of Monaco. He has two children born out of wedlock; Jazmin Grace Grimaldi and Alexandre Coste. - March 2005: HSH Prince Albert of Monaco

Queen Alexandra – The Queen Consort to Edward VII, Queen of the United Kingdom and Empress of India. Queen Alexandra was the mother of King George V. Born Princess Alexandra of Denmark.

Alexandra, Princess of Luxembourg (1991-)-Born Princess Alexandra Josephine Teresa Charlotte Marie Wilhelmine. Fourth child of Grand Duke Henri and Grand Duchess Maria Teresa of Luxembourg

Princess Alexandra Charlotte Ulrike Maryam Virginia of Hanover (born July 20, 1999) styled Her Royal Highness Princess Alexandra of Hanover, is the only child of Ernst August V, Prince of Hanover and his second wife Princess Caroline of Monaco. - Biographies of Princess Caroline's Children

Alexandra, Princess of Denmark, Countess of Frederiksborg, née Alexandra Christina Manley June 30th, 1964. Daughter of Richard and Christa Manley. Married to Prince Joachim of Denmark from 1995 to 2005. Children: Nikolai and Felix. Awarded title Countess of Frederiksborg after the divorce, from Queen Margrethe.

Alexandre Eric Stéphane Coste (born 24 August 2003 in Paris) is the son of Albert II, Prince of Monaco, and his former lover, Nicole Coste, a native of Togo in west Africa. - Alexandre & Nicole Coste Current Events Part 1

Alexandrine Auguste, Queen of Denmark, née Duchess of Mecklenburg-Schwerin, December 24th 1879, Schwerin, Germany. Dead December, 28th 1952, Hellerup, Denmark. Daughter of Friedrich Franz III, Grand Duke of Mecklenburg-Schwerin and Grand Duchess Anastasia Mikhailovna of Russia. Married to Christian X.

Infante Alfonso of Spain
He was the youngest son of Don Juan de Borbón and Doña Maria de las Mercedes, thus, younger brother of King Juan Carlos of Spain. In 1956, while on summer vacation in Estoril, Portugal, Don Alfonso died in a shooting accident which also involved his brother Juan Carlos. He was buried in Portugal until the monarchy was restored in Spain, when he was buried in the Royal Crypt of the monastery of San Lorenzo del Escorial, near Madrid.

King Alfonso XIII of Spain
He was the posthumous son of Alfonso XII and was proclaimed King at his birth. He reigned from 1886-1931. His mother, Queen Maria Christina of Austria, was appointed regent during his minority. In 1902, at 16, he assumed control of the government. He was the grandfather of King Juan Carlos.
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Ali Bin Al Hussein– the only son of the late King Hussein of Jordan and the late Queen Alia. Married to Princess Rym and father of Princess Jalliah.

Alia Baha ed Toukan – the third wife of the late King Hussein of Jordan, she is also the mother of Prince Ali, Princess Haya and Abir Muhaisen (adopted in 1976). She died in a plane crash on February 9, 1977. The Anman airport was renamed Queen Alia International Airport in her honor.

Alia Bint Al Hussein – the daughter of the late King Hussein of Jordan and Princess Dina al Hussein. Princess Alia was first married to Mr. Nasser Wasfi Mirza and has one son, H.H. Prince Hussein Mirza. She is married to H.E. Mohammed Al Saleh and the mother of two additional sons, H.E. Talal Al Saleh and H.E. Abdel Hamid Al Saleh.

Alice Heine (February 10, 1858 – December 22, 1925), styled HSH the Princess of Monaco and the Duchess of Richelieu, was the American-born second wife of Prince Albert I of Monaco, a great-grandfather of Prince Rainier III of Monaco.

Alice Keppel - The most famous mistress of Edward VII of the United Kingdom. Alice Keppel is also the great-grandmother of Camilla, The Duchess of Cornwall.

Almudena, Catedral Santa María la Real de la
It's the headquarters of Madrid's diocese. It's a building with 102m of length and 73m of height. It was blessed by the Pope John Paul II on June 15th, 1993. It's the first Spanish Cathedral blessed by a pope and the first blessed by John Paul II out of Rome. The Cathedral was the location chosen by Prince Felipe to get married to Letizia Ortiz Rocasolano on May 22nd, 2004.

Amalienborg: Winter home and headquarters of the Danish monarchs. Consists of four palaces around a “town square”. Palaces are: Christian IX’s Palace, Frederik VIII’s palace, Christian VIII’s Palace, and Christian VII’s Palace.

Amaterasu - Japanese Sun goddess, a Shinto deity and the alleged ancestress of the Japanese emperors.

Prince Amedeo of Belgium, Archduke of Austria-Este, Prince Imperial of Austria, Prince Royal of Hungary and Bohemia (1986-) - Born Prince Amedeo Marie Joseph Carl Pierre Philippe Paola Marcus d'Aviano. First child of Princess Astrid of Belgium and Archduke Lorenz of Austria-Este.

Amsterdam: Dutch capital and location of The Royal Palace.

Andrea Albert Pierre Casiraghi (born June 8, 1984) is the eldest child of HRH Princess Caroline of Hanover and her second husband, Stefano Casiraghi. He is currently second in line to the throne after his mother. - Biographies of Princess Caroline's Children

Prince Andrew, Duke of York – The second son of Queen Elizabeth II and Prince Philip, Duke of Edinburgh. He currently serves as the United Kingdom’s Special Representative for International Trade and Investment.

Princess Anne, Princess Royal – The only daughter of Queen Elizabeth II and Prince Philip, Duke of Edinburgh. The hardest working member of the British Royal Family, Princess Anne as also a very successful equestrian: at the age of 21 she won the Individual title at the European Eventing Championship, 4 years later she won silver medal in both individual and team disciplines. Princess Anne also represented Britain during the Montreal Olympics.

Queen Anne – The first Sovereign of the Kingdom of Great Britain. Queen Anne was also the last Stuart Monarch.

Queen Anne (Anne Boleyn) – The second wife of King Henry VIII. In order to marry Anne, King Henry severed ties with the Pope, who refused to acknowledge the divorce between him and his first wife. However when Anne proved unable to bear a son, she was executed for charges of adultery. Anne Boleyn was the mother of future Elizabeth I.

Queen Anne (Anne of Cleves) – The fourth wife of King Henry VIII, she was the sister of the Duke of Cleves. The only politically arranged marriage of the King; it lasted only a few months and was annulled. Anne was made ‘Princess of England’, was called ‘sister’ by King Henry and had precedence over all ladies of the Kingdom, except the new Queen, the King’s sisters and daughters.

Anne-Marie Dagmar Ingrid, Ex-Queen of the Hellenes, née Princess of Denmark, August 30th, 1946. Daughter of Frederik IX and Ingrid. Married to Constantine II. Children: Alexia, Pavlos, Nikolaos, Theodora, Philippos

Princess Antoinette of Monaco, Baroness of Massy (Antoinette Louise Alberte Suzanne Grimaldi), born 28 December, 1920, is the elder sister of the late Prince Rainier III. She was married thrice (Alexandre Noghès, Jean-Charles Rey, John Gilpin) and has three children: Elisabeth-Anne de Massy, Christian Louis de Massy, Christine Alix de Massy. - Princess Antoinette and Family
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Antonio I (January 25, 1661 – January 20, 1731) was the Prince of Monaco from 1701 to 1731, and the First Marquis of Beaux. He was the son of Louis I, Prince of Monaco, Second Duc de Valentinois and Catherine Charlotte de Gramont.

Apeldoorn: town in the province of Gelderland about 60 miles east of Amsterdam in central Netherlands and location of the favourite country-seat of the royal family, Het Loo Palace.

Kingdom (Crown) of Aragon
It controlled a large portion of present-day Spain in the later Middle Ages, as well as possessions stretching across the Mediterranean as far as Greece. The regime began in 1137, when the Kingdom of Aragon and the County of Barcelona merged into what was to be known as the "Crown of Aragon". In 1479, the Crown of Aragón was merged with the Crown of Castile, marking the beginning of the Spanish state.

Royal Ascot – Royal Ascot is one of the world’s most famous race meetings, dating back to 1711. The Royal Family attend the meeting, arriving in a horse drawn carriage. The hats, worn by the Ladies, often exceed the interest in the actual races.

Asem “Abu Bakr" bin Nayef - the son of Prince Nayef bin Abdullah I (a younger son of Abdullah I of Jordan) and Princess Mihrimah Sultan (grand-daughter of Sultan Mohammad Rashad of Turkey). His daughter, Noor is married to Prince Hamzah of Jordan.He is the 42nd generation direct descendant of Muhammad.

Princess Astrid of Belgium, Archduchess of Austria-Este, Duchess of Modena, Princess Imperial of Austria, Princess Royal of Hungary & Bohemia (1962-)-Born Princess Astrid Josephine-Charlotte Fabrizia Elisabeth Paola Maria. Married Archduke Lorenz of Austria-Este.
Children: Prince Amedeo Marie Joseph Carl Pierre Philippe Paola Marcus d'Aviano, Princess Maria Laura Zita Beatrix Gerhard, Prince Joachim Carl Maria Nikolaus Isabelle Marcus d'Aviano, Princess Luisa Maria Anna Martine Pilar & Princess Laetitia Maria Nora Anna Joachim Zita

Princess Astrid, Mrs. Ferner – Née Princess Astrid Maud Ingeborg of Norway. Born 1932. Daughter of King Olav and Crown Princess Märtha of Norway. Married to Johan Martin Ferner. Have five children. Norway’s first lady from her mother’s death to her brother’s marriage in 1968

Astrid, Queen of the Belgians (1905-1935) - Born Princess Astrid Sofia Lovisa Thyra of Sweden. Married King Leopold III of the Belgians. Died in a car-crash in Switzerland
Children: Princess Josephine-Charlotte Ingeborg Elisabeth Marie-Jose Marguerite Astrid, Prince Baudouin Albert Charles Leopold Axel Marie Gustave and Prince Albert Felix Humbert Theodore Chretien Eugene Marie.

Asturias, Prince of
It's the title given to the heir of the Spanish throne, representing the Kingdom of Castille. The title was created in 1388, on the occasion of the wedding between the heir apparent Enrique of Castille to Catherine of Lancaster, granddaughter of King Peter I. The marriage helped to restore a semblance of legitimacy to the Trastamara line. Currently, the holder of the title is Prince Felipe.

Atocha, Presentation to the Virgin of
Tradition of the Spanish Royal Family that goes back to the 17th century. The Virgin was proclaimed the protector of the Royal Family in 1643 by King Felipe IV. All of the Infantes and Infantas of Spain are presented to the Virgin within their first year of life. The last presentation was of Infanta Leonor's, and it took place on June 7th, 2006
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Badiya Bint Al Hassan – the daughter of Prince Hassan and Princess Savarth of Jordan. Married to Khaled Edward Blair.

Bal de la Rose: This is one of the major charity events in Monaco. Created in 1954, it benefits the Princess Grace Foundation. Each year H.H.R. The Princess of Hanover selects a new theme. There are always ravishing bouquets of over 25,000 roses to decorate the Salle des Etoiles in the Sporting d'Eté complex

Bal de la Croix Rouge : Shows were organized since 1948, when the Monaco Red Cross was founded, to raise founds for its actions. In 1957, the annual ball became the event we now know : it takes place at the beginning of the month of August in the Salle des Etoiles of the Monte-Carlo Sporting Club, with one or two guest stars who are introduced by an other famous artist .

Balmoral Castle – Balmoral Castle is considered the favourite summer Royal residence of the Queen and the Duke of Edinburgh.

Count of Barcelona
Don Juan de Borbón was born on 20th, 1913 in Segovia. He was the third son of King Alfonso XIII and Queen Victoria Eugenia of Battenberg. He achieved the condition of heir to the throne when both of his older brothers renounced their rights in 1933. He was the head of the Spanish Royal House and pretender to the Spanish throne from 1941 to 1977, and was the father of the current Spanish King, Juan Carlos I.

Countess of Barcelona
Doña María de las Mercedes of Bourbon-Orleans was the wife of Don Juan de Borbon, and mother of King Juan Carlos. She was a fan of Bull Fighting and of the Andalusian culture. Her granddaughter Infanta Elena got married in Seville's Cathedral in part because the Countess' love for the city.

Basma Bint Talal – the daughter of the late King Talal and Queen Zein of Jordan. Princess Basma is married to Walid Al-Kurdi and has four children: Farah, Ghazi, Saad and Zein.

Basman Palace – construction began under King Abdullah I of Jordan in 1950. It was designed as a guest reception palace and additional working offices for the Royal Court, with a private wing for King Abdullah I. However, part of Basman became the private living quarters of His Majesty Late King Hussein in the early fifties, before it entirely became the working offices of the Royal Court. Currently, it serves as His Majesty King Abdullah II's offices, as well as offices for His Royal Highness Prince Muhammad. Basman is also used by the main officials of the Royal Court. BasmanPalace is located within the Royal Court compound.

Order of the Bath – The Most Honourable Military Order of the Bath is a British Order of Chivalry, founded by George I. The order consists of the Sovereign, the Great Master (currently The Prince of Wales) and three Classes of members.

Baudouin I, King of the Belgians (1930-1993)-Born Prince Baudoin Albert Charles Leopold Axel Marie Gustave. Reigned from 1951-1993) Married Fabiola Fernanda Maria de las Victorias Antonia Adelaida.

Princess Beatrice (Beatrice of York) – The elder daughter of the Duke and Duchess of York. It was revealed that she suffered from dyslexia; however Princess Beatrice managed to overcome it and receive reasonably good GCSE grades.

Beatrix: the Queen regnant of the Kingdom of the Netherlands since April 30, 1980.

Beatrixkapsel: new Dutch term for Beatrix’s signature and never changing hairstyle.

Infanta Beatriz de Torlonia
Beatriz de Borbón y Battemberg was the third child of Alfonso XIII and Victoria Eugenia de Battenberg. She married Alexandro Torlonia, Prince of Civitella Cesi. Since her fiance belonged to a non-reigning house, she had to renounce her rights to the Spanish throne. Besides being an aunt of King Juan Carlos of Spain, Infanta Beatriz was also grandmother of Princess Sibilla of Luxembourg.

Behn, Ari – Norwegian author. Married Princess Märtha Louise of Norway in 2002. Two daughters.

Behn, Leah Isadora – born 2005. Youngest daughter of Ari Behn and Princess Märtha Louise of Norway. Last person in the Norwegian succession to the throne.

Behn, Maud Angelica – born 2003. Oldest daughter of Ari Behn and Princess Märtha Louise of Norway. First female in modern times to be born with a right to the Norwegian throne. Currently second-last in the succession.

Belgian Empire Tiara - Tiara given as a gift to Queen Astrid of the Belgians. Features 11 large diamonds, representing the 9 Belgian provinces, the Congo, and Belgians living in other countries. This tiara may only be worn by the reinging Queen.

Benedikte Astrid Ingeborg Ingrid, Princess to Denmark, née April 29, 1944. Daughter of Frederik IX and Ingrid. Married to Prince Richard zu Sayn-Wittgenstein-Berleburg. In line to the Danish throne. Children: Gustav, Alexandra and Nathalie

Berg Castle - Primary residence of the Grand Duke of Luxembourg. Located in Colmar-Berg, Luxembourg. Birth place of Grand Duchess Marie-Adelaide, Grand Duchess Charlotte, and Grand Duke Jean.

Bernadotte - The last name of the current ruling family of Sweden. The name came from the first head of the house, Jean-Baptiste Bernadotte. The Bernadotte family originally comes from France.

Bertil, Prince - Prince Bertil, Duke of Halland was the third son of King Gustav VI Adolf and his wife Princess Margaret of Connaught. Bertil was born on February 28, 1912. In 1943 Bertil would meet Lilian Davies, but would not marry her until 1976. The reason for not marrying right away was Bertil would have to renounce his rights to the throne and his older brother had recently passed away leaving a young son as his heir. Bertil passed away on January 5, 1997.

Bilderberg conferences: annual private conference hosting discussions about future European unity in the context of transatlantic relations. Persons of influent in the fields of business, academics, media or politics are individually invited. The conference was promoted by Prince Bernhard from its beginning in 1954

Bloksbjerg – King Olav of Norway’s summer house at Hankø. Currently owned by Princess Märtha Louise. Birth place of Leah Isadora Behn.

Blue Prince, The - Nickname of Prince Carl of Sweden, Duke of Westergothia. He was a cavalry officer who was often portrayed in his blue uniform, thusly, the nickname. Prince Carl married to Princess Ingeborg of Denmark and was the father of Princesses Margaretha, Märtha and Astrid and Prince Carl.

Boshin War – (1868-1869) Boshin Sensō, literally "War of the Year of the Dragon" fought between the Tokugawa Shogunate and the pro-Imperial forces in Japan. The defeat of the Tokugawa Shogunate led to the Meiji Restoration (see “Meiji Restoration” and Emperor “Meiji” below).

Battle of Bosworth – An Important battle during the War of Roses, which ended in the defeat and death of Richard and the establishment of the Tudor dynasty.

Bourbon/Borbón, A Royal House of many colours. Founded by Robert the Strong, Duke of France, who died in 866, and made into the Capetian dynasty by Hugues Capet, King of France from 987, the dynasty has endured to the present day. By the 18th century, members of the Bourbon dynasty held thrones in France, Spain and what is now Italy; other Bourbons held important duchies. In 1700 the Duc d'Anjou became the first Bourbon ruler of Spain as King Philip V. The Spanish Bourbons (in Spain the name is spelled Borbón) have been overthrown and restored several times. From the Spanish branch descend the royal lines of Bourbon-Two Sicilies (the Kingdom of Naples and Sicily renamed the Kingdom of the Two Sicilies) and Bourbon-Parma (Duchy of Parma and Piacenza). Other present-day branches include Bourbon-Orléans (Royal House of France) and Orléans-Bragança (Imperial and Royal House of Brazil). Another potential branch is in the making in the person of Luis Alfonso, Duc d'Anjou, who is the most senior Bourbon by primogeniture. Luxembourg was nominally a Bourbon-Parma offshoot until 1986 (when the name and title were dropped) and the Grand Dukes Jean and Henri were Princes of Bourbon-Parma at birth. The Bourbon dynasty still reigns today in the person of King Juan Carlos of Spain.

Brabant, Duke (& Duchess) of. Traditional title of the Belgian Crownprince

Buckingham Palace - Buckingham Palace is the official London residence of the British Monarch.

Bygdø KongsgårdBygdø Kongsgård has been the summer residence of the Norwegian royals, since 1905. Connection with royalty goes back to when it was bought by Haakon V in the 13th century. It is presently undergoing a major rehabilitation.
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Camilla, The Duchess of Cornwall – The second wife of Prince Charles, Prince of Wales. The Duchess of Cornwall is engaged in many Charity organizations, particularly the National Osteoporosis Society.

Camille Marie Kelly Gottlieb (born July 15, 1998) is the third child of HSH Princess Stéphanie of Monaco and Jean Raymond Gottlieb. Her paternity has never been publicly confirmed by the Palace or the Princess nor have they denied that Gottlieb is her father.

Carl, Prince of Denmark, See, Haakon VII, King of Norway

Carl Gustaf - The current King of Sweden. King Carl XVI Gustaf was born on April 30, 1946 at Haga Palace, the last child and only son of Prince Gustav Adolf and Princess Sibylla of Saxe-Coburg-Gotha. He is a great-great-grandson of Queen Victoria. Carl Gustaf succeeded his grandfather as King on September 15, 1973 and was invested as King of Sweden at the Hall of State of the Royal Palace of Stockholm on September 19, 1973. During the 1972 Summer Olympics in Munich, Carl Gustaf met his futuer wife,Silvia Sommerlath. Carl Gustaf and Silvia were married on June 19, 1976 at Stockholm Cathedral by the Archbishop of Uppsala. They have three children, Victoria, Carl Philip and Madeleine.

Carl Philip - His Royal Highness Prince Carl Philip, Duke of Värmland was born on May 13, 1979. He is the second child and only son of King Carl XVI Gustaf and Queen Silvia. For a short time Carl Philip was the Crown Prince until the Act of Succession that created equal primogeniture. As of 2004 he is a lieutenant in the Royal Swedish Navy. Carl Philip is currently dating Emma Pernald, the daughter of a wealthy Swedish businessman.

Infante Carlos, Duke of Calabria
He is the son of Don Alfonso of Bourbon-Two Sicilies, Duke of Calabria and Princess Alice of Bourbon-Parma, and is one of two claimants to the title of Head of the Royal House of the Two Sicilies. He was created Infante of Spain by King Juan Carlos by Royal Decree on December 16, 1994. Don Carlos is married to Princess Anne of France, the daughter of Henri, comte de Paris and Doña Isabel, Princess of Orleans and Braganza, and they have five children.

Infanta Carlota (Charlotte) Joaquina of Spain
Carlota Joaquina Teresa of Spain was a Queen consort of Portugal. She was the eldest daughter of King Carlos IV of Spain and his wife Maria Louisa of Parma. Between 1788 and 1816, Carlota was known as Princess of Brazil. She was known as the "Queluz Shrewd", due to her difficult character.

Carlota, Empress of Mexico (1840-1927)-Born Princess Marie Charlotte Amelie Augustine Victorie Clementine Leopoldine of Belgium. Married Archduke Maximlian of Austria, who later become Emperor of Mexico.

Caroline Louise Marguerite, The Princess of Hanover, Hereditary Princess of Monaco, (born 23 January 1957) is the eldest child of Prince Rainier III of Monaco and his wife, the former American film actress Grace Kelly. She was married to Phillipe Junot (divorced in 1980, annulled in 1990) and Stefano Casiraghi (died on 3 October, 1990). Her third and present husband is Ernst August V, Prince of Hanover, the head of the House of Hanover. She has four children: Andrea, Charlotte, Pierre, Alexandra.

Kingdom of Castile
It was one of the medieval kingdoms of the Iberian Peninsula. It was created as a politically autonomous entity in the 9th century: it was called County of Castile and depended of the Kingdom of León. Its name is supposed to be related to the host of castles constructed in the region. In the 13th century the rivalry of Castile and Leon reached its end when Fernando III received the Kingdom of Castile from his mother Berenguela (in 1217) and the Kingdom of Leon from his father Alfonso IX. The Courts from Leon and Castile merged, an event considered as the starting point of the Crown of Castile, made of two kingdoms: Castile and Leon.

Catharina-Amalia: the bright and vivacious little girl loved by the Netherlands is the daughter of Crown Prince Willem-Alexander of the Netherlands, the Prince of Orange and Princess Maxima of the Netherlands. Heir apparent to the Dutch throne.

Queen Catherine (Catherine of Aragon) – She married Prince Arthur, Prince of Wales at 14. Following his death a few months later, Catherine was engaged to his younger brother Prince Henry (Henry VIII), thus becoming his first wife. They were married for 24 years. After Catherine failed to produce a son, Henry tried to annul the marriage. The Pope’s refusal to annul it led to the break with Rome and the subsequent establishment of the Church of England. Catherine refused to acknowledge the divorce and died of a form of cancer.

Queen Catherine (Catherine Howard) – The fifth wife of King Henry VIII. She was only 20 at the time of marriage. Catherine was beheaded after less than two years of marriage on the grounds of treason.

Queen Catherine (Catherine Parr) – The sixth and last wife of King Henry VIII. She was twice a widow, when Henry married her. They had no issue. Catherine survived Henry and married Thomas Seymour, the brother of Jane Seymour.

Chakko-no-Gi - a Japanese ceremony passed down in the Imperial family from the Heian Period to celebrate the passage from infancy to childhood. Boys wear hakama, a kind of trousers, and girls wear mo, a kind of long skirt, for the first time.

Chancellor house – A long house/sidebuilding on Fredensborg Estate. Formerly home to Queen Ingrid. Presently residence of the Crown Prince and Princess.

Change of the Danish Constitution, 1953: Primary change, in relation to royals was to give females a right to the throne. However, younger brother would go before older sister. Another change was to limit the people with rights to the throne to the descendants of Christian X, as opposed to earlier, when it had been limited to the male descendants of Christian IX.

Prince Charles, Count of Flanders (1903-1983)-Born Prince Charles Theodore Henri Antoine Meinrad. Served as regent in Belgium from 1944-1950 in replacement of King Leopold III.

Prince Charles, The Prince of Wales – The eldest son of Queen Elizabeth and The Duke of Edinburgh. He is the heir-apparent to the Throne of the United Kingdom and 15Commonwealth Realms. Prince Charles is well-known for his charity work, particularly The Prince’s Trust.

King Charles I – King of England, Ireland and King of Scots. Charles I reigned until 1649, when he was executed. The Monarchy was then abolished and the Commonwealth of England was established. His son, Charles II, became King after the Restoration. King Charles is the only person to be canonized by the Church of England since the English Reformation.

Charles I of Monaco (died August 15, 1357), was the first true Lord of Monaco, and is thus widely considered the founder of the dynasty. Charles I married Lucchina, a daughter of Girardo Spinola, Lord of Dertonne. They have eight children: Louis, his succesor, Rainier II, Francis, Gabriel, Charles, Lancelot, Ruffus, Anastasia.

Charles III, Prince of Monaco (8 December 1818 – 10 September 1889) was reigning Prince of Monaco from 20 June 1856 to his death. He was the founder of the famous casino in Monte Carlo.He was son to Florestan I of Monaco and Maria Caroline Gibert de Lametz.Charles was married on 28 September 1846 to Antoinette Ghislaine and was succeeded by his son Albert I of Monaco.

Princess Charlotte, Duchesse de Valentinois, Comtesse de Polignac (Charlotte Louise Juliette Grimaldi, née Louvet) (30 September 1898 – 15 November 1977), styled HSH The Princess Charlotte, was the daughter of Louis II, Prince of Monaco, and the mother of Prince Rainier III and Princess Antoinette. From 1922 until 1944, she was the Hereditary Princess of Monaco.

Charlotte, Grand Duchess of Luxembourg (1896-1985)-Second daughter of Grand Duke Guillaume IV of Luxembourg. Took over in 1919 when her sister, Grand Duchess Marie-Adelaide, abdicated. The Luxembourgish people voted to continue the monarchy with her as head of state in September of 1919. Married Prince Felix of Bourbon-Parma. 6 children.

Charlotte Marie Pomeline Casiraghi (born August 3, 1986) is the daughter of HRH Princess Caroline Hanover and Stefano Casiraghi. She is named after her maternal great-grandmother, Princess Charlotte of Monaco.

Château de Caïx – Queen Margrethe and Prince Henrik’s private castle and vineyard in the south of France.
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Chichibu - Prince Chichibu (Yasuhito) was a younger brother of Emperor Showa (Hirohito) of Japan. He was born on 25 June 1902, and after being educated at the Gakushuin School, joined the Japanese army. He married Setsuko Matsudaira, a member of one of the cadet branches of the Tokugawa shoguns, on 28 September 1928. They had no children. He died on 4 January 1953.

Christian – Common name for Danish Kings, starting with Christian I. Traditionally Danish monarchs alternate between Christian and Frederik.

Christian of Denmark, Prince – Born 2005. Only son of Crown Prince Frederik and Crown Princess Mary.

Christian IX, King to Denmark 1863-1906. First King in the Glücksburg dynasty’s reign on the Danish throne. Born 1818. Dead 1906. Son of William, Duke of Holstein-Beck and Louise Caroline of Hessen-Kassel. Married to Louise of Hessen-Kassel. Six children, including Alexandra, Queen of Great Britain, Frederik VIII of Denmark, George I, King of the Hellenes, Dagmar, Tsarina of Russia, Thyra, Duchess of Cumberland and Valdemar, Prince to Denmark. Nicknamed Europe’s father-in-law because of Children’s marriages.

Christian X (Carl Frederik Albert Alexander Vilhelm) King to Denmark and Iceland. Born 1870. Died. 1947. Son of Frederik VIII and Queen Louise. Married to Alexandrine, Duchess of Meckenburg-Schwerin. Children: Frederik IX, King to Denmark and Knud, Prince to Denmark, Arveprins.

Christiansborg Castle – named for Christian VI who started the construction. Intended to be the royal residence from 1933, onward, after the 3rd rebuilding. But Christian X refused to move from Amalienborg. Thus Christiansborg Castle is home of the Danish Folketing (Parliament).

Chrysanthemum, Supreme Order of - The Supreme Order of the Chrysanthemum is the highest order awarded by the Japanese emperor. It was instituted by Emperor Meiji in 1876. This order is only very occasionally awarded to regular citizens; it's also given to members of the imperial family and foreign heads of state.

Chrysanthemum Throne - the common name given to the Imperial Throne of Japan.

Ciergnon [Belgium]- Castle in the Ardennes. Princess Elisabeth, Prince Gabriel, and Prince Emmanuel were baptised here

Princess Claire of Belgium (1974-)- Born Claire Louise Coombs. Married Prince Laurent of Belgium.
Children: Princess Louise Sophie Mary, Prince Nicolas Casimir Marie, Prince Aymeric Auguste Marie

Clarence House – The official London residence of The Prince of Wales, The Duchess of Cornwall, Prince William and Prince Henry of Wales
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Monegasque Coat of Arms: Comprises a silver shield decorated with red diamonds surrounded by the Order of St. Charles collar. It is placed on a red coat lined with ermine, topped by the royal crown. Standing at each side of the shield are two monks brandishing raised swords. Below them is a banderole with the royal motto Deo Juvante (with God's Help).

Coat of Arms of the United Kingdom - The official coat of arms of the British Monarch (currently Queen Elizabeth II). These arms are used by the Queen in her official capacity as Monarch, and are known as her arms of Dominion. Both the Motto of the British Monarch (Dieu et mon droit – God and my right) and the motto of the Order of Garter (Honi soit qui mal y pense – Shamed be he who thinks ill of it) are emblazoned on it.

The Commonwealth – Commonwealth of Nations is a voluntary association of 53 independent sovereign states, the majority of which are former colonies of the Untied Kingdom. Queen Elizabeth is the Head of the Commonwealth and the Head of the State of 16 members of the Commonwealth, known as Commonwealth Realms.

Comptroller of the Royal Palaces[The Netherlands]: The office is in charge of the daily maintenance and management of all royal residences. Its responsibilities include looking after interior furnishings, gardens and internal security

Congress of Vienna: conference between European ambassadors 1814-1815 that ultimately determined the entire shape of Europe after the Napoleonic wars. The House of Orange was given the Dutch Republic and the Austrian Netherlands (modern-day Belgium) to rule as the Kingdom of the Netherlands and the Grand Duchy of Luxembourg

Constantine II, Ex-King of the Hellenes born 1940. Son of Paul I, King of the Hellenes and Queen Frederika. Married to Anne-Marie of Denmark. Children: Alexia, Pavlos, Nicolaos, Theodora, Philippos.

The Duchy of Cornwall – One of the two modern duchies in England, the other is the Duchy of Lancaster. It is bestowed on the eldest son of the Monarch, to provide him the income from the estates. The current Duke of Cornwall is Prince Charles.

Coronation. A religious ritual where a monarch is formally crowned. In the UK a coronation is the most magnificant, spiritual and glittering ceremony of all. The last British coronation was that of Queen Elizabeth II in 1953

Creme Caleche: beautiful white coach given to Queen Wilhelmina of the Netherlands, by her mother, Queen Emma on the occasion of her inauguration on 6th September 1898. Used only for special occasions, its complete restoration was finished in 2005.

Infanta Cristina of Spain
Doña Cristina is the second child and daughter of King Juan Carlos and Queen Sofia of Spain. She was born in Madrid on June 13th, 1965. She was christened in the Palace of la Zarzuela and her godparents were Alfonso, Duke of Anjou and Cádiz, and Infanta María Cristina de Borbon y Battenberg, an aunt of the King. She got married to former professional handball player Iñaki Urdangarín on October 4th, 1997. At the time of her marriage, her father gave her the title of Duchess of Palma de Mallorca. The couple currently lives in Barcelona and have four children. Cristina is in charge of the international cooperation program at the "La Caixa" Foundation.

Crown Jewels [UK]- The term Crown Jewels denotes the regalia and vestments worn by the Sovereign during the coronation ceremony and at various other state functions. The Crown. The Orb.
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Daimyo - The daimyo were powerful feudal overlords who controlled large areas of Japan from the 12th to the 19th centuries. Their control ended during the Meiji restoration when their control over their territories was abolished in favour of the prefecture system of local government, which survives today.

Daisy – Nickname of Queen Margrethe II of Denmark, after her maternal grandmother Margaret of Connaught. Brooches and ear-bobs in the shape of daisies are quite popular in Denmark.

Daniel Ducruet (born November 27, 1964) was the husband of Princess Stéphanie from 1995 until 1996. They have two children: Louis and Pauline.

Dannebrog, Flag – The Danish flag. Reputedly given from the sky to the Danish King Valdemar Sejr, after a victory in what is now Estonia.

Dannebrog, the royal Danish yacht. Been in use by the royal family since 1932.

Dannebrog, Order of – Instituted by Christian V of Denmark in 1671. It is awarded to people who’ve performed a special civil or military service to the state.

Dar al- Bir – formerly Al-Hashmiya Palace. Located on high ground in the Hummar area, the Palace was built during the mid 1970s to be the home of Their Majesties King Hussein of Jordan and Queen Alia, until the Queen’s tragic death on February 9, 1977. From the palace, Jerusalem could easily be seen on a clear day.

Darmstadt. A branch of the family of Hesse which ruled Hesse and bei Rhine and rose to prominence when Queen Victoria’s daughter Princess Alice married the heir to the Grand Ducal throne. Came to a bitter end in 1937 at Ostende in Belgium when, while en route to London for a family wedding, the plane carrying the Grand Ducal family crashed into an industrial chimney during a fog. The dead included Hereditary Grand Duke Georg, his wife Princess Cecile of Greece (a sister of Prince Philip, Duke of Edinburgh), their young sons Princes Ludwig and Alexander, the unborn child Cecile was carrying, and Georg’s mother, Grand Duchess Eleonore. An added sting in the tail concerns the youngest child, the orphaned Princess Johanna, who was not on the plane, but died of meningitis at the age of three less than two years later. The Hesse-Darmstadt line became extinct in 1968 on the death of Prince Ludwig, Georg’s younger brother and groom at the wedding to which the ill-fated party were travelling.

Days of Fredensborg – Refers to Christian IX and Queen Louise’s family gatherings at Fredensborg Castle, north of Copenhagen, when their children brought their families home for the summer in the 1880-90s.

De Eikenhorst: Villa on the royal estate 'De Horsten' in Wassenar that is home to the Prince and Princess of Orange and their young daughters

Decolonization of Indonesia[the Netherlands]: the controversial issue that preoccupied most of the first year of Queen Juliana’s reign. In 1949, she signed the documents transferring sovereignty to Indonesia

Defile[the Netherlands]: the traditional way of celebrating Queensday where people walk past the stairs of Soestdijkpalace past the waving royal family

Delphine Boel (196:cool:- Acknowledged illegitimate daughter of King Albert II of the Belgians.

Denmark, Prince/ss of – Title regarding right to Danish throne. Royals with the title “Prince/ss of Denmark” don’t have rights to the throne. Examples: Prince Henrik of Denmark, Crown Princess Mary of Denmark, Queen Ingrid of Denmark. Note, however, that Princess Elisabeth, Princess Benedikte, Queen Anne-Marie and Queen Margrethe were all born Princesses of Denmark, as they all were born prior to the Change in Constitution of 1953, which allowed females to be in line to the throne. After 1953, however, they all became Princesses to Denmark.

Denmark, Prince/ss to – Title regarding rights to the Danish throne. Royals with the title “Prince/ss to Denmark” are in line to the Danish throne. Examples: Crown Prince Frederik to Denmark, Princess Elisabeth to Denmark, Prince Christian to Denmark.

Diana, Princess of Wales – The first wife of The Prince of Wales and mother of Prince William and Prince Henry of Wales. She was renowned for her charity work. Diana, Princess of Wales died in a tragic car accident in 1997.

Diet - The National Diet of Japan - Japan’s legislature, which consists of two houses: the House of Representatives and the House of Councillors.

Dina – the first wife of the late King Hussein of Jordan. They divorced in 1957, at which time Queen Dina became known as HRH Princess Dina Abdul Hamid of Jordan. She became an Egyptian citizen in 1963 and in 1970, she married Asad Sulayman Abdd al-Qadir. She is the mother of Princess Alia Bint Al Hussein of Jordan, and is know known as Sharifa Dina bint 'Abdu'l-Hamid.

It's an old honorific Spanish title that is sort of similar to Sir/Lady, in English. It could be donned only by kings, nobles and people who held certain distinguished roles in the church. Along time it was extended to people that held doctor's degrees and nowadays it can be used by everyone as a sign of respect.

Drottningholm Palace - The private residence for the Swedish Royal Family. It is located on the island of Lovön. The name Drottningholm comes from the name of the original building, which was built by John III of Sweden in 1580 for his wife Katarina Jagellonica. On December 30, 1661 Drottningholm burnt to the ground. It took almost 20yrs to rebuild Drottningholm. In 1777, Queen Louisa sold Drottningholm to the Swedish state. For most of the 19th century the Palace was ignored. In 1907 a major restoration of the palace, started by Oscar I, was carried out. The current Swedish royal family have used Drottningholm as their primary residence since 1981.

Duke of Valentinois (French: Duc de Valentinois; Italian: Duca Valentino), formerly Count of Valentinois, is an extinct title in the French peerage, and is currently one of the many hereditary titles of the Prince of Monaco. Though it originally indicated administrative control of the Duchy of Valentinois, the duchy has since become part of France, making the title simply one of nobility.
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Ears of Wheat Tiara: tiara worn by all of the van Vollenhoven brides

Easter Crisis, the - Danish constitual crisis in 1920. The discussion was regarding a referendum about the old Danish areas Schleswig & Holstein, wherein it was a demand from the people that the areas where 75% had voted for a return to Denmark, should be included. The cabinet said no. King Christian X used his political power to fire the cabinet and asked someone else to form a cabinet. He was accused of a coup d'etat. It was sorted out, eventually, and parts of Schleswig was returned to Denmark.

Edo - The former name for Tokyo, and the name given to the period of the Tokugawa shogunate rule, during which time the government was centered in Edo, the new capital city. The emperor's court remained in Kyoto, the former capital, during this time; the emperor had no power, and his court was just a social center, not a center of government. When the shogunate was defeated and Emperor Meiji was restored to a position of power, the court moved to Edo, which was renamed Tokyo (which means "Eastern Capital").

Prince Edward, Earl of Wessex – the youngest son of Queen Elizabeth and The Duke of Edinburgh. He has held the title of the Earl of Wessex since 1999.

Ekaterinburg. The town in the Urals where the immediate Russian Imperial Family and members of their Household were murdered by a squad of Bolsheviks in July 1918. Ipatiev House, the merchant’s house where the execution took place, remained standing until 1977, when its demolition was ordered by Boris Yeltsin.

El Alcazar. It is an impressive castle in that it rises in an almost surreal way near the heart of the city of Segovia. The castle is steeped in history: Isabella married Ferdinand, in turn surrendering rights that led to the unification of Spain. El Alcazar is now easily the most picturesque area in Spain.

Infanta Doña Elena of Spain
She is the eldest daughter of King Juan Carlos and Queen Sofia of Spain. Elena studied Basic Education at the University College ESCUNI of Madrid, graduating in 1986 with a speciality of English Philology. She then continued her studies at the Comillas University of Madrid graduating in Education. In 1990 she obtained a Master's in Sociology and Education from The University of Exeter, England. Elena got married to Jaime de Marichalar Saeñz y Tejada on March 18th, 1995, at Seville Cathedral. At the time of her marriage, her father gave her the title of Duchess of Lugo. The couple have two children.

Elephant, Order of – Instituted by Christian V of Denmark in 1693. Awarded to Danish royals or foreign head of states. Only living non-royal Dane who have received the Order of the Elephant is Mr. Mærsk McKinney-Møller.

Elephants: animal collected by Prince Bernhard and one of his inspirations to found the World Wildlife Foundation

Elisabeth, Queen of the Belgians (1876-1965)-Born Elisabeth Gabriele Valerie Marie, Duchess in Bavaria, Princess of Bavaria. Nicknamed "The Red Queen." Married King Albert I of the Belgians. Children: Prince Leopold Philippe Charles Albert Meinrad Hubertus Marie Miguel, Prince Charles Theodore Henri Antoine Meinrad & Princess Marie-Jose Charlotte Sophie Amelie Henriette Gabrielle

Princess Elisabeth of Belgium (2001-)-Born Princess Elisabeth Therese Marie Helene. First child of Prince Philippe and Princess Mathilde of Belgium. Currently second in line to the throne. If/when she ascends to throne, she will be first Queen Regent of Belgium.

Baroness Elisabeth-Anne de Massy was born on 13th January 1947 to Princess Antoinette of Monaco and her lover Alexandre-Athenase Noghès. Baroness Elisabeth-Anne was married twice: First to Bernard Taubert-Natta with one child - Jean-Léonard Taubert-Natta de Massy (b. 1974); Second to Nicolai de Lusignan with one child: Mélanie de Lusignan (b. 1985)

Elisabeth Caroline-Mathilde Alexandrine Helena Olga Thyra Feodora Estrid Margarethe Désirée, Princess to Denmark, née 1935. Daughter of Arveprins Knud and Arveprinsesse Caroline-Mathilde. Last in line to the Danish throne. Retired from work at the Danish Ministry of Foreign Affairs.

Queen Elizabeth II – Queen of the United Kingdom and sixteen Sovereign states. Legally, the most powerful head of the state. Her Majesty is considered a symbol of dedication to the duty.

Queen Elizabeth, The Queen Mother – The consort of King George VI and mother of Queen Elizabeth II. She was the last Queen of Ireland and Empress of India. Queen Elizabeth was famous for her role in providing moral support to the British Public during World War II.

Queen Elizabeth I – The Queen of England and Ireland (and France in name only). Queen Elizabeth is sometimes referred as Good Queen Bess, Gloriana or The Virgin Queen. Her 45 years of reign were marked by increase of English power and influence, unprecedented growth of Literature and Arts. She was the last Tudor Monarch.

Palace of El Pardo
It began as a royal hunting pavillion and became an alternative residence of the kings of Spain until Alfonso XII, who died in the palace. It was King Enrique III who ordered the building of the pavillion in the beginning of the fifteenth century (1406) on the mount of El Pardo, because of its abundant game. Later, in the time of Carlos I (1547), it was transformed in a palace. Carlos III renewed the building in the eighteenth century, appointing his architect Francesco Sabatini for the job. It was newly transformed in the twentieth century, doubling its size be repeating to the east its original structure. The palace nowadays serves as residence for the chiefs of state visiting Spain. It was also at El Pardo that Prince Felipe and his then fiancee, Letizia, gave their engagement interview.

Emma: Queen Consort, Queen Regent and Queen Mother of the of the Netherlands (and Luxembourg)

Prince Emmanuel of Belgium (2005-)-Born Prince Emmanuel Leopold Guillaume Francois Marie. Third child of Prince Philippe and Princess Mathilde of Belgium.

Ermitagen – Small hunting castle, north of Copenhagen. Location is the end of the Humbertus hunt in November

Ernst August, Prince of Hanover (born 26 February 1954 in Hanover, Lower Saxony, Germany) is the eldest son of Ernest Augustus IV, Prince of Hanover (1914–1987) and his first wife, Princess Ortrud of Schleswig-Holstein-Sonderburg-Glücksburg (1925–1980). He first married Chantal, heiress to a Swiss chocolate fortune. They had two children, Ernst August (b. 1983) and Christian (b. 1985), and divorced on 23 October 1997. He married secondly HSH Princess Caroline of Monaco, with whom he has one daughter, Alexandra Charlotte Ulrike Maryam Virginia (b. 1999).

Eugén - Prince Eugén of Sweden and Norway, Duke of Närke was born on August 1, 1865. Prince Eugén was the youngest son of King Oscar II of Sweden and Norway and Princess Sofia of Nassau. His home, Waldemarsudde is an art museum. Prince Eugén died on August 17, 1947.

Princess Eugenie (Eugenie of York) – the younger daughter of The Duke and Duchess of York. She is the only granddaughter of the Queen, apart from her sister Beatrice, who holds the style of Her Royal Highness.

Exclamation – Danish monarchs are not crowned, but the exclamation/proclamation by the current Prime minister from the balcony at Christiansborg marks the change from one monarch to another. The Prime minister will shout: “King X is dead. Long Live King XI” three times three, to all three sides of the balcony.
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Fabergé, Carl – Jeweller for the Russian imperial family. Famous for the Fabergé eggs.

Fabiola, Queen of Belgium (192:cool:- Born Fabiola Fernanda Maria de las Victorias Antonia Adelaida. Married King Baudouin I of the Belgians.

Fadah Al Hamzah – Princess of Jordan. The wife of Prince Hashim Al Bin Hussein, she is also the daughter of Sheikh Mohammad Ibrahim bin Sulayman Abu Neyan of Saudi Arabia and her grandfather is Sheikh Turkey bin Khaled Al-Sedeiri of Saudi Arabia.

Faisal – the son of the late King Hussein and Princess Muna Al-Hussein of Jordan. Married to Princess Alyia and the father of Princesses Ayah, Sara and Aisha (Twins) and Prince Omar. He is a supervisor and advisor to the Royal Wings Airlines.

Father of the Fatherland: honorary title for Prince Willem I (the silent), who liberated the Dutch from Spain.

King Felipe V of Spain
Felipe d'Anjou was King of Spain from 1700 to 1746, and was the first of the Borbon dynasty in Spain. He was the second son of Louis, the Grand Dauphin and Maria Anna of Bavaria. He was a younger brother of Louis, Duke of Burgundy and an uncle of Louis XV of France.

Infante Don Felipe, Prince of Asturias
He is the third child and only son of King Juan Carlos and Queen Sofia of Spain. As heir to the Spanish throne he bears the official titles of Prince of Asturias, Prince of Viana, Prince of Gerona, Duke of Montblanc, Count of Cervera and Lord of Balaguer. If Prince Felipe becomes king as expected, he will be known as King Felipe VI of Spain. attended high school at Lakefield College School in Ontario, Canada and studied in the Autonomous University of Madrid, where he earned a degree in Law. He also completed several course subjects on Economics. He completed his academic studies by obtaining a Master of Science in Foreign Service degree from the Edmund A. Walsh School of Foreign Service at Georgetown, where he was the roommate of his cousin, Pavlos, Prince of Greece. Prince Felipe got married to former TV Newscaster Letizia Ortiz Rocasolano on May 22nd, 2004 at Almudena Cathedral in Madrid. The couple has a daughter, Infanta Leonor, and another one whose birth is expected to May, 2007.

HE Don Felipe Juan Froilán de Marichalar y de Borbón
He's the oldest child of Infanta Elena and Jaime de Marichalar and first grandchild of King Juan Carlos and Queen Sofia of Spain. He was born on July 17th, 1998 in Madrid, Spain.

Felix, Prince of Luxembourg (1984-)-Born Prince Felix Leopold Marie Guillaume. Second child of Grand Duke Henri and Grand Duchess Maria Teresa of Luxembourg.

Felix, Prince of Luxembourg, Prince of Bourbon-Parma (1893-1970)-Born Prince Felix Marie Vincent. Married Grand Duchess Charlotte of Luxembourg. 6 children.

Fenffe, Castle of- Castle belonging to King Albert II and Queen Paola.

Ferner, Johan Martin – spouse of Princess Astrid, Mrs. Ferner.

Firouzeh Vokhshouri – is the ex-wife of Prince Asem bin Al Nayef. She held the title of Her Royal Highness Princess Firouzeh al Asem of Jordan, from the date of her marriage until May of 2004, when she lost the style of HRH by order of King Abdullah. The correct form of address is now Princess Firzoueh Vokshouri. She is the mother of Princess Yasmine, Princess Sarah and Princess Noor, who is married to Prince Hamzah of Jordan.

Fischbach Castle- Castle located near Fischbach, Luxembourg. Residence of Grand Duchess Charlotte following World War II. Residence of Hereditary Grand Duke Henri and Hereditary Grand Duchess Maria Theresa from 1987, until Henri's succession to the throne in 2000.

Florestan I, Prince of Monaco (Paris, 10 October 1785 – 20 June 1856) was Prince of Monaco from 2 October 1841 until his death. He was the second son of Prince Honoré IV, and succeeded to the throne on the death of his brother, Honoré V. He was married to Caroline Gilbert of Lametz. They have two children: Prince Charles III (1818-1889) and Princess Florestine Gabrielle Antoinette de Monaco (1833-1897).

Folke Bernadotte - Count Folke Bernadotte of Wisborg was born on January 2, 1895. He is the youngest of five children. His parents were Prince Oscar of Sweden and Norway, Duke of Gotlandia and Ebba Munck. Folke's parents marriage was not approved by the King so Oscar gave up his title and place in the line of succession. Oscar was given the hereditary title "Count of Wisborg". Folke was noted for his negotiation of the release of about 15,000 prisoners from the German concentration camps in World War II. On September 17, 1948 Folke was killed by members of the Lehi group.

Fram X – King Harald’s sailboat.

Francisco de Asís de Borbón, King Consort
He was the King Consort of Queen Isabel II. He was the second son of the Infante Francisco de Paula, Duke of Cadiz, youngest son of Charles IV of Spain and Luisa Carlotta, daughter of king Francis I of the Two Sicilies.

Francisco Franco
Francisco Paulino Hermenegildo Teódulo Franco y Bahamonde Salgado Pardo, commonly known as “Generalísimo Francisco Franco”, was the effective ruler and later formal head of state of parts of Spain from October 1936 and of all of Spain from 1939 until his death in 1975. He presided over the government of the Spanish State following victory in the Spanish Civil War. From 1947, he was de facto regent of Spain. He appointed Prince Juan Carlos as his successor, bypassing his father, Don Juan, and started to prepare him to follow his steps. Little did he know that the then Prince had ideas of his own and wanted to bring back the democracy to Spain, which he did upon his enthronement in 1975.

François Grimaldi (François Malizia "the Cunning") was the leader of the Guelphs who captured the Rock of Monaco on the night of January 8, 1297. He was the son of Guglielmo Grimaldi by his wife Giacoba. Married in 1295 with Aurelia del Carretto, the marriage was childless. After his death, in 1309, he was succeeded by his cousin (and stepson), Rainier I, Lord of Cagnes.

Fredensborg Castle, summer residence of the Danish monarchs, in Fredensborg, north of Copenhagen.

Frederik, Common name for Danish Kings. Alternate between Christian and Frederik. Those in line ot the Danish throne , males, must have it somewhere in their names.

Frederik André Henrik Christian, Prince to Denmark, Crown Prince. Born 1968. Son of Margrethe II and Prince Henrik. Married to Mary, Crown Princess of Denmark. Father of Prince Christian

Frederik-Hendrik [The Netherlands]: stadholder & husband of Amalia van Solms

Frederik IX (Christian Frederik Franz Michael Carl Valdemar Georg) King of Denmark, 1947-1972. Born 1899, dead 1972, Son of Christian X and Queen Alexandrine. Engaged briefly to Olga of Greece and Denmark. Married to Princess Ingrid of Sweden. Children: Margrethe II, Benedikte and Anne-Marie

Frederiksborg Castle, Danish national museum.

Frogmore House – In 1790 Queen Charlotte purchased the Frogmore as a country retreat for herself and her daughters. From the beginning of the 20th century it was used irregularly. In 1988 it was planned as a residence for the Duke and Duchess of York but they opposed against the idea.

Fumihito – Prince Fumihito of Akishino of Japan, born 30 November 1965, son of Emperor Akihito and Empress Michiko. He married Kiko Kawashima on 29 June 1990. They have three children:
1) Mako of Akishino, born 23 October 1991.
2) Kako of Akishino, born 29 December 1994.
3) Hisahito of Akishino, born 6 September 2006.

Fürst. The descriptive title of the Head of certain German or Austrian Princely Families which distinguishes the Head of the House from other princes.
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Prince Gabriel of Belgium (2003-)-Born Prince Gabriel Baudouin Charles Marie. Second child of Prince Philippe and Princess Mathilde

Gabriel de Nassau (2006-)-Born Gabriel Michel Louis Ronny de Nassau. First child of Prince Louis of Luxembourg and Miss Tessy Anthony. Not included in the line of succession.

Gagaku - Japanese imperial court music, performed by musicians of the Imperial Court during court functions, banquets, and garden parties.

Gakushūin - Gakushūin School was established in Tokyo during the Meiji period for the education of the children of the Japanese aristocracy. Emperor Akihito and Prince Naruhito went to Gakushūin and now, Princess Aiko attends Gakushūin Kindergarten. Nowadays, children of extremely wealthy commoners also attend Gakushūin School.

Gamlehaugen – Norwegian royal residence in Bergen. Former home to Christian Michelsen, a Norwegian prime minister, and one of the chief architects of Norwegian independence in 1905.

Order of Garter – The most Noble Order of the Garter is an order of chivalry, with history dating back to medieval times. It is the world’s oldest national order of knighthood in continuous existence. The members include The Monarch (known as the ‘Sovereign of the Garter’), The Prince of Wales (‘Knight Companion of the Garter’), not more then 25 companion members and various supernumerary members. Current members include, apart from Queen Elizabeth and The Prince of Wales , The Duke of Edinburgh, The Princess Royal, The Duke of York, The Earl of Wessex, The Duke of Glouster, The Duke of Kent and The Honourable Lady Ogilvy.

Gatcombe Park – Private country home of the Princess Royal. Gatcombe Park was bought by Queen Elizabeth II in 1976 for Princess Anne and Captain Mark Phillips.

King George I – The first King of Great Britain and Ireland from the Hanoverian Dynasty. King George was also the Archbannernearer (Archtreasurer) and a Prince Elector of the Holy Roman Empire.

King George V – The first Monarch of the House of Windsor. During World War I King George relinquished all German titles and styles on behalf of his relatives, who were British subjects and changed the name of the Royal House from Saxe-Coburg-Gotha to Windsor.

King George VI – King of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland and Emperor of India, father of Queen Elizabeth II. He became King upon the unexpected abdication of his brother, Edward VIII. King George refused to leave the country during World War II. Throughout the war, the King and the Queen were inspiring and provide moral boost for the British people.

Ghislaine Marie Francoise Dommanget (13 October 1900 - 30 April 1991) held the title of Her Serene Highness Princess of Monaco from 1946 to 1949. Daughter of Colonel Robert Dommanget and Marie Mfunier, she was born at Reims. She was a French comedy actress, she divorced her first husband, André Brulé, and married the reigning Prince of Monaco, Louis II on 24 July 1946 - the first Grimaldi bride without a dowry. Following his death on 9 May 1949, and the accession of Rainier III, she became known as Ghislaine, Dowager Princess of Monaco, a title she held until her death.

Prince of Girona
It's one of the titles given to the Crown Prince of the Crown of Aragon. Its origins are when, in the year 1351, the king Pere IV of Aragon nominated its successor and conceded him the title of Duke of Girona, which embraced territories of the counties of Girona, Besalú, Empúries and Osona. On 1416, King Ferdinand I of Aragon considered the title of duke was not enough, so he promoted it creating the Principality of Girona. So, the heir of the crown was Prince of Girona, Duke of Montblanc, Earl of Cervera and Lord of Balaguer. Nowadays, the holder of these titles is Prince Felipe of Spain, the first Borbon to ever carry this title.

Glass Coach: Coach built for King William I in 1826 by P. Simons of Brussels. It is a simple, dark blue coach with a wide gold border of laurel and oak leaves reserved for special occasions. It was used for the wedding of Princess Juliana and Prince Bernhard and for that of Princess Beatrix and Prince Claus.

Glücksborg – Area in Northern Germany, original home of the Royal families of Denmark and Norway

Go-Sakuramachi Tenno - Empress Go-Sakuramachi (1740-1813) was the last Empress Regnant of Japan, ruling from 1762 to 1771 after the death of her brother, Emperor Momozono, and then abdicating in favour of her nephew, who was only 5 years old when his father died. Her given name was Toshiko, and her title was Isa-no-miya.

Golden Age, Dutch: period in history 1584-1702 in which Dutch trade, science and art were among the most acclaimed in the world.

Gouden Koets: Golden Coach presented to Queen Wilhelmina on the occasion of her investiture in 1898, as a tribute by the people of Amsterdam. It was first used on February 7, 1901 by Queen Wilhelmina and Prince Hendrik for their wedding. Since 1903, the head of state generally rides in the Golden Coach just once a year, on Prinsjesdag.

Grace, Princess of Monaco (Grace Patricia Kelly) (November 12, 1929 – September 14, 1982) was an Academy Award-winning American film actress who, upon marriage to Rainier III, Prince of Monaco on April 19, 1956, became Her Serene Highness The Princess of Monaco. She was the mother of Caroline, Albert and Stephanie.

Grand Duchy Once there were several (Baden, Hesse, Mecklenburg-Schwerin and -Strelitz, Oldenburg, Saxe-Weimar-Eisenach) but today only Luxembourg survives.

Grandee of Spain
Spanish nobles are classified either as Grandees (also called Grandes de España or Peers) or as Titled Nobles (Títulos del Reino). All of the Kings grandchildren, with the exception of the children of the heir, carry the distinction of HE Grandee of Spain.

Grand Master [The Netherlands]: manager of the day-to-day affairs of the Royal Household. He is also the Queen’s first adviser and manages her visits abroad.

Greet Hofmans Affair: Crisis in 1956 that developed involving Greet Hofmans, a controversial hands-on faith healer who treated Princess Christina’s blindness. Hofmans’ heterodox beliefs, considered by many to be a sham, gained strong influence over Queen Juliana. This influence severely affected the Queen's marriage and gave rise to intense national debate over her judgment and competency as sovereign.

Grimaldo Canella was a son of Otto Canella and Consul of Genoa in 1162, 1170, and 1184. He is an ancestor and the namesake of the House of Grimaldi, the ruling family of Monaco. Since Grimaldo was an Italian, the House of Grimaldi is Italian Royal House. They, being Genoese weathly statesmen, came to own land that is current day Monaco, though Genoa is not too close to Monaco. Thus becoming Princes of Monaco.

Gripsholm Castle - The castle is located near the town of Mariefred by the lake Mälaren in central Sweden. Gripsholm was built around 1380 by Bo Jonsson. It stayed in his family until King Gustav I of Sweden confiscated castles and mansions in the 1500s. The original castle was torn down and the king built a fortified castle with corner towers and a wall, for defensive purposes. Gripsholm was used as a royal residence until 1713. Now it holds a historical museum with the governmental collection of portraits.

Groene Draeck: (Green Dragon) Queen Beatrix’s favourite sailboat, her 18th birthday gift from the nation.

Gråsten – Danish Palace in the southern parts of Jutland. Used by Queen Ingrid as a summer residence. After her death, her daughters make an attempt to gather the family there a while every summer.

Guillaume, Hereditary Grand Duke of Luxembourg (1981-)-Born Prince Guillaume Jean Joseph Marie. Eldest child of Grand Duke Henri and Grand Duchess Maria Teresa. Current heir to the Luxembourg throne

Guillaume IV, Grand Duke of Luxembourg (1852-1912)-Born Prince Guillaume Alexandre. Reigned from 1905-1912. Married Infanta Marie Anne of Portugal.
Princess Marie-Adelaide
Princess Hilda
Princess Antoinette
Princess Elizabeth
Princess Sophia

Guillaume, Prince of Luxembourg (1963-)-Born Prince Guillaume Marie Louis Christian. Youngest child of Grand Duke Jean and Grand Duchess Josephine-Charlotte. Married Sibilla Weiller.
Prince Paul Louis Jean Marie Guillaume
Prince Leopold Guillaume Marie Joseph
Princess Charlotte Wilhelmine Maria de Gloria
Prince Jean Andre Guillaume Marie Gabriel Marc d'Aviano
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Haakon VII, King – Born Prince Carl of Denmark. Elected King of Norway in 1905. Married to Princess Maud of Wales. One son. Dead 1957.

Haakon Magnus of Norway, Crown Prince – born 1973. Son of Harald V of Norway and Queen Sonja. Married to Crown Princess Mette-Marit of Norway in 2001. 2 mutual children.

Haga Palace - Haga Palace is located in Hagaparken, Solna Municipality in Stockholm, Sweden. Haga Palace was built in the early 1800s by King Gustav IV Adolf and designed by the city architect Christoffer Gjörwell. The current king and his sisters were all born in Haga Palace. In 1966 King Gustav VI Adolf transferred the right of disposal for Haga Palace to the government. Today, the palace is used to accommodate guests of the Swedish Government.

Haga Princesses, The - Nickname for all four of the Swedish King's sisters. They were nicknamed this, because of growing up at Haga Palace

Hainaut, Count of - Traditional title of the eldest son of the Belgian Heir Apparant. Title was abolished due to not being linguistically neutral

Hakama - The traditional pleated skirt given to newborn girls. Shortly after her birth, court messengers placed a sword and purple silk robes by Princess Aiko’s pillow. The sacred Samurai sword, specially made by master blacksmiths and set in a crimson case, is symbolic proof that the child is a direct descendant of the royal dynasty. It represents the sword which legend has it was given to the founder of the imperial family by the Sun Goddess Amaterasu. Since the newborn is a girl she was also presented with a traditional "hakama", a pleated skirt.

Hamzah Bin Al Hussein – the eldest son of the late King Hussein and Queen Noor of Jordan. A graduate of the Royal Military Academy Sandhurst, he was Crown Prince of Jordan from 1999 until 2004. He is married to Princess Noor
Hamzah. They are expecting their first child in the Spring of 2007.

Happy Elephant: the Italian vacation home of Queen Juliana & family, now for sale

Harald V, King of Norway– Born 1937. Married Sonja Haraldsen in 1968. Two children, Crown Prince Haakon Magnus and Princess Märtha Louise. Acceded the throne upon his father’s death in 1991.

King Harold – The last crowned Anglo-Saxon King of England, he was killed in the Battle of Hastings.

Hasehm – the youngest son of the King Abdullah II and Queen Rania of Jordan

Hashemite dynasty - Although King Abdullah II is a direct descendant of the sixth-century prophet Muhammad, the Hashemites have only been monarchs of Jordan since 1946, when the Hashemite Kingdom of Transjordan (later Jordan) was formed and Abdullah I was declared king. Members of the dynasty - who take their name from a second century ancestor - have been active in the Arab world for almost 2,000 years.

Hashim Bin Al Hussein – the son of the late King Hussein and Queen Noor of Jordan. He is a graduate of the Royal Military Academy Sandhurst and GeorgetownUniversity. He is married to Princess Fahdah Mohammed Abu Neyan of Saudi Arabia

Battle of Hastings – The battle, during which the Normans, led by Duke William of Normandy (William the Conqueror) defeated the English army, led by King Harold II.

Haya – the daughter of the late King Hussein and late Queen Alia of Jordan. Married to the Sheikh of Dubai, she is his junior wife. An accomplished equestrian, she represented Jordan in the 2000 Summer Olympics in Sydney, where she was also the flag bearer. She serves as the President of the International Equestrian Foundation

Heian - The period between 794 and 1185. This period, marked by Chinese and Confucian influences, was the cultural high point of the Japanese Imperial court in art and literature, and its legacy is still in evidence today.

Heir. The legal successor. Variations include Heir/ess Apparent (where the claim cannot be set aside by another successor), and Heir/ess Presumptive (where the birth of another can displace the heir in the line of succession). Other titles meaning the same thing include Crown Prince/ss, Hereditary Prince/ss, Hereditary Grand Duke/Duchess, and Erbprinz, as well as Prince of Wales, Prince of the Asturias, and Prince of Orange

Heisei - Heisei Era, Reign of Emperor Akihito of Japan meaning “The achievement of complete peace on earth and in the heavens” which started 8 January 1989 when Emperor Akihito ascended to the throne after the death of Emperor Hirohito.

Helene, Princess of Nassau- Ex-wife of Prince Jean of Luxembourg. 4 mutual children

Henri, Grand Duke of Luxembourg (1955-)-Eldest child of Grand Duke Jean and Grand Duchess Josephine-Charlotte of Luxembourg. Ascended to the throne in 2000. Married Maria Teresa Mestre. 5 children.

Henrik (Henri Marie Jean André, Count de Laborde de Monpezat) Prince of Denmark, Prince Consort. Born 1934, Talence, France. Married to Margrethe II of Denmark. Children: Frederik, Crown Prince of Denmark and Joachim, Prince to Denmark.
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Prince Henry (Harry) of Wales – The second son of Prince Charles, Prince of Wales and Diana, Princess of Wales, Prince Harry is a Cornet in the Blues and Royals regiment of the Household Cavalry.

King Henry VIII – The second King of the Tudor dynasty, King Henry is probably best known for having 6 wives (2 of whom were beheaded) and breaking with Rome, which led to the establishment of the English Church.

Duchess of Hernani
Besides being granted the title of Duchess of Soria by her brother, Infanta Margarita of Spain also bears the title of 2nd Duchess of Hernani. Her cousin HE Manfredo de Borbón, 1st Duke de Hernani, died and willed his ducal title to be inherited by Doña Margarita. The King granted this request and created her the 2nd Duchess of Hernani.

Het Loo Palace: Dutch Palace built in 1685 by Prince William III was used as Queen Wilhelmina’s summer home and the main home of Princess Margriet and Pieter van Vollenhoven since 1967.

Highgrove – The country home of The Prince of Wales, it was purchased in 1980 by the Duchy of Cornwall.

Hillsborough Castle – The official residence of Queen Elizabeth in the Northern Ireland.

Hirohito - Emperor Hirohito (Sh?wa) of Japan was born 29 April 1901, the son of Emperor Taish? and Empress Sadako. He married his distant cousin, Princess Nagako on 26 January 1924. They have seven children:
1) Princess Teru, born 9 December1925, died 23 July 1961.
2) Princess Hisa, born 10 September 1927, died 8 March 1928.
3) Princess Taka, born 30 September 1929, died 26 May 1989.
4) Princess Yori, born 7 March 1931, died 10 October 1952.
5) Crown Prince Akihito (now Emperor), born 23 December 1933.
6) Prince Hitachi, born 28 November 1935.
7) Princess Suga, born 2 March 1939.
He became the 124th Emperor of Japan upon his accession to throne 25 December 1925. Hirohito died 7 January1989 after a long illness. See Sh?wa Era.

Hitachi - Prince Hitachi (Masahito) is the younger brother of Emperor Akihito of Japan and is currently fourth in line of succession to the throne after the Crown Prince, Prince Akishino, and Prince Hisahito. He was born on 28 November 1935 at the Kokyo Imperial Palace in Tokyo. After taking a degree in chemistry at Gakushuin University, he became a research associate at the Japanese Foundation for Cancer Research. He married Hanako Tsugaru, a descendent of one of the daimyo families, on 30 September 1964. Prince and Princess Hitachi have no children.

Hof: (the Dutch Court) the heart of the Royal Household. It has some 40 members divided between the Civil Household and the Military Household.

Hofdame: (Lady in waiting) the six women who advise and assist the Queen and other female members of the Dutch Royal House in preparing for events and accompanying them on these occasions.

Hofmaarschalk: (Dutch for Court-marshall) the department, which includes the royal footmen, provides domestic services, that organizes receptions and looks after guests of the Royal House

The Palace of Holyroodhouse – The main residence of the Monarch in Scotland, it has been the main residence of the Kings and Queens of Scotland since the 15th century

Honoré II (24 December 1597-10 January 1662) was Sovereign Prince of Monaco. He was the first to be called Prince, but started his reign as Lord of Monaco. The title of Duke of Valentinois was created for Honoré by King Louis XIII of France. In 1616 he married Ippolita Trivulzio. He was interred in the Cathedral of St. Nicholas (it stood on the location of the current Cathedral) in Monaco.

Honoré III, Prince of Monaco (November 10, 1720 – March 21, 1795) ruled the Principality of Monaco for almost sixty years from 1733 to 1793. He was the son of Jacques François Leonor Grimaldi, Prince de Monaco, Duc de Valentinois and Louise Hippolyte de Monaco, Princesse de Monaco, Duchesse de Valentinois.

Honoré IV, Prince of Monaco (17 May 1758 – 16 February 1819) was Sovereign Prince of Monaco. He was succeeded by his eldest son, Prince Honoré and Maria Caterina Brignole. He regained control of the principality from outside forces and passed on his titles to Honoré V of Monaco.

Honoré V, Prince of Monaco (May 14, 1778 in Paris, France -October 2, 1841) was Sovereign Prince of Monaco. He was the son of Honoré IV of Monaco and Louise Felicite Victoire d'Aumont, Duchesse de Mazarin et de La Meilleraye. He was succeeded by his younger brother, Prince Florestan.

Huis ten Bosch Palace: the Queen’s home since 1981 located in the north-eastern part of The Hague

Hussein Bin Al Abdullah - is the eldest son of King Abdullah and Queen Rania of Jordan. Though he is still not announced as crown prince, he is expected to be the king's successor to the throne.

Hussein Bin Talal – late King of Jordan. He was the son of King Talal and Queen Zein of Jordan. A graduate of the Royal Military Academy Sandhurt, he was present (and almost killed) when his grandfather, King Abdullah I was assassinated. Known as the father of all Jordanians, he ruled for almost half a century before dying of cancer in 1999. He was married four times, although he was never married to one more than one woman at a time. His wives were Sharifa Dina bint 'Abdu'l-Hamid, Princess Muna Al Hussein, Alia Al Hussein, and Queen Noor of Jordan. He is also the father of Princess Alia, King Abdullah II of Jordan, Prince Faisal, Princess Aisha, Princess Zein, Abir Muhaisen (adopted), Princess Haya, Prince Ali, Prince Hamzah, Prince Hashim, Princess Iman, and Princess Raiyah.

Høiby, Marius Borg – Oldest son of Crown Princess Mette-Marit of Norway.
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Iman Bint Al Hussein – the daughter of the late King Hussein of Jordan and Queen Noor. She is a graduate of the Royal Military Academy Sandhurst.

Iman – the first daughter and second child of King Abdullah II and Queen Rania of Jordan

Imperial. Of a family which reigned over an Empire, such as the Habsburgs of Austria, the Romanovs of Russia and the Ottomans of Turkey. Today only the Imperial Family of Japan retains a throne.

Imperial Household Agency - The branch of the Japanese government concerned with matters relating to the imperial family. Before World War II it was known as the Imperial Household Ministry and was considerably larger than it is now. The IHA has considerable control over the imperial family and has been criticised for keeping the Emperor and his family aloof and distant from the people.

Imperial State Crown – Crown, worn annually by the Queen at the State Opening of the Parliament. The current Imperial State Crown was manufactured for the coronation of King George VI and is an exact replica of the earlier Imperial State Crown, manufactured for Queen Victoria. The Crown is also generally worn at the end of a coronation, when the new Monarch departs Westminster Abbey.

Don Iñaki Urdangarín Liebaert, Duke of Palma de Mallorca
He's the husband of the Infanta Cristina of Spain, Duchess of Palma de Mallorca and is styled as His Excellency The Duke of Palma de Mallorca. He was born (of Basque and Belgian descent) to Juan María Urdangarín Berriochoa and Claire Liebaert Courtain in Zumarraga, Guipúzcoa, Spain, but has spent almost all his life in Barcelona. He became Spain's most successful handball player, winning more than forty trophies. Meanwhile, he studied at the Escuela Superior de Administración y Dirección de Empresas (ESADE) in Barcelona, from which he received a master's degree in business administration. As a member of the Spanish handball team, he participated in the 1992, 1996, and 2000 Summer Olympics, serving as team captain in 2000. It was at the 1996 games in Atlanta that he met Infanta Cristina, whom he married in Barcelona on October 4th, 1997. They have four children.

In the Spanish and former Portuguese monarchies, Infante (masculine) or Infanta (feminine) is the title given to a son or daughter of the reigning monarch who is not the heir-apparent to the throne. Other, more distantly related, members of the Spanish and Portuguese royal families are also granted the title. The name derives from the same root as "infant," but this means simply "child" in Romance languages, and in this case indicates that the Infante or Infanta is the child of the monarch. The current Infantas of Spain are Leonor, the daughter of Prince Felipe and Princess Letizia, Elena and Cristina, daughters of King Juan Carlos and Queen Sofía, and Pilar and Margarita, daughters of Juan de Borbón, Count of Barcelona. Prince Felipe, son of King Juan Carlos, is heir apparent to the throne and therefore Prince of Asturias.

Ingrid Alexandra, Princess – Born 2004. Oldest child of Haakon and Mette-Marit of Norway. If Norway is still a monarchy at the time, she will be the first reigning queen in centuries.

Ingrid Victoria Sofia Louise Margareta, Queen of Denmark, née Princess of Sweden, born 1910. Died: 2000. Daughter of Gustav VI Adolf and Crown Princess Margareta of Sweden. Married to Frederik IX of Denmark. Children: Margrethe II, Benedikte & Anne-Marie.

HE Doña Irene Urdangarín y de Borbón
She's the youngest child and only daughter of Infanta Cristina and Iñaki Urdangarín. She was born on June 5th, 2005 in Barcelona.

Queen Isabel I of Castile, the Catholic
She was Queen regnant of Castile and Leon. She and her husband, Ferdinand II of Aragon, laid the foundation for the political unification of Spain under their grandson, Carlos I of Spain (Charles V, Holy Roman Emperor). The couple established a highly effective coregency under equal terms. They utilized a prenuptial agreement to lay down their terms. During their reign they supported each other effectively in accordance to their joint motto of equality: Tanto monta, monta tanto, Isabel como Fernando ("They amount to the same, Isabella and Ferdinand"). In addition to her sponsorship of Columbus, Isabella was also the principal sponsor of Gonzalo Fernández de Córdoba, the greatest military genius and innovator of the age. Isabella and Ferdinand's achievements are remarkable. Isabella and Ferdinand had five children.

Queen Isabel II of Spain
She was Queen regnant of Spain. Queen Isabel succeeded to the throne because Ferdinand VII induced the Cortes to assist him in setting aside the Salic law, which the Bourbons had introduced in the beginning of the 18th century, and to re-establish the older succession law of Spain. The brother of Ferdinand, Carlos, the first pretender, fought seven years, during the minority of Isabel, to dispute her title. Supporters of Carlos and his descendants were known as Carlists and the dispute over the succession was the subject of a number of Carlist Wars in the 19th century. She was married to her cousin, Prince Fernando I Francisco de Asis de Bourbon-Cadige. The couple had twelve children, but only four reached adulthood.

Infanta Doña Maria Isabel, Princess of Asturias
She was born as the eldest surviving child of the then-reigning Queen Isabel II of Spain. She was twice the recognized first heir to the throne of Spain. Isabela was immediately recognized as the heir to her mother's throne, by granting her the traditional crown-princely title of Asturias. When her only surviving brother, the future Alfonso XII of Spain was born in 1857, young Isabella moved to be the second-in-line to the throne, the boy becoming Prince of Asturias.
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Jacobites. The supporters of the legitimate Stuart succession (made ineligible by the Act of Settlement) who see the Duke of Bavaria, the senior descendant of the Stuarts and "representative and heir of King Charles I of England", as the rightful King of Great Britain. The claim will eventually pass to a future reigning Prince of Liechtenstein.

Don Jaime de Marichalar y Sáenz de Tejada, Duke of Lugo
He is the fourth of the six sons of Don Amalio de Marichalar y Bruguera, Conde de Ripalda, (who died in 1979) and his wife Doña Concepción Sáenz de Tejada y Fernández de Bobadilla. He was born in Pamplona on July 4, 1963. He studied at the Jesuit schools in Burgos, San Estanislao de Kostka in Madrid and Yago School in Dublin, Ireland. His higher education focused on Economics and he specialised in Business Management and Marketing, although he never got a degree. In 1986, he gained practical work experience in a number of financial businesses in Paris where he lived as a bachelor and during the early years of his marriage. After a number of years working in the international financial markets sector, in January 1998 he was appointed Managing Director's Senior Advisor for Credit Suisse First Boston in Madrid where the Duchess of Lugo and her husband have lived since then. He is also President of the Winterthur Foundation which promotes cultural activities. He married Infanta Elena of Spain on March 18th 1995 in the Seville Cathedral, and since then his styled HE The Duke of Lugo. They have two children.

Jaliliah Bint Al Ali – the daughter of Prince Ali and Princess Rym of Jordan

King James I (James VI of Scotland) – King of England, Scotland and Ireland, the first King of Great Britain. He succeeded the last Tudor Monarch, Elizabeth I, who died without issue.

Lady Jane Grey –The granddaughter of Henry VII’s sister Mary. Edward VI named Jane as his successor, ahead of his sisters, Princesses Mary and Elizabeth. Jane was Queen for only nine days, when Princess Mary, who was supported by the Army and people, entered London. Jane was arrested and later executed for treason, along with her husband and father.

Queen Jane (Jane Seymour) – Third wife of King Henry VIII, Jane was the only one, who managed to give him the son (Prince Edward, future Edward VI) he was longing. She died of post-natal complications.

Jazmin Grace Rotolo Grimaldi was born on March 4, 1992 in Palm Springs, California, United States). She is known for being the elder child of Albert II, Prince of Monaco.

Je Maintiendrai: (I will Maintain) motto on the Dutch royal coat of arms

Jean, Grand Duke of Luxembourg (1921-)-Born Prince Jean Benoit Guillaume Robert Antoine Louis Marie Adolphe Marc d'Aviano. Reigned from 1964-2000. Married Josephine-Charlotte, Princess of Belgium.
Princess Marie-Astrid Charlotte Leopoldine Wilhelmine Ingeborg Antoinette Elisabeth Anna Alberta
Prince Henri
Prince Jean
Princess Margaretha Antonia Marie Felicite
Prince Guillaume Marie Louis Christian

Jean-Baptiste Bernadotte - also known as Charles XIV John. Jean-Baptiste was born on January 26, 1763. He was in the French Army and by 1794 was a brigadier attached to the army of the Sambre et Meuse. On August 16, 1798 he married Désirée Clary, sister to Joseph Bonaparte’s wife. Jean-Baptiste and Désirée had one child, Oscar, born in 1799. In 1810 Bernadotte was picked to be the heir to King Charles XIII of Sweden. He succeeded to Charles in 1818. He died in Stockholm on March 8, 1844

Baron Jean-Léonard Taubert-Natta de Massy (3 June 1974) is a member of the extended Princely Family of Monaco.His mother, Elisabeth-Anne de Massy, is a daughter of Alexandre Noghès and HSH Princess Antoinette, Baroness de Massy. His father is Bernard Taubert-Natta.

Jean Raymond Gottlieb (b. 1967) is a former Paris gendarme and Palace Guard at the Palais Princier in Monaco.He was the Head of Security to Princess Stéphanie when they became lovers but resigned as bodyguard when the romance started. He is allegedly the father of her third child Camille who was born in 1998.

Jimmu – Jimmu was the first emperor and mythical founder of Japan. According to legend, he was born Wakamikenu no Mikoto on January 1, 711 BCE, a direct descendant of Amaterasu Omikami, the Sun Goddess. After defeating the opposing forces, he was proclaimed Emperor of Japan. Although it cannot be historically verified, it is said to have taken place in the 7th Century BC on 11 February 660 BC. He died March 11, 585 BCE. His posthumous name (Jimmu) means “devine might”.

Joachim Holger Waldemar Christian, Prince to Denmark, born 1969. Son of Margrethe II and Prince Henrik of Denmark. Married to Princess Alexandra of Denmark 1995-2005. Children: Nikolai and Felix. Lives at Schackenborg Manor, in Møgeltønder.

Prince Joachim of Belgium, Archduke of Austria-Este, Prince Imperial of Austria, Prince Royal of Hungary & Bohemia (1991-)-Born Prince Joachim Carl Maria Nikolaus Isabelle Marcus d'Aviano. Third child of Princess Astrid of Belgium and Archduke Lorenz of Austria-Este.

Josephine-Charlotte, Grand Duchess of Luxembourg (1927-2005)-Born Princess Josephine-Charlotte Ingeborg Elisabeth Marie-Jose Marguerite Astrid of Belgium. Married Grand Duke Jean of Luxembourg.
Princess Marie-Astrid Charlotte Leopoldine Wilhelmine Ingeborg Antoinette Elisabeth Anna Alberta
Prince Henri Albert Gabriel Felix Marie Guillaume
Prince Jean
Princess Margaretha Antonia Marie Felicite
Prince Guillaume Marie Louis Christian

King Juan Carlos of Spain
He was born 5 January 1938 in Rome and is the reigning King of Spain (Rey de España). On 22 November 1975, two days after the death of Francisco Franco, Juan Carlos was designated King according to the law of succession promulgated by Franco. He successfully oversaw the transition of Spain to a democratic constitutional monarchy. Juan Carlos' titles include King of Jerusalem, as successor to the royal family of Naples. He is also a direct descendant of Queen Victoria of the United Kingdom through his grandmother, Victoria Eugenie; of Louis XIV of France through the House of Bourbon; of the Emperor Charles V, who belonged to the Habsburg dynasty of the Holy Roman Empire; of the House of Savoy of Italy; etc. Besides Spanish, Juan Carlos speaks fluent English, French, Italian, Portuguese and Catalan. He is married to Queen Sofia, née Princess of Greece and they have three children.

HE Don Juan Filiberto Nicolás Gomez-Acebo y de Borbón, Vizconde de la Torre.
He's the oldest son of Infanta Pilar of Spain and Luis Gómez-Acebo y de Estrada, Vizconde de la Torre, who was a first cousin of Queen Margarita of Bulgaria. Besides being a Grandee of Spain, Juan Filiberto also bears the title of Vizconde (Viscount) od la Torre, title which he inherited from his father.

HE Don Juan Valentín Urdangarín y de Borbón
He's the oldest child of Infanta Cristina and Iñaki Urdangarín. He was born on September 29th, 1999 in Barcelona.

Juliana Welfare Fund [The Netherlands]: fund aimed to improve social welfare and encourage social cohesion.

Juni hitoe - The traditional robe worn for formal occasions by female members of the Japanese Imperial family. The name means "twelve layers," and the many-layered robe first appeared during the Heian era (794-1185). The number of layers was eventually reduced to five by sumptuary laws, and this is the number of layers worn today. The robes are worn over long red trousers called nagabakama, a type of hakama (see "Hakama" above).
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Kensington Palace – Royal Residence set in Kensington Gardens. Kensington Palace has been the residence of the British Royal Family since the 17th century. Nowadays it is the official residence of The Duke and Duchess of Gloucester, The Duke and Duchess of Kent, The Prince and Princess Michael of Kent and Zara Phillips. It was also the residence of Diana, Princess of Wales until her death.

Ceremony of the Keys – Ceremonies of the Keys are held in London and Edinburgh, as well as Gibraltar. Probably the most famous ceremony is the one that takes place every night at the Tower of London. This tradition comes from the 14th century with very slight changes.

Khaled Edward Blair (née Edward Blair) - Edward converted to Islam in May of 2004, taking the pre name Khaled. He married Princess Badiya Bint El Hassan in June of 2005. His father-in-law is Prince Hassan bin Talal (brother of the late King Hussein) and his mother-in-law is Princess Sarvath of Jordan

Kiko – Kiko Kawashima was born 11 September 1966. She married Prince Fumihito of Akishino of Japan on 29 June 1990. They have three children:
1) Mako of Akishino, born 23 October 23 1991.
2) Kako of Akishino, born 29 December 1994.
3) Hisahito of Akishino, born 6 September 2006.
See Fumihito.

Kiku - The Japanese name for the chrysanthemum, the symbol of the Japanese imperial house. The sixteen-petalled chrysanthemum (kiku) is the family crest (mon) of the imperial family and is also the pattern of the imperial seal of Japan (kiku no gomon).

Kimono – a term which means simply Japanese style clothing (see "Hakama" and "Juni hitoe" above). Empress Michiko regularly wears kimono while performing her official duties while the younger royals rarely do.

King Abdullah I Mosque, built between 1982 and 1989 in Amman, Jordan. It is capped by a blue mosaic dome beneath which 3,000 Muslims may offer prayer

King Crisis- Issue about the role of King Leopold III in World War II. The King remained in Switzerland. The crisis was eventually solved by an abdication

Kōkaku – Emperor Kōkaku of Japan was born 23 September 1771, son of Prince Kan'in-no-miya Sukehito, grandson of Emperor Higashiyama. His personal name was Morohito, but was later changed to Tomohito. His title was Sachi-no-miya. Being from an imperial collateral branch, he was expected to join the priesthood, but since he was adopted by the sonless and dying emperor Go-Momozono on his deathbed, he became the 119th Emperor of Japan on 16 December 1779. Kōkaku is the lineal ancestor of all the succeeding emperors of Japan, up to present monarch, Akihito. He abdicated in 1817 in favour of his son, Emperor Ninkō. He died 11 December 1840.

Kokyo - Imperial Palace of Japan, home of the Emperor of Japan. It was part of the former Edo Castle, surrounded by a moat and a huge stone wall. It is located in the centre of Tokyo. The palace was destroyed during the Second World War, but was later rebuild in the same style.

Koninginnedag: (Queen’s Day) The annual April 30 celebration of Queen Beatrix’s birthday

Kong Christian stod ved højen mast. Danish national anthem, used for royals.

Kongesangen – Norwegian royal anthem. Sung to the tune of “God save the King”.

Kongssetern – Private property of the Norwegian royal family. A manor house built in log-cabin traditional style – it is usually the setting for the Christmas celebrations.

Kousho Hajime - The ceremony of the Imperial New Year's lectures in Japan, a ceremony dating back to 1869. The ceremony takes place at the Imperial Palace in the presence of the emperor and members of the imperial family and involves lectures by experts in the fields of social and natural sciences

Kristina, Queen - Born December 8, 1626. Queen Regnant of Sweden from 1632 to 1654. She was the only legitimate child of King Gustav II Adolf and his wife Maria Eleonora of Brandenburg. At the age of 6, she succeeded her father to the throne of Sweden upon his death at the Battle of Lützen. When her father was alive he gave orders that Kristina should be brought up as a prince. Even as a child she displayed great precociousness. In 1649, when she was twenty-three, she invited the philosopher Descartes to Sweden to tutor her. Kristina also took the oath as king, not queen, because her father had wanted it so. Growing up, she was nicknamed the "Girl King". On June 5, 1654 Kristina abdicated her throne in order to practice openly her previously secret Catholicism, or to accept the same publicly so as to be at the center of a scientific and artistic renaissance. The sincerity of her conversion to Catholicism has been questioned. In 1651, the Jesuit Paolo Casati had been sent on a mission to Stockholm in order to gauge the sincerity of her intention to become Catholic. Her conversion was however not the only reason for her abdication, as there was increasing discontent with, in the words of her critics, her arbitrary and wasteful ways. Kristina died on April 19, 1689 in Rome.

Kronborg Castle – Castle in Elsinore/Helsingør, North of Copenhagen. Setting of Hamlet.

Kungeliga Slottet – Royal Palace in the middle of Stockholm. Main residence of the King and Queen

Kussnacht- In Switzerland, it was the location of the car-accident that caused Queen Astrid of Belgium's death.
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Laeken Castle- Residence of Prince Philippe and Princess Mathilde, Duke and Duchess of Brabant and their family

Princess Laetitia Maria of Belgium, Archduchess of Austria-Este, Princess Imperial of Austria, Princess Royal of Hungary & Bohemia (2003-)-Born Princess Laetitia Maria Nora Anna Joachim Zita. Fifth child of Princess Astrid of Belgium and Archduke Lorenz of Austria-Este.

Duke of Lancaster - As the current British Monarch, Queen Elizabeth II is also the Duke of Lancaster. The Duchy of Lancaster is not property of the Crown, but the personal property of the monarch, and has been so since 1399, when it merged with the Crown.

Laura Lopes – The daughter of The Duchess of Cornwall and Andrew Parker Bowles, step-daughter of The Prince of Wales. Laura married Harry Lopes, the grandson of the 2nd Baron Roborough and the 2nd Baron Astor of Hever.

Prince Laurent of Belgium (1963-)-Born Prince Laurent Benoit Baudouin Marie. Third child of King Albert II and Queen Paola of the Belgians. Married Claire Coombs. 3 Children

Lech: winter resort in Austria where the Dutch royal family has visited since the 1930s for skiing holidays.

Ledaal – The Norwegian King’s Residence in Stavanger, from 1949. Owned by Stavanger Municipality, but made available to the royal family.

Leiden: University of young queens and king. Queen Juliana, Queen Beatrix and Prince-Willem Alexander were educated here.

Infanta Leonor of Spain
She was born 31 October 2005, in Madrid, and is the first child of Prince Felipe and Princess Letizia, and thus second in the line of succession to the Spanish throne after her father. As the daughter of the heir to the throne, she is styled and titled Her Royal Highness, Infanta of Spain. Her birth has sparked discussion of a revision of the Spanish Constitution of 1978 to abolish the precedence of male heirs over their older sisters. In this case, she could become heir apparent when her father is king, and would then in all likelihood become Queen Eleanor (Leonor) I of Spain (except for Navarre, where she would be Eleanor II - there was a queen Eleanor in the 15th century).

Leopold I, King of the Belgians (1790-1865)-Born Prince Leopold George Christian Frederik of Saxe-Coburg-Saalfeld, Duke in Saxony. First King of the Belgians. Reigned from 1831-1865. Married Princess Charlotte Augusta of Wales. Marriage was childless. Married Princess Louise-Marie of Orleans. 4 Children

Leopold II, King of the Belgians (1835-1909)-Born Prince Loepold Louis-Philippe Marie Victor. Married Marie Henriette, Princess Imperial & Archduchess of Austria, Princess Royal of Hungary & Bohemia. 4 Children

Leopold III, King of the Belgians (1901-1983)-Born Prince Leopold Philippe Charles Albert Meinrad Hubertus Marie Miguel. Reigned from 1934-1951. Married Princess Astrid of Sweden. 3 children from this marriage. After the death of his first wife he married Mary Lillian Baels. 3 children from second marriage.

Doña Letizia, Princess of Asturias
She was born as Letizia Ortiz Rocasolano on September 15, 1972 in Oviedo, Spain to Jesús Ortiz Álvarez, a journalist, and Paloma Rocasolano Rodríguez, a registered nurse and also a hospital union representative. Letizia attended school at the La Gesta school in Oviedo, before her family moved to Madrid, where she attended high school at the Ramiro de Maeztu high school. At school, she met Alonso Guerrero, a teacher of language and literature, ten years her senior, with whom she started a long-term relationship that culminated on a civil wedding in August 1998 - Letizia was 25 years old. The couple divorced one year later. Letizia's first wedding happened at the same time of her parents' divorce. She completed a Bachelor’s Degree in Journalism at the Complutense University of Madrid, as well as a Master’s Degree in Audiovisual Journalism at the Institute for Studies in Audiovisual Journalism. In 2000 Letizia reported from Washington, DC on the presidential elections. In September 2001 she broadcast live from Ground Zero following the 9/11 attacks in New York and in 2003 she filed reports from Iraq following the war. In 2002 she sent several reports from Galicia in northern Spain following the ecological disaster when the oil tanker Prestige sank. Letizia got married to Prince Felipe on May 22nd, 2004 at Almudena Cathedral in Madrid. The couple has a daughter, Infanta Leonor, and another one whose birth is expected to May, 2007.

Liechtenstein, Principality of. The only country in the world that bears the name of its ruling family. The House Laws of the Princely Family form part of the Liechtenstein Constitution

Liege, Prince/Princess of- Title held by King Albert II and Queen Paola during the reign of King Baudouin.

Lilian, Princess - Princess Lilian of Sweden, Duchess of Halland was born Lillian May Davies on August 30, 1915 in Swansea, Wales. She is the daughter of William and Gladys Mary Davies. For a short time in the 1940s Lilian was married to actor Ian Craig. In 1943 she met Prince Bertil of Sweden, Duke of Halland and uncle to the current King of Sweden. The prince was barred from marrying a commoner, they were not allowed to marry for more than 30 years. One December 7, 1976 after receiving royal permission, Lilian and Bertil were married at the Palace Church of Drottningholm Palace in the presence of the King and Queen. Lilian has been a widow since 1997 when Bertil died.

Lilian Baels, Princess de Rethy (1916-2002)-Born Mary Lilian Baels. Second wife of King Leopold III. 3 Children

Line of the Succession to the British Throne – The line of the succession to the British Throne is determined by legitimate birth, male primogeniture and religion. First 11 people in the line of the succession: Prince Charles - Prince William - Prince Henry - Prince Andrew - Princess Beatrice - Princess Eugenie - Prince Edward - Lady Louise - Princess Anne - Peter Phillips - Zara Phillips. The Entire Line of the Succession.

Line to throne (Danish): Crown Prince Frederik, Prince Christian, Prince Joachim, Prince Nikolai, Prince Felix, Princess Benedikte, Princess Elisabeth

Line to throne (Monegasque): Princess Caroline, Andrea Casiraghi, Pierre Casiraghi, Charlotte Casiraghi, Princess Alexandra, Princess Stephanie, Louis Ducruet, Pauline Ducruet

Line to throne (Norwegian), Crown Prince Haakon, Princess Ingrid Alexandra, Prince Sverre Magnus, Princess Märtha Louise, Maud Angelica Behn, Leah Isadora Behn.

Lockhead Scandal: scandal that resulted from a $1.1 million bribe from this U.S. aircraft manufacturer in 1976 to Prince Bernhard in exchange for his influencing the Dutch government to purchase their fighter aircraft. While there was no criminal prosecution, the Prince resigned from most of his military, business and charity work.

Lodewijk Napoleon: first king of Holland, absorber of the throne while the Oranges fled to London

Lonely but not Alone: (Eenzaam, maar niet alleen) autobiography of Queen Wilhelmina

Lorentzen, Erling Sven – husband to Princess Ragnhild of Norway.

Louis, Prince of Luxembourg (1986-)-Third child of Grand Duke Henri and Grand Duchess Maria Teresa of Luxembourg. Married Tessy Antony. Renounced rights to the throne upon his marriage. Son: Gabriel Michel Louis Ronny de Nassau.

Louis II, Prince of Monaco (12 July 1870 – 9 May 1949) was the Sovereign Prince of Monaco from 26 June 1922 until 9 May 1949. It has been asserted that Louis has married Juliette in 1897: there is, however, no evidence for this allegation. They have an illegitimate daughter Charlotte Louise Juliette, born on 30 September 1898 in Constantine, Algeria. In 1946 he married Ghislaine Dommanget (1900 - 1991), a French film actress

Louis Robert Paul Ducruet was born in Monaco on 26 November 1992, the son of Princess Stéphanie of Monaco and Daniel Ducruet, a former Palace bodyguard.

Princess Louise of Belgium (2004-)-Born Princess Louise Sophie Mary. First child of Prince Laurent and Princess Claire of Belgium

Louise-Hippolyte, Princess of Monaco (1697-1731) is the ancestress of the current reigning royal family of Monaco. At the age of 18 she married James d'Estouville and went on to have five children. She acceded the throne of Monaco in 1731 and died the same year.

The Lady Louise Mountbatten-Windsor – The youngest granddaughter of Queen Elizabeth and The Duke of Edinburgh, legally Lady Louise is H.R.H. Princess Louise of Wessex (in the absence of a Letter Patent). She was born prematurely, via emergency Caesarean.

The Loyal Toast [UK]- The first toast at a formal gathering. In the Duchy of Lancaster, it is "The Queen, The Duke of Lancaster" while at the Channel Islands, it is "La Reine, notre Duc" or "The Queen, our Duke."

Princess Luisa Maria of Belgium, Archduchess of Austria-Este, Princess Imperial of Austria, Princess Royal of Hungary & Bohemia (1995-)-Born Princess Luisa Maria Anna Martine Pilar. Fourth child of Princess Astrid of Belgium and Archduke Lorenz of Austria-Este.
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Madeleine -Her Royal Highness Princess Madeleine, Duchess of Hälsingland and Gästrikland was born on June 10, 1982. She is the second daughter and youngest child of King Carl XVI Gustaf and Queen Silvia. In the fall of 2001, Madeleine spent some time in the United Kingdom studying English. For a few months in 2006 Madeleine spent time in New York City, New York for a trainee program at UNICEF. Madeleine is currently dating Jonas Bergström.

Magna Carta – ‘The Great Charter of Freedoms’ was the most significant influence that led to the rule of constitutional law. Magna Carta required the King to renounce certain rights, respect certain legal procedures and accept that the will of the King could be bound by law.

Princess Margaret – The younger daughter of King George VI and Queen Elizabeth, The Queen Mother and sister of Queen Elizabeth II. Princess Margaret was perhaps the most glamorous and controversial member of the British Royal Family at her time. She died in February 2002.

Margaretha, Princess of Liechtenstein (1957-)-Born Princess Margaretha Antonia Marie Felicite of Luxembourg. Fourth child of Grand Duke Jean & Grand Duchess Josephine-Charlotte. Married Prince Nikolaus of Liechtenstein. 4 Children

Infanta Doña Margarita of Spain - She is the youngest sister of current reigning King Juan Carlos of Spain. Doña Margarita has been blind since birth. She's married to Don Carlos Emilio Juan Zurita y Delgado (a medical doctor). They have two children. King Juan Carlos has granted Doña Margarita the title of Duchess of Soria.

Margrethe II, Queen – Born 1940. Oldest daughter of Frederik IX and Ingrid of Denmark. Not in line to the throne at the time of birth, but after a referendum in 1953, she and her sisters moved ahead of her uncle and his sons in the line. Married to Prince Henrik. Two sons. Inherited the throne in 1972.

Queen Maria Christina of Spain, Princess Imperial and Archduchess of Austria, Princess Royal of Hungary and Bohemia
She was the second Queen consort of King Alfonso XII of Spain and was Queen Regent of Spain during the minority of her son Alfonso XIII and during the abeyancy of the throne before his birth. She was a daughter of Archduke Karl Ferdinand and his wife, Archduchess Elisabeth Franziska of Austria. Maria Christina married King Alfonso XII of Spain at the Royal Palace in Madrid, and became the mother of his only three legitimate children: Infanta Mercedes, Princess of Asturias, Infanta Maria Teresa of Spain, and Alfonso (born posthumously).

Princess Maria Laura of Belgium, Archduchess of Austria-Este, Princess Imperial of Austria, Princess Royal of Hungary & Bohemia (198:cool:-Born Princess Maria Laura Zita Beatrix Gerhard. Second child of Princess Astrid of Belgium and Archduke Lorenz of Austria-Este.

Maria Teresa, Grand Duchess of Luxembourg (1956-)-Born Maria Teresa Mestre. Married Hereditary Grand Duke Henri of Luxembourg. 5 Children

Marie-Adelaide, Grand Duchess of Luxembourg (1894-1924)-Born Princess Marie-Adelaide Therese Hilda Wilhelmine. Eldest child of Grand Duke Guillaume IV and Grand Duchess Maria Anna of Luxembourg. Reigned from 1912 until her abdication in 1919.

Archduchess Marie-Astrid, Princess Imperial of Austria, Princess Royal of Hungary & Bohemia, Princess of Luxembourg (1954-)-Born Princess Marie-Astrid Charlotte Leopoldine Wilhelmine Ingeborg Antoinette Elisabeth Anna Alberta. Married Archduke Carl-Christian of Austria. 5 Children

Marie Juliette Louvet (May 9, 1867 – September 24, 1930) was partner of Prince Louis II of Monaco and was the mother of his only child, Princess Charlotte of Monaco. Juliette Louvet became an entertainer of sorts, reportedly a cabaret singer (other sources identify her as a laundress and a dressmaker), then was Prince Louis' lover. She gave birth to their daughter, Charlotte, in Algeria on September 30, 1898.

Palacio de Marivent
Built back in 1923 by the architect Guillem Fortesa, the palace was built at a high rocky coastal promontory over the city of Palma, originally planned to be an art museum, according to the expressed wishes of Juan de Saridakis and his wife, madame Mounier. The restoration works were supervised by Queen Sofia herself. Small changes were made however, in order to preserve its global simplicity and respect the inner architecture of the palace. Thirty years later, the image of the Royal Family enjoying its summer vacations has been tied to the palace of Marivent and the island of Mallorca; a tradition that all the major institutions of that Independent Community want to preserve at any rate. Anticipating the royal family’s growth, the Government of the Balearic Islands signed, in the 90’s, an agreement with the Ministry of Defence, through which the bordering lands around the palace should be available to the Royal family, during the upcoming 100 years. It was the culmination of two years of negotiations between the President of that Independent Community and the Minister of Defence. Thanks to these conversations, it was possible that the heir to the throne had his own residence within the enclosure of Marivent; a slightly larger house than the two pavilions occupied by his sisters, Infantas Elena and Cristina, and their respective families.

Marquis of Baux (French: Marquis des Baux) is one of the Prince of Monaco's many hereditary titles, and one which is usually also given to the reigning Prince's eldest son. It was originally associated with the town of Les Baux de Provence, but later lost its administrative authority when control of the town reverted to France.

Marseilisborg – Queen Margrethe’s residence near Århus. Usually Easter or Christmas is spent here.

Mary, Crown Princess - Born Mary Elizabeth Donaldson. Married Frederik of Denmark in 2004. One child, with another on the way.

Queen Mary of Teck – The Consort of George V, Queen of the United Kingdom and Empress of India. Queen Mary set the tone of the Royal Family as the model of regal formality and proprierty. Queen Mary left collection of jewels, which is now considered priceless.

Queen Mary I (Bloody Mary) – The daughter of Henry VIII and Catherine of Aragon. A fierce catholic, Mary tried to bring back the Catholic religion during her reign by mass religious executions, which gained her the epithet ‘Bloody Mary’.

Queen Mary II – Reigned jointly with her husband, William III after the deposition of her father, the Catholic King James II. As Mary and William had no issue, the Throne was passed to Mary’s sister Anne.

Queen Mary of Scotland – Queen of Scotland and Queen Consort of France. Mary became Queen after her father’s death. She was raised in the French Court and married Prince Francois of France, who soon became King Francois II of France. After Francois’s death, she returned to Scotland. Mary was also the next in the line to the English throne. After revolts in Scotland, she flew to England, where she asked her rival, Elizabeth I, for shelter. She spent next 20 years in prison, but after taking part in conspiracy against Queen Elizabeth, she was executed on charges of treason.

Masahito - The given name of Prince Hitachi, the younger brother of Emperor Akihito of Japan.

Masako - Masako Owada was born 9 December 1963, the daughter of Hisashi Owada, a senior diplomat. She married Crown Prince Naruhito of Japan 9 June 1993. They have one daughter, Princess Aiko, born 1 December 2001. The Imperial Household Agency announced in 2004 that Masako was suffering from adjustment disorder, a stress-induced mental condition associated with her Crown Princess status, pregnancy, miscarriage, and busy life.

Master of Ceremonies: The office of the Dutch Master of Ceremonies coordinates important Court events and visits abroad, including state visits.
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Princess Mathilde of Belgium, Duchess of Brabant (1973-)-Born Mathilde d'Udekem d'Acoz. Married Prince Philippe of Belgium, Duke of Brabant. 3 Children

Empress Matilda (Maud)– As the only surviving child of King Henry I, Matilda was the heir to the English Throne, however English Barons supported Henry’s nephew Stephen. After a number of battles between Matilda’s and Stephen’s supporters they agreed that Stephen will be succeeded by Matilda’s eldest son, Henry (future Henry II, the first of Plantagenet dynasty). Matilda was the fist ever female ruler of the Kingdom of England (though not crowned).

Maud, Queen – born Princess Maud of Wales, at Sandringham. Daughter of King Edward VII and Queen Alexandra. Married to her cousin Carl, Prince of Denmark. Only child, Alexander, born 1903 (see. Olav V, king of Norway) Queen of Norway from 1905 until her death in 1938. It is through her that the Norwegian royals are in line to the British throne.

Maundy Money – A special British coinage given to deserving poor people in a religious ceremony, performed by Anglicans on Maundy Thursday (Thursday before Easter). Edward II was the first King to actively taking part in the give-away ceremony. In 2006 Queen Elizabeth II turned 80, so 80 men and 80 women each received 80 pence in Maundy Money on April 13.

Maurits Post: architect for Stadtholder William III of Orange from 1672 until his early death in 1677. Famous buildings include Slot Amerongen and the 3 Royal palaces; Soestjik Palace, Huis ten Bosch Palace and Noordeinde Palace.

May 17th – Norway’s National Day, commemorates the signing of the Norwegian Constitution on May 17th, 1814. The Crown Prince’s family start by greeting the Children’s parade to their home, Skaugum, and then later in the day the royal family greet the Children’s parade of Oslo from the Palace balcony.

Meiji - Emperor Meiji was born 3 November 1852, the son of Emperor Komei and Nakayama Yoshiko, a lady-in-waiting. He was formally adopted by Asako Ny?g?, the principal consort of Emperor K?mei, on 11 July 1860. His personal name was Mutsuhito. He acceded to the throne on 3 February 1867 at the age of fourteen as the 122nd Emperor of Japan. The era was changed to Meiji or Enlightened Rule which was later used for his posthumous name. See Meiji Restoration.

Meiji restoration -The restoration of the emperor as the pre-eminent ruler after the end of the Tokugawa shogunate, and during which the emperor was a figurehead for the real ruler, one of the shoguns of the Tokugawa family. The defeat of the shoguns and the opening of Japan to international trade by Commodore Perry marked the beginning of the modern era in Japan.

Mélanie de Lusignan was born in Monaco on January 18, 1985 and is the daughter of Baroness Elisabeth-Anne de Massy and her second husband Nicolai de Lusignan. She lost her place in the line of succession to the Monegasque Throne on the death of Prince Rainier.

Mette-Marit, Crown Princess – Born 1973. Married to Crown Prince Haakon of Norway. One son born outside of marriage, Marius, and two children with Haakon.

Michiko - Michiko Shōda was born 20 October 1934, the daughter of Hidesaburo Shoda and Fumiko Soejima. When she married Crown Prince Akihito of Japan on 10 April 1959, she was the first commoner to marry into the Imperial family. She became Empress consort in 1989. They have three children:
1) Crown Prince Naruhito, born 23 February 1960.
2) Prince Akishino (Fumihito), born 30 November 1965.
3) The former Princess Nori (Sayako), born 18 April 1969.

Middleton, Kate (Catherine Elizabeth, born 9 January 1982). A Princess in the making? The Berkshire girlfriend of Prince William of Wales who keeps a determinably low profile, and is demonstrating staying power. Looks set for the long haul.

HE Don Miguel Urdangarín y de Borbón
He is the third son of Infanta Cristina and Iñaki Urdangarin, he was born on April 30th, 2002 in Barcelona.

Mikasa - Prince Mikasa (Takahito) is the youngest brother of Emperor Showa (Hirohito) of Japan and is presently the oldest surviving member of the imperial family. He was born on 2 December 1915 and, after being educated at the Gakushuin School, joined the Japanese army. Prince Mikasa married Yoriko Takagi, the daughter of a nobleman, on 22 October 1941. They had three sons and two daughters. The daughters left the imperial family when they were married; two of the sons are fathers of daughters, and the third son is unmarried, so there are no heirs to the throne in the present generation of the Mikasa branch of the imperial family. After the war, Prince Mikasa studied archaeology and Middle Eastern studies, and has held several faculty and honorary positions in these subjects.

Military Order of William: highest civilian decoration bestowed by the House of Orange

Mistress of the Robes: The Mistress of the Robes maintains social contacts on behalf of the Dutch Queen, for instance with heads of diplomatic missions and members of the International Court of Justice. She also accompanies the Queen on visits abroad.
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Palacio de la Moncloa
It's is the official residence for the Prime Minister of Spain since 1977, when Adolfo Suárez moved the residence from a palace situated in the centre of Madrid, at Paseo de la Castellana. The residence is surrounded by several other buildings which altogether form the Moncloa complex. The ministry of the president is situated in this complex, as well as the vice presidencies (when they exist) and the press office. The palace used to belong to the Duke of Moncloa, the palace's namesake. The palace itself was completely destroyed during the Spanish Civil War and it was later rebuilt.

Duke of Montblanc
The title was created by King Juan I, when he gave it to his brother Martin in 1387. Since then, it became the official title of the heir of the kingdoms of Aragon, together with Prince of Gerona. Prince Felipe is the first Borbon to carry the title.

Mother of the Resistance: name given to Queen Wilhelmina during WWII. She received all the dutch who escaped to England & intended to fight the Germans.

The Motto – Dieu et mon droit (God and my right) has generally been used as the Motto of the British Monarch. It refers to the Monarch’s divine right to govern. It is emblazoned on the Royal Coat of Arms of the United Kingdom. Royal Motto of Carl XVI Gustaf: För Sverige i tiden (in English: "For Sweden, with the times")

Muna Al-Hussein – was born Antoinette ‘Toni”Gardiner in England. The second wife of the late King Hussein of Jordan, she was never named Queen though she was the wife of a King. She is the mother of King Abdullah II of Jordan, Prince Faisal, Princess Aisha and Princess Zein. She and King Hussein divorced on December 21, 1971. Princess Muna was allowed to remain Her Royal Highness Princess Muna al-Hussein of Jordan after her divorce.

Märtha, Crown Princess – Born Princess of Norway and Sweden in 1901. Princess of Sweden from 1905. Married Crown Prince Olav of Norway. Three children. Died in 1954.

Märtha Louise, Princess – Born 1971. Daughter of King Harald and Queen Sonja of Norway. Married to Ari Behn. Two daughters.

Mågerø – The king and queen of Norway’s summer house at Tjøme.
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NadwaPalace - The Arabic for Nadwa means "the assembly expanse". Nadwa was the private home of His Royal Highness Prince Nayef Bin Abdullah of Jordan. In 1980, it was renovated to become the home of Their Majesties King Hussein and Queen Noor, and remained so until their move to Bab As-Salaam. Today, Nadwa serves as a guest palace.

Nagano - Princess Kuni Nagano was born 6 March 1903, daughter of Prince Kuni Kuniyoshi. She was Crown Princess, then Empress Consort to Emperor Hirohito of Japan on his accession to the throne 25 December 1925. She was the longest living empress consort in Japanese history. She was Empress Dowager from January 1989 to June 2000. She is the mother of Emperor Akihito. She died 16 June 2000 and she is known posthumously as Empress Kōjun.

Name Day - On the seventh Day, Imperial tradition has it that the current emperor chooses the name and title of the children of his eldest son and heir. Emperor Akihito chose Aiko’s name for it’s meaning, “Child of Love.” Her title, Princess Toshi means “She who respects others.” Both names were written on traditional Japanese paper by Emperor Akihito himself and placed on Aiko’s pillow. Prince Hisahito, born on 6 September 2006, is currently third in line to succeed to the throne. His name means "serene and virtuous." In a traditional ceremony, a royal attendant pours water over the baby prince(ss) in a cedar tub, as scholars in ancient court dress plucked at strings of wooden bows and a court-appointed official read passages from the ancient Nihon Shoki. The Nihon Shoki, which was completed in 720 AD, is the oldest official history of Japan.

Nara - Nara was the capital city of Japan during the Nara Period of Japanese history (710 to 784 AD). It was established as the capital by Empress Genmei; at the time it was known as Heijo-kyo. This was a time of Japanese history when the country was very heavily influenced by Chinese culture; the city was patterned after the capital city of Tang dynasty China. During the Nara Period, Buddhism became a prominent religion after being embraced by Emperor Shomu. The Nihon Shoki (see above) was written during this period.

Naruhito - Crown Prince Naruhito of Japan was born 23 February 1960, the son of Emperor Akihito and Empress Michiko. He married Masako Owada 9 June 1993. They have one daughter, Princess Aiko, born 1 December 2001.

Nassau- "of Nassau" is the traditional surname used by the Grand Ducal Family

Nassau, Count/Countess of- title held by Prine Jean of Luxembourg, his wife Helene and their children, prior to being raised to the title of Prince/Princess of Nassau

National Anthem – “God Save the Queen” is a patriotic hymn, the Royal anthem of the British Royal Family as well as the Royal anthem of a number of Commonwealth Realms.

National Day – Monaco: On November 19th, Monaco celebrates its National Holiday with spectacular fireworks over the harbor the evening before and a mass in the Cathedral the next morning. An excellent opportunity to see the pomp and circumstance of the Principality, visitors can see the Knights of Malta, distinguished ambassadors, consuls and state officials decked out in medal-laden uniforms as they congregate in the Place St. Nicholas after the mass. Then it is off to the Prince’s Palace where onlookers can see the Princely family wave to the crowd from the windows of the palace.

National Day- The Belgian Royal Family helps to mark National Day on July 21 each year.

Nazi Occupation: German invasion of May 10, 1940 brought Holland into WWII and sent the Royal Family into exile in Canada

Nieuwe Kerk (New Church): crypt of the Dutch Royal Family located in this Delft church

Nihon Shoki - Oldest official history of Japan completed in 720 AD.

Nobel Prize - Awarded annually to those who have completed outstanding research, those who invented ground-breaking techniques or equipment, or made an outstanding contribution to society in physics, chemistry, literature, peace, medicine or physiology and economics. Alfred Nobel instituted the prize through his will. The first prize was handed out in 1901. With the exception of the Peace Prize all prizes are presented by the King of Sweden.

Noor Al Hussein– the fourth wife and widow of the late King Hussein of Jordan. Prior to her marriage, she was known as Lisa Najeeb Halaby. Before her marriage, she converted to Islam, and her first name was changed from Lisa to Noor, an Arabic word meaning "light". She is the mother of Prince Hamzah, Prince Hashim, Princess Iman and Princess Raiyah

Nooredeinde Palace: Previous royal residence in The Hague built in 1550 Since 1984, it has been the Queen’s place of work

Norge – The Norwegian royal yacht

North Star, The order of - The Order of the North Star (also known as The Order of the Polar Star) is a Swedish Royal order of chivalry that was created by King Frederick I of Sweden on February 23, 1748, together with the Order of the Sword and the Order of the Seraphim. Its motto is, Nescit Occasum which means "it knows no decline". Up until 1975, the Order of the Polar Star was a reward for Swedish and foreign "civic merits, for devotion to duty, for science, literary, learned and useful works and for new and beneficial institutions". Since 1975 the order is only awarded to foreigners and members of the royal family.

Norway. A Kingdom with a dynasty founded by a Danish Prince and an English Princess. Set a curious precedent by denying the HRH to its newest Prince in 2005.

Official Websites – The official web site of the British Monarchy –, the official web site of The Prince of Wales -

Olav V, King – Né Prince Alexander Edward Christian Frederik of Denmark, at Appleton House, Sandringham, England in 1903. His parents, Prince Carl and Princess Maud of Denmark, gave him the name Olav upon their acceptance of the Norwegian crown, as it was a traditional royal Norwegian name. Married his cousin Märtha of Sweden in 1929. 3 children: King Harald V, Princess Ragnhild Mrs. Lorentzen and Princess Astrid Mrs. Ferner. Assumed the throne upon his father’s death in 1957 He died in 1991.

Oldenburg. A quiet achiever among dynasties, whose members acquired thrones in Germany, Denmark, Sweden, Russia, Greece and Norway, and will claim Britain as one of theirs when a descendant of Prince Philip of Greece, aka the Duke of Edinburgh, assumes the throne.

Olympics - Where King Carl XVI Gustaf and Queen Silvia met. 1972 Summer Olympics in Munich, Germany

Omiyamairi – At three months of age, the heir(ess) takes part in an ancient rite called Omiyamairi to give her/him a healthy life. Wearing garments given to her/him at birth by her/his grandparents, s/he is presented to three shrines on the Imperial Palace grounds. There, a lady-in-waiting holds the Prince(ss) while her/his parents wait separately until the ritual is over. After the shrine visit, the Prince(ss) is formally presented to her/his grandparents as an official member of the Imperial family. This ceremony includes a ritual in which the Emperor and the Prince(ss) pretend to drink rice wine from a single cup.

Opening of the Parliament – An annual event held usually in October or November. The Queen (or King) makes her speech, wearing Imperial State Crown. The speech outlines the Government’s legislative agenda for the year.

Orange-Nassau: The dynasty was established as a result of the marriage of Hendrik III of Nassau-Breda from Germany and Claudia of Chalon-Orange from French Burgundy. This union created the new family name "Orange-Nassau and began 500 years of this family’s central role in the political life of the Netherlands that continues today. In 1815, after a long period as a republic, the Netherlands became a monarchy under the House of Orange-Nassau. The house also supplied a British Monarch, King William III.

Order of Precedence – An order of precedence is a sequential hierarchy of nominal importance of people. Separate orders exist for males and females. The Sovereign is always the first in the Order of Precedence; his female consort is first in the Female Order. Male Consort is usually granted precedence above all other males by Letters Patent.

Oscarshall – a pleasure palace from the mid 19th century. Situated near the Oslofjord. Built by Oscar I. Owned by the Norwegian state.

Ottawa Civic Hospital: Birthplace of Princess Margriet. Julianna’s rooms in the hospital were officially declared Dutch soils so that the new baby could have single citizenship and remain in line of succession to the Dutch throne.

It is the capital city of the Principality of Asturias in northern Spain. It is also the name of the municipality that contains the city and the administrative and commercial centre of the region. The city also hosts the annual Prince of Asturias Awards, held in the Campoamor Theatre. The Oviedo University's International Campus attracts a handful of foreign scholars. Oviedo is also Princess Letizia's hometown.
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HE Don Pablo Nicolás Sebastián Urdangarín y de Borbón
He's the second son of Infanta Cristina and Iñaki Urdangarin. He was born on December 6, 2000 in Barcelona.

House of Palatinate-Zweibrücken (Pfalz-Zweibrücken) - The Royal House of Sweden from 1654 to 1720.

Palma de Mallorca Palma is the major city and port in the island of Mallorca and capital city of the autonomous community of the Balearic Islands in Spain. It is situated on the south coast of the island on the Bay of Palma. Almost half of the total population of Mallorca live in Palma. The Marivent Palace was offered by the city to the then Prince Juan Carlos I of Spain. The royals have since spent their summer holidays in Palma. Palma is also the location chosen by the Spanish Royal Family to spend their Easter holidays and to attend Easter mass.

Parma, Prince of- Title held by male members of the Luxembourg Grand Ducal Family

Pauline Grace Maguy Ducruet is the daughter of HSH Princess Stéphanie of Monaco and Daniel Ducruet and was born on 4 May 1994.

Peter Phillips – The son of Princess Anne and Mark Phillips and eldest grandson of the Queen and Prince Philip.

Prince Philip, Duke of Edinburgh – Consort of Queen Elizabeth II. He was born Prince Philippos of Greece and Denmark but abandoned the titles to serve in the Royal Navy and renounced them in 1947. Prince Philip was created Duke of Edinburgh prior to his marriage to Princess Elizabeth.

Prince Philippe, Duke of Brabant (1960-)-Born Prince Philippe Leopold Louis Marie. Current heir to the throne. Married Mathilde d'Udekem d'Acoz. 3 Children

Prince Pierre of Monaco, Duke of Valentinois, Count of Polignac (24 October 1895 – 10 November 1964) is best known for having been the father of Rainier III of Monaco, and thus the paternal grandfather of Albert II of Monaco.Born Count Pierre Marie Xavier Raphael Antoine Melchior de Polignac, he was a son of Count Maxence de Polignac (1857-1936) and his Mexican-born Spanish wife, Susana de la Torre y Mier (1858-1913).He married Princess Charlotte of Monaco (née Charlotte Louise Juliette Louvet), the illegitimate and later adopted daughter of Louis II of Monaco and Marie Juliette Louvet.

Pierre Rainier Stefano Casiraghi (born September 5, 1987) is the youngest child of HRH Princess Caroline of Hanover and her second husband, Stefano Casiraghi. He is named for his maternal great-grandfather, Prince Pierre of Monaco, his maternal grandfather, Prince Rainier III of Monaco, and his father.

Infanta Doña Pilar of Spain - She's the oldest sister of current reigning King Juan Carlos of Spain. She married Don Luis Gomez-Acebo y de Estrada, Vizconde de la Torre (deceased). They had five children. King Juan Carlos has granted Doña Pilar the title of Duchess of Badajoz.

Pingo – nickname of Crown Prince Frederik of Denmark.

Precious Crown, Order of - The Order of the Precious Crown is conferred by the Japanese emperor and is restricted to female recipients. It has eight classes, the first of which is reserved for royalty. This order was instituted by Emperor Meiji in 1888. Since 2003, when the Order of the Rising Sun was expanded to include female recipients, the Order of the Precious Crown has been awarded only to female dignitaries from other countries.

Prince consort - Spouse of a reigning queen. Current prince consorts in Europe are Prince Phillip, the Duke of Edinburgh and Prince Henrik of Denmark.

The Prince of Wales (title) – Title, bestowed to the eldest son of the Monarch. The Prince of Wales is Heir Apparent to the Throne. The current Prince of Wales is Prince Charles. There is no title of Princess of Wales by birth. Female heirs to the throne are considered Heir Presumptive to the Throne. A Princess of Wales is the wife of The Prince of Wales. The current Princess of Wales is Camilla, The Princess of Wales.

The Princess Royal (title) – Title, traditionally (but not automatically) bestowed to the eldest daughter of the British Monarch. The title is held for life. There have been seven Princesses Royal in History. The current Princess Royal is Princess Anne.

Principality. A state ruled by a Prince. Once there were dozens; today Andorra is a principality in name only while Liechtenstein and Monaco have Reigning Princes with real power. Some principalities, such as Serbia and Bulgaria, raised themselves to Kingdoms

Prinsehytta – A cabin in the Norwegian mountains. Given to Crown Prince Olav of Norway by Swedish princes, as a coming of age present.

Prinsjesdag: annual opening of Dutch parliament when the Queen delivers her Speech from the Throne to a joint session of the Senate and House of Representatives

Pseudonyms - Sometimes a royal wants to be acknowledged for what they can do, rather who their ancestors are. For example Queen Margrethe of Denmark used the pseudonym Ingahild Grathmer when illustrating the Danish translation of Lord of the Rings.
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Qasr Al-Mushatta - The Palace was named after an Ummayad hunting lodge south of Amman. Located in the JordanValley near the town of southern Shuna and the Dead Sea, King Abdullah I of Jordan used to live and work here during the winter months. It was built in 1929 and was renovated in 1942, after which the Palace became a guest house for Prince Abdel Ilah, the Regent of Iraq. King Hussein continued to use it as a working farm and country home until the June 1967 war. On March 21, 1968, it was damaged by the Israeli army during the Battle of Karama. Today, it is still a working farm.

Qasr Al-Ma’wa: - Al-Ma’wa, or the "Sanctuary" was also built during the 1930’s. Al-Ma’wa, or "the top one" as it was referred to, was used by King Abdullah to receive representatives of Jordanian tribes every Friday. In 1979, al-Ma’wa became working offices for Her Majesty Queen Noor. It was renovated and expanded during the mid 1980’s. Al-Ma’wa is located within the Royal Court compound.

Queen. Either a reigning Queen (Queen Regnant), the wife of a King (Queen Consort), a former Queen Consort who is the mother of a monarch (Queen Mother) or the wife of the previous monarch (Queen Dowager).

Queen (title) – A Queen (Queen Regnant) is a female Monarch who possesses all the Monarchic Powers. The current Queen of the United Kingdom is Her Majesty Queen Elizabeth II.

Queens [The Netherlands]: Wilhelmina, Juliana and Beatrix, the three women who ruled the entire 20th Century

Queen Consort – Wife of the reigning Monarch. The word ‘Queen’ comes from Anglo-Saxon ‘cwen’, which means companion. Male spouses of the Monarch are not King Consorts (though this was the custom in the past) but rather Prince Consort.

The Queen (movie) – Movie about the British Royal Family, which gives the director’s view on the reaction of Queen Elizabeth to the death of Diana, Princess of Wales and her struggle to keep it a private tragedy for the Royal Family. The Queen is portrayed by Dame Helen Mirren.

The Queen’s Guard and Queen’s Life Guard – Names, given to contingents of cavalry and infantry soldiers charged with guarding the official Royal Residences in London.
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