Elizabeth I (1533-1603)


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Osipi, I found:
In Elizabeth Virgin Queen, Philippa Jones wrote that there were four possible men who could have been the offspring of Elizabeth I and Robert Dudley: Arthur Dudley, Francis Bacon, John Harrington, and Robert Devereux.

Anything is possible, I guess. We'll never really know unless, for some reason, DNA testing is done. 😄
 
Religous penal laws were common at the time.. Elizabeth did not wish to "make windows inot mens' souls" and tried not to persecute her Catholic Subjects unless they crossed a line into treason... She just wanted outward conformity to the C of England....
 
I have to correct the blogger on one point.
Elizabeth was totally prepared to let Catholics have religious freedom.
And it seems like most of them did fine during her reign.
But a few were accused of treason and were executed for that reason.

She did in England but it was a different story in Ireland where the vast majority of the population remained Catholic.

Elizabeth's reign in Ireland is bloodstained and her policies have had long term effects even in the 21st century.

There's no Glorianna in Ireland for Elizabeth.



There are also quite a numerous amount of English Catholic martyrs from the reign of Elizabeth.Many of them suffered horrific deaths.
 
I have to correct the blogger on one point.
Elizabeth was totally prepared to let Catholics have religious freedom.
And it seems like most of them did fine during her reign.
But a few were accused of treason and were executed for that reason.


She forced everybody in England to acknowledge her as Head of the Church.
She fined those who did not attend Mass.
Pope Pius V put entrance to Heaven as a price on her head. :lol:

The above doesn't sound like much religious freedom to me. But maybe I got it wrong.
 
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She forced everybody in England to acknowledge her as Head of the Church.
She fined those who did not attend Mass.
Pope Pius V put entrance to Heaven as a price on her head. :lol:

The above doesn't sound like much religious freedom to me. But maybe I got it wrong.

She was the same as all rulers in the 16th century. Religious conformity was expected in all states in Europe.. the general principle was that people had to confrom to the ruler's denomination.. Catholic states persecuted Protestants and vice versa.....Elizabeth was generally contented with the appearance of conformity but since the Pope had ssaid that she was not the legitimate ruler of England, she had to be wary of Catholics who might rise up and put Mary queen of Scots on the throne instead of her.....
 
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She was the same as all rulers in the 16th century.


I was just thinking along with Elizabeth the main players were Margaret of Mary of Hungary and later Margaret of Parma in the Netherlands, Marie de Guise in Scotland, Jeanne d'Albret in Navarre, Catherine de Médicis in France, Philip II in Spain and Ferdinand I, Holy Roman Emperor.


When was there another time when females dominated Europe for so long and wielded such power?
 
I was just thinking along with Elizabeth the main players were Margaret of Mary of Hungary and later Margaret of Parma in the Netherlands, Marie de Guise in Scotland, Jeanne d'Albret in Navarre, Catherine de Médicis in France, Philip II in Spain and Ferdinand I, Holy Roman Emperor.


When was there another time when females dominated Europe for so long and wielded such power?

Yes it was an age when an unusual number of women were in ruling positions...
 
Elizabeth I and Catherine de Médicis had a very complex relationship to say the least!
 
She was the same as all rulers in the 16th century. Religious conformity was expected in all states in Europe.. the general principle was that people had to confrom to the ruler's denomination.. Catholic states persecuted Protestants and vice versa.....Elizabeth was generally contented with the appearance of conformity but since the Pope had ssaid that she was not the legitimate ruler of England, she had to be wary of Catholics who might rise up and put Mary queen of Scots on the throne instead of her.....

Well indeed it was the Pope who upped the ante with his Regnans in Excelsis. It made life for English recusants increasingly difficult. All the later plots against Elizabeth were inspired by it.
 
Well indeed it was the Pope who upped the ante with his Regnans in Excelsis. It made life for English recusants increasingly difficult. All the later plots against Elizabeth were inspired by it.

And the Bull of 1570 was encouraged by an English Catholic exile, Cardinal Allen and was in response to the failed Catholic Rising of the North in 1569.
 
Queen Elizabeth I toured the country in regional visits known as progresses. She often rode on horseback rather than by carriage. Elizabeth made at least 25 progresses during her reign.
 
On November 14, 1575 Queen Elizabeth I refused the crown of The Netherlands offered by the Dutch rebels.
 
On November 14, 1575 Queen Elizabeth I refused the crown of The Netherlands offered by the Dutch rebels.

The Dutch rebels offered queen Elizabeth sovereignty over Holland & Zeeland but the queen had trouble enough with Ireland and her Northern Catholics and also did not want a war with the Catholic powers of Europe.
 
Archduke Charles of Austria was one of the possible men Queen Elizabeth I might have married.
As to whether he might convert to Protestantism, Charles replied that he and his family had always been Catholic.
The Queen would think little of him even if he casually tossed his religion away.
 
He was also a suitor of Mary, Queen of Scots which never materialized despite the best efforts of her uncle Charles, Cardinal of Lorraine. The Hapsburgs were champions of the Counter Reformation and there was zero chance of him converting.
 
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