Subnational monarchies in Chittagong Hill Tracts (Bangladesh) threatened by genocide

If you have answers, please help by responding to the unanswered posts.


Nov 10, 2019
I made a post on this at the thread Royalty of the Indian sub-continent but created another thread here for two reasons. Technically the Chittagong Hill Tracts are geographically and culturally Southeast Asia, not the Indian sub-continent. The other reason is that these three monarchies are still reigning at the sub-national level so they shouldn't be considered non-reigning.

From now on I will discuss these three monarchies here not on the Royalty of the Indian sub-continent thread.

This thread is for the discussion of the history, present and future of the royal houses of the Chakma and Marma (Rakhine) peoples.

The Chittagong Hill Tracts are home to a group of indigenous ethnicities, collectively known as the Jumma. The major ethnicities are the Chakma and Marma who are Buddhist. There are other ethnicities like the Tripuri, Bawm, Lushai, Mru, Chak, Pankho, Tanchangya and Khumi. Some are Hindu with smaller Catholic and Protestant minorities among the smaller ethnicities.

There are three monarchies among the Jumma. They are the Chakma Circle, Bohmong Circle and Mong Circle, each of them led by a hereditary Raja (King).

These three monarchies were recognized by British India as among the princely states and were promised independence by the British before partition of India. The Chittagong Hill Tracts were 97% Jumma Buddhist in 1947 upon parition. Instead, when India was partitioned, the British assigned the Chittagong Hill Tracts to East Pakistan. Pakistan was a state that was specifically supposed to be created for Muslim majority regions only and the Chittagong Hill Tracts was wrongly assigned to East Pakistan for entirely facetious reasons.

Under Pakistani rule, some settlement happened and the Jummas were down to 90% of the Chittagong Hill Tracts by 1971 when East Pakistan became independent as Bangladesh.

The construction of Kaptai Dam from 1957-1962 resulted in the Chakma King's palace being flooded and Chakma refugees forced to flee to India as their land was submerged.

After independence of Bangladesh the new Bangladeshi government refused to recognize the Jummas rights and instead insisted the Awami League (considered the "liberal" and "moderate" party) they assimilate into Bangladeshi identity. In 1977, under the Bangladesh Nationalist Party, Bangladesh started mass colonization of the Chittagong Hill Tracts with hundreds of thousands of Bengali Muslim settlers from the lowlands and a genocidal campaign of massacres and rape against Jummas along with destruction of Buddhist temples, Hindu temples and Christian Churches in the Chittagong Hill Tracts.

Now Jummas have been reduced to 35% of the population of the Chittagong Hill Tracts. Bengali Muslims are 65% of the Chittagong Hill Tract's population. Jumma Buddhists make up 34% of the population while Jumma Hindus, Catholics and Protestants make up 1% of the population.

A war raged between 1977-1997 between the Jumma Shanti Bahini (Peace Force) and the Bangladeshi army and settlers with major massacres and rapes committed by the Bangladeshi army and settlers against the Jummas.

Awami League returned to power in 1996 and negotiated the Chittagong Hill Tracts accord in 1997 to end the war. But the Bangladeshi army under the "liberal" Awami League has just continued the killings and rapes like the Bangladesh Nationalist Party and Jamiat e Islamist (Islamist party) supported. All three parties, the liberal Awami League, right wing Bangladesh Nationalist Party and Jamiat e Islami supported the murders and rapes against Jummas. The Awami League government has not fulfilled the Chittagong Hill Tracts accord with massive communal attacks, murders and rapes against Jummas by the army and settlers continuing to this day.

The Chakma Queen herself was violently assaulted and injured severely by Bangladeshi army personnel after protests over rapes of Jumma women by Bengali settlers.

There are graphic photos here of Bangladeshi army crimes including the murder and rape of children.

This is a facebook page of the Chakma royal family.

This is the account of the Chakma Crown Prince Aryadev Roy Chakma

Please help raise awareness of the genocide Bangladesh is committing against the Jumma.

This is a list of links and sources and a summary you people can use.

In the Chittagong Hill Tracts the British had listened to the locals before 1947 and banned Bengali migration. But in Assam state, the British did not listen to the locals and imported Bengali Muslims and Bengali Hindus who now have colonized large parts of Assam. The Assamese Hindus and Assamese Muslims now want to evict the Bengali Hindus and Bengali Muslims but the Bengali Muslims are spreading false propaganda about the situation claiming that all Muslims are being rounded up and stripped of citizenship for being Muslims. Please correct the misinformation if you ever hear about it. Tripura state was overrun by Bengali Hindus fleeing East Pakistan in 1947 so the native Tripuri Hindus are now a minority. Another unfortunate situation due to partition.

The Chakma Queen (Rani) is Yan Yan. Some more links on the Chakma royal family.

Crown Prince Aryadev Roy Chakma made his social media public here.

Crown Prince Aryadev Roy Chakma's Facebook page.

Crown Prince Aryadev Roy Chakma's Quora account.

A paper written by Crown Prince Aryadev Roy Chakma.

Pictures of the Chakma King, royal palace and royal temple.

These are links on the Tripuri Manikya royal family.
Last edited:
Queen Elizabeth II visited the Jumma Marma King of the Bohmong Circle in the Chittagong Hill Tracts on 17th February 1961.
QUEEN Elizabeth II seen shaking hands with the Bohmong Chief of the Ctg. Hill Tracts at a Civic reception at Chittagong 17th February 1961.

The Chakma King Devasish Roy (Debasish Roy) giving a speech. A video of the Chakma King Devasish Roy.

'Historical Record of Jummo Chakma Kings (Raja) in Jumland with Jummo Nation'
Last edited by a moderator:

This is East Pakistan (Now Bangladesh)last Chakma king Tridiv Roy(50th king of Chakmas),& presently Bangladesh continue Chakma king Barrister Debasish Roy (51th king of Chakmas)from1971- 2020.continue..still..The 50th Chakma king Tridiv Roy was died at 2012 in Islamabad,Pakistan.

Congratulations to Mong King Shaching Pru Chadhuwry(8th King of Mong Circle,Khagrachari)was happy married at his Royal home on6th February 2020 in Manikchari, Khagrachari,may they're long live&blessging from triple gem.Thanks,Patturuturuu.Jumland(Republic of Jumland),Bangladesh.

NB:48th Chakma King Bhuban Mohan Roy(48CKBMR),in CHT-Chittagong Hill Tracts /Jumland,his written book named Royal Chakma Historical book in 1919.British East India, Kingdom of Chacomas,

Jumland Chakma Buddhist,Bangladesh Chakma Buddhist,Myanmar Chakma Buddhist &India Chakma Buddhist peoples who r all followers Theravada Buddhism from an ancients time also belongs to Sakya clan generations to generations according to Royal Chakma Historical book written by48CKBMR
Last edited by a moderator:
Marma Kings of the Chittagong Hill Tracts.

I saw these posts on bohmong chief. They said the marma community is Arakan descendants n bohmong chief r bayingnaung descendants. So both claims of linage r correct?

Kingdom of Chacomas

The kingdom of Chacomas in16A.D, after Kingdom of Karpasmohal in17 A.D, to1859A.D,in British govt occupied1860to1947,That's times The kingdom of CHTwas a peaceful situations because all political powers rights safety by own homeland Jummo people but Pakistani,B'deshi for lost CHT

The51th king of Chakmas people in Jumland but Pakistani govt.&B'desh govt.was lost Jumland king all political powers,presently only show king for Chakmas,also others people in Jumland.Presently all Jumland political powers controlled by B'desh,so that Jumland want freedom from BD

The CHT/Jumland Chakma king his father H.H.Tridiv Roy 50th king of Jumland,last Pakistani constitution under king,and Bangladeshi 1st Chakma king H.H.Barrister Devasish Roy 51th king of Jumland/CHT.may they're long live,may all beings be well happy and peaceful around the world.

The British Royal Govt. was the CHT / Jumland has been their colonial rules established in 1860 A.D, FROM 16 A.D to 1859 A.D, The Chittagong Hill Tracts (CHT)/ Jumland was a independence region country was named Chacomas, Karpasmohal, CHT & Presently Jumland(Republic of Jumland)

Jumland is a country controlled by B'desh since 1972 -2019 still&Pakistan1947-1971,Since 623-1858 A.D,independence Royal Kingdom of Chacomas,in 1859-1946 British India controlled but independent autonomy 1947Pakistan controlled Jumland simply&1972 still BD

Chakma Jumma Buddhists had demonstrated in support of their royal family and Queen after she was beaten by Bangladeshi soldiers in 2018.

[FONT=&quot]Her majesty Chakma queen Yan Yan. We condemn the brutal attack on the Chakma royal Queen Yan Yan in 15th February, 2018 by Bangladesh military army and police. Solidarity with Chakma royal family.
Last edited by a moderator:
Chakma King (Raja) Devasish Roy given a speech on the coronavirus.

Corona Virus থেকে বাচার উপায় | চাকমা কধায় | Chakma Raja Devasish Roy speech

Corona Virus থেকে বাচার উপায় | চাকমা কধায় | Chakma Raja Devasish Roy speech Chakma Raja Devasish Roy' speech, in his native Chakma language, on the ongoing Coronavirus Pandemic (with English subtitles) (4 April 2020). চলমান বৈশ্বিক কোরোনাভাইরাস সংকট সম্পর্কে চাকমা রাজা দেবাশীষ রায় এর চাকমা ভাষায় বক্তব্য (ইংরেজী সাব টাইটেল সহ) (৪ এপ্রিল ২০২০)। #CoronVirus_থেকে_বাচার_উপায়

バングラデシュ南東部 チッタゴン丘陵地帯(Chittagong Hill Tracts, CHT)。チャクマ族の王様も新型コロナウィルス感染について注意を呼び掛ける。ミャンマーではチャクマ族はダイナ族と呼ばれている。#Chakma #ChittagongHillTracts #Bangladesh

The Marma Rakhine Queen of the Bohmang (Bohmong) Circle in the Chittagong Hill Tracts under Bangladeshi occupation has died on May 10. Her last rites according to the Theravada Buddhist tradition will be held on May 18.

Queen of the 17th Bohmang Raja is no more

Hill Voice -

May 11, 2020 photo
Hill Voice, 11 May 2020, Bandarban: Queen Wang Prue, wife of the 17th Bohmang Raja Engineer Ucha Prue of Bandarban Bohmang Circle, has passed away. The last rites of the queen will be held on May 18 at the central Buddhist crematorium in the town.
According to the Raj family sources, she passed away at Rajbari in Jadipara (Kyang Mor) area on May 10, 2020 Sunday at 11:30 pm. The queen was 75 years old at the time of her death. Queen Wang Prue has left behind a son and a daughter including many relatives and admirers of the royal family.
According to royal family sources, Rani died on Sunday night due to old age problem. She had been ill for some days.
Aung Jai U Kyang, chief assistant to the royal office, said the queen’s last rites would be performed on May 18 at the central Buddhist crematorium at Wabda Bridge in Bandarban municipal town.
Meanwhile, Chairman of the Bandarban Hill District Council, Kyaw Shwe Hla has expressed deep grief over the death of Rani. In his condolence message, on behalf of the Hill District Council, he wished the soul of Queen Wang Prue rest in peace. Various quarters of the district also expressed their grief.
Last edited by a moderator:
The Chakma King's palace now submerged in Kaptai lake, Rangamati, Chittagong Hill Tracts


The Lake of Tears: Understanding the Experience of Bangladesh’s Indigenous Minority

Sep 22 2014

Nathaniel Adams September 22, 2014

Standing on the shore of Bangladesh’s scenic Kaptai Lake on a wind swept afternoon, we made quite the odd couple, a lanky westerner and a Buddhist monk, both more than a little out of place in this homogenous nation of 150 million, of which roughly 90 percent are Muslim and 98 percent Bengali. We are in Rangamati in a region known as the Chittagong Hill Tracts, which forms a narrow band running along the country’s border with Myanmar. This area of low hills and sprawling forests is not only a sharp geographic contrast from the pancake flat Ganges delta; it is a cultural one as well. My companion is a member of the Chakma community, the largest of the region’s thirteen indigenous groups. This culturally, linguistically, and ethnically distinct population has long contested their inclusion in the nation of Bangladesh and fought a bloody decades-long insurgency aimed at independence.

Though a peace accord was struck in 1997, it remains largely unimplemented 17 years later. In the absence of government action, indigenous rights advocates allege there have been ever-increasing incidents of land grabbing by Bengali settlers and that the military, who still exert tight control over the region, have been active participants. For Chakmas this is just one of a string of broken promises made by the government. I had come here to visit a unique Buddhist social organization, but first my companion wanted to make sure I understood the history. The lesson started with the lake that sprawled out before us, what many Chakma call the “Lake of Tears.”

“The palace of the Chakma king is just over there,” my saffron-clad companion said gesturing out toward the middle of the water. His voice conveyed both pride and melancholy in equal measure. “The palace is in the lake?” I inquired half facetiously, assuming that I had misunderstood. “Yes, it’s about 10 meters down.” I turned back to the site marked only by a pair of trees, dead and bleached by the sun, which protruded eerily from the water.

The now submerged palace was the seat of the Chakma Raj who ruled a unique highland kingdom that endured improbably in the midst of powerful and imperially-minded neighbors since at least the sixteenth century. Despite their diminutive population, over the centuries the Chakma successfully repelled incursions from the Mughals and later the British East India Company, fighting both to truces that allowed them to retain territorial sovereignty. Even after being absorbed into the British Empire, the region was subject to a special administrative arrangement, which granted the Chakma king local authority and prohibited the settlement of non-hill people in the region. With the partition of India in 1947 the Chakmas, together with the region’s other indigenous communities, strongly resisted their inclusion in what was then East Pakistan. In an attempt to assert control over this restive indigenous region once and for all, the government of the new polity settled on a dramatic plan; they would flood it.

The Kaptai Dam, completed in 1962 with American financial and technical support, flooded over 250 square miles of the Chakma heartland in Rangamati, including roughly 40 percent of all arable land in the Chittagong Hill Tracts. Over 100,000 people were displaced by the project, one-sixth of the country’s entire indigenous population at the time. Around half of the displaced fled to India or Myanmar while others stayed in hopes of receiving the compensation promised by the government, a promise that was never delivered upon. Nearly all the physical vestiges of Chakma culture, including Buddhist temples and, indeed, the king’s palace, receded beneath the water.

It was in this context, with the Chakma community in disarray, that a group of Buddhist monks from Boalkhali Dashabal Raj Vihar mobilized themselves to provide the support that the government would not. They opened a shelter in 1963 called Parbatya Chattal Boudha Anath Ashram to provide housing, food, and education to the children of those displaced by the lake. This shelter would become the predecessor to one of the most unique faith-inspired institutions in Bangladesh, Moanoghar,the organization that I had come to Rangamati to visit.

Moanoghar, which just celebrated its fortieth anniversary, provides formal education, vocational training, and health services to disadvantaged indigenous youth. While one might be inclined to think of Moanoghar simply as a school, it was impressed upon me that, to the region’s indigenous communities, it is much more than that. Many will tell you unequivocally that no institution has been more instrumental to the survival of indigenous identity in the Chittagong Hill Tracts. Founded by a group of socially engaged Buddhist monks and laypeople in 1974, Moanoghar sought to continue the mission of Parbatya Chattal Boudha Anath Ashram, by providing support to those displaced by Kaptai Lake and the nation’s Liberation War. Taking inspiration from the Buddhist ideals of nonviolent harmony (sila) and loving-kindness (metta) this new institution fashioned itself as “an ideal refuge for distressed humanity.” Its founders couldn’t have known at the time just how important this refugee would become to the youth of the Chittagong Hill Tracts. Just three years after its founding, the region descended into civil war and a protracted insurgency raged for nearly two decades.

In 2017 Pope Francis met the Theravada Buddhist Marma Bohmong circle King of Bandarban in the Chittagong Hill Tracts, occupied by Bangladesh.

There is also a population of Tripuri Catholics in Bandarban and they are persecuted by Bengali Islamist settlers.
Last edited:
Official twitter, medium and wordpress accounts of the Office of the Mong Circle Chief (Mong Raj)

The Office of the Mong King has appealed for emergency assistance due to coronavirus

Appeal from Mong Circle Chief’s Office for emergency assistance support for the most marginalised people affected by the COVID -19 in Khagrachhari Hill District.

Office of Mong Circle Chief, Khagrachari

May 18 ·

Khagrachari is the northernmost district of the Chittagong Hill Tracts, with a population of 700,000 people spread across the hills of the Indian borderlands. As a post conflict region, it has been subject to years of violence, displacement and poverty, the more remote communities struggle to find work, access health care facilities, markets and secure livelihoods.
The chart below demonstrates the precarious situation of too many people in Khagrachari. In 2016, the poverty rate in Khagrachari was 52.65%, one of the highest in Bangladesh. However, in 2016, whereas in nationwide poverty trend is decreasing, but in CHT it is spiking alarmingly. More families in the CHT have fallen into poverty over the last five years than previously, but this regional trend is most pronounced in Khagrachari, where poverty has risen by 27.65%, compared to 8.22% in Bandarban and 23.13% in Rangamati area respectively. Within 5 years (2010–2020), poverty rate increased significantly in CHT. The rising trend is highest in Khagrachari. Poverty rate increased by 27.65% in Khagrachari. Even in Bandarban and Rangamati poverty increased by 23.13% and 8.22% respectively.

Against this background of an already precarious community, the Covid 19 pandemic spells disaster for those members of the Khagrachari community already marginalised by geography, conflict and institutionalised discrimination. Many of Khagrachari’s most vulnerable families are dependent on shifting cultivation, seasonal fruit and crops cultivation to survive, and were tipped into acute distress by the sudden loss of their livelihoods. Covid 19 and the lockdown of the economy has pushed the poorest and most marginalized people, such as daily labourers, subsistence farmers, sole parents, widows and people with disabilities to the very edge of starvation. This developing humanitarian crisis has been exacerbated by the forced lockdowns of the garment industry in Chittagong and Dhaka, which led to thousands of Indigenous wage earners and garments workers returning to Khagrachari with no means of subsistence due to the loss of their jobs
The Government of Bangladesh has made substantial efforts to distribute foods in eight subdistricts of Khagrachari but that food ration can only support families for few weeks and has not been successful in reaching the more remotest areas. The Mong Circle Chief’s Office has already used its extended informal networks to distribute food to the most remote areas using support from traditional leaders.

Getting Ready for Food Aid distributionThe Office now appealing to the national Government and other humanitarian organizations to continue this support to the most marginalized of the district with emergency food and cash assistance.
“The Mong Circle Chief’s Office has responsibility for legal services through traditional customary laws, the protection of natural resources and the promotion of indigenous cultures and traditions, in the Khagrachari Circle region of the Chittagong Hill Tracts(CHT)”

From the official Office of the Mong Circle Chief (Mong Raj) in the Chittagong Hill Tracts

[FONT=&quot]Queen Elizabeth II visited the King of the Bohmong Circle in the Chittagong Hill Tracts on 17th February 1961. A connection from United Kingdom to Chittagong Hill Tracts. #Indigenouspeople#CHT#Bangladesh@RoyalFamily

[FONT=&quot]Swedish ambassador today met King/Circle Chief of Bohmong Mr. U Chaw Prue in Bandarban, Chittagong Hill Tracts



[FONT=&quot]7th Bohmong Circle King collects jhum taxes & traditional gifts from the headmen. A 3day celebration of Rajpunyah in Bandarban.



This year's Raj Punnah with no fair Raj Punnah, an annual traditional festival of the Bohmong circle, began with frustration and agony in Bandarban town yesterday as local administration didn't give permission this year for holding any fair, an integral …

[FONT=&quot]The CHT /three traditional king(raja) Chakma circle chief Rangamati,Bhomang circle chief Bandarban and Mong circle chief Khagrachari,CHT news, CHT women's and map of CHT/Jumland.CHT want freedom from Bangladesh



[FONT=&quot]The Chittagong Hill Tracts(CHT)/Jumland want peaceful situations because B'desh continue heavy human rights violence in CHT.This is CHT national flags raising CHT children's,3Hills districts traditional raja(Kings),Chakma circle chief,Bhomang circle chief&mong circle chief&Pope.F



[FONT=&quot]Congratulations to Mong King Shaching Pru Chadhuwry(8th King of Mong Circle,Khagrachari)was happy married at his Royal home on6th February 2020 in Manikchari, Khagrachari,may they're long live&blessging from triple gem.Thanks,Patturuturuu.Jumland(Republic of Jumland),Bangladesh.


Last edited by a moderator:
:previous: Thank you for the many educational posts you have shared regarding families which are less recognized in the West. It is striking how they remain politically engaged public figures.

The CHAKMA King in 1935 joined British India kings convention in Kalkata, and CHT 2007 crowded prince Ariyadeb Tribhuban Roy with presently King Barrister Devasish Roy at their royal home in Rangamati, CHT, and CHT own language alphabet. Thanks


Last edited by a moderator:

The CHAKMA King and Deputy Commissioner at Rangamati Hill Tracts, CHT, (Jumland) on 10 October 1953,(British government appointment Deputy Commissioner (DC) in Rangamati) Pic:Standing welcomed delivered speech by Chakma king&Sit by DC in Royal Palace Reception Hall. Thanks

The CHT (Jumland) presently 51 CHAKMA King. ....welcome to Jumland

Top Bottom