Taken from Wikipedia. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kongsi_republic
"The kongsi republics
, also known as kongsi democracies
or kongsi federations
, were self-governing states in Borneo
that formed as federations of Chinese mining communities known as kongsis
. By the mid-nineteenth century, the kongsi republics controlled most of western Borneo
. The three largest kongsi republics were the Lanfang Republic
, the Heshun Republic
(Fosjoen), and the Santiaogou Federation
Commercial kongsis were common in Chinese diasporic communities throughout the world, but the kongsi republics of Borneo were unique in that they were sovereign states that controlled large swaths of territory.
This characteristic distinguishes them from the sultanates of Southeast Asia
, which held authority over their subjects, yet did not control the territory where their subjects resided.
The above article makes no mention of Qing Dynasty involvement. In fact, these are autonomous republics that fought and negotiated 3 wars with the Dutch directly, without outside interference.