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Old 05-29-2019, 02:47 PM
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Complete List of Monarchs and Legitimate Pretenders of the Kingdom of Jerusalem

Before I begin, I want to make note that this list seeks to account for legitimate title holders, and will thus exclude all pretenders whose pretense is not founded either upon some extraordinary decision of the King or Haute Cour of Jerusalem or being the senior heir according to the rules of male-preference primogeniture.

House of Boulogne
  • [1099-1100] Godfrey, Protector of the Holy Sepulchre (b. c. 1060; d. 18 July 1100; unmarried, no issue).
  • [1100-1118] Baldwin I, King of Jerusalem (b. c. 1058; d. 2 April 1118; married three time, no issue). Brother of Godfrey.
On his deathbed, Baldwin I instructed that first preference should be given in the succession to his brother, Eustace III, Count of Boulogne, but, if Eustace were not able to make the journey or otherwise did not accept the crown, the next preference should be given to Baldwin II, Count of Edessa. Following Baldwin I's death, a party had been set out to inform Eustace of his brother's death and his designation as heir, but the impatience of the Haute Cour (not wanting to go too long without a monarch) caused them to elect Baldwin II as King before it could be ascertained whether or not Eustace would or could accept the Crown. Eustace travelled as far as Apulia before he learned of Baldwin II's election, and, rather than press his claim, chose to simply turn back and return to Boulogne.

House of Rethel
  • [1118-1131] Baldwin II, King of Jerusalem (b. unknown; d. 31 August 1131; married, four daughters). Elected by Haute Cour of Jerusalem.
  • [1131-1153; with Fulk until 1143, with Baldwin III from 1143] Melisende, Queen of Jerusalem (b. 1105; d. 11 September 1161; married, two sons). Eldest daughter of Baldwin II.
House of Anjou
  • [1131-1143; with Melisende] Fulk, King of Jerusalem (b. 1082/1092; d. 13 November 1143; twice married, six children). Husband of Melisende; crown matrimonial.
  • [1143-1163; with Melisende until 1153] Baldwin III, King of Jerusalem (b. 1130; d. 10 February 1163; married, no issue). Eldest son of Melisende.
  • [1163-1174] Amalric, King of Jerusalem (b. 1136; d. 11 July 1174; twice married, three surviving children). Younger son of Melisende.
  • [1174-1185] Baldwin IV, King of Jerusalem (b. 1161; d. 16 March 1185; unmarried, no issue). Sole surviving son of Amalric.
  • [1185-1186] Baldwin V, King of Jerusalem (b. 1177; d. August 1186; unmarried, no issue). Nephew of Baldwin IV; specially designated as heir by Baldwin IV.
  • [1186-1190; with Guy of Lusignan] Sibylla, Queen of Jerusalem (b. c. 1157; d. 25 July 1190; twice married, one son and two daughters, all predeceased her). Eldest surviving daughter of Amalric.
  • [1186-1190/1192; with Sibylla until 1190] Guy of Lusignan, King of Jerusalem (b. c. 1150 of 1159/1160; d. 18 July 1194; married, 2 daughters who predeceased him). Husband of Sibylla; crown matrimonial (though he refused to relinquish power until the Haute Cour, backed by the power of Richard I, King of England, forced him to do so in 1192).
  • [1190/1192-1205; with Conrad I until 1192, with Henry I 1192-1197, with Aimery from 1198] Isabella I, Queen of Jerusalem (b. 1172; d. 5 April 1205; married four times, six children). Younger surviving daughter of Amalric.
  • [1190/1192-1192; with Isabella I] Conrad I of Montferrat, King of Jerusalem (b. mid-1140s; d. 28 April 1192, assassinate probably on orders of Guy of Lusignan; thrice married, one postumous daughter). Husband of Isabella I; crown matrimonial.
  • [1192-1197; with Isabella I] Henry I of Champagne, King of Jerusalem (b. 29 July 1166; d. 10 September 1197; married, two daughters). Husband of Isabella I; crown matrimonial.
  • [1198-1205; with Isabella I] Aimery of Lusignan, King of Cyprus and Jerusalem (b. 1145; d. 11 April 1205; twice married, nine children). Husband of Isabella I; suo jure in Cyprus, crown matrimonial in Jerusalem.
House of Aleramici
  • [1205-1212; with John I from 1210] Maria, Queen of Jerusalem (b. 1192; d. 1212; married, one daughter). Eldest surviving daughter of Isabella I.
House of Brienne
  • [1210-1212; with Maria] John I, King of Jerusalem (b. c. 1170; d. 27 March 1237; thrice married, six children). Husband of Maria; crown matrimonial.
  • [1212-1228; with Frederick from 1225] Isabella II, Queen of Jerusalem (b. 1212; d. 25 April 1228; married, two children). Daughter of Maria.
House of Hohenstaufen
  • [1225-1228; with Isabella II] Frederick II & I, Holy Roman Emperor and King of Jerusalem (b. 1194; d. 13 December 1250; thrice married, seven children). Husband of Isabella II; suo jure in HRE, crown matrimonial in Jerusalem.
  • [1228-1254] Conrad IV, II & I, King of Germany, Italy, Jerusalem and Sicily (b. 25 April 1228; d. 21 May 1254; married, one son). Son of Isabella II.
  • [1254-1268] Conrad III & II, King of Jerusalem and Sicily (b. 25 March 1252; d. 29 October 1268; unmarried, no issue). Son of Conrad II.
Following the death of Conrad III, two descendants of Isabella I put forward competing claims on the Crown of Jerusalem. Hugh III, King of Cyprus claimed the Crown of Jerusalem on the basis that he was the son of Isabella of Cyprus, daughter of Isabella I's daughter Alice of Champagne. Maria of Antioch claimed the Crown of Jerusalem on the basis that she was the daughter of Isabella I's daughter Melisende of Lusignan. The Haute Cour of Jerusalem explicitly ruled in favor of Hugh's claim; additionally, Hugh's claim is supported by primogeniture, as, while Maria was closer in consanguinity to Isabella I (being a granddaughter, as opposed to a great-grandson), Alice of Champagne was older than Melisende of Lusignan, and hence Hugh was senior in primogeniture.

House of Lusignan
  • [1268-1284] Hugh III & I, King of Cyprus and Jerusalem (b. 1235; d. 24 March 1284; married, 11 children). Great-grandson of Isabella I.
  • [1284-1285] John I & II, King of Cyprus and Jerusalem (b. 1259/1267; d. 20 May 1285; unmarried, no issue). Eldest surviving son of Hugh I.
  • [1285-1291] Henry II, King of Cyprus and Jerusalem (b. 1271; d. 31 August 1324; married, no issue). Second surviving son of Hugh I.
With the Fall of Acre in 1291, the Kingdom of Jerusalem ceased to exist, and, by consequence, Henry II's reign as King of Jerusalem ended. However, he continued to hold the title in pretense for the rest of his life.

House of Lusignan (cont.)
  • [1291-1324] Henry II, King of Cyprus [and Titular King of Jerusalem] (b. 1271; d. 31 August 1324; married, no issue). Second surviving son of Hugh I.
  • [1324-1359] Hugh IV, King of Cyprus [also Hugh II, Titular King of Jerusalem] (b. sometime between 1293 and 1296; d. 10 October 1359; twice married, eight children). Grandson of Hugh I (son of Guy of Poitiers-Lusignan, only son of Hugh I to have had surviving issue).
  • [1359-1369] Peter I, King of Cyprus [and Titular King of Jerusalem] (b. 9 October 1328; d. 17 January 1369; twice married, two children). Second son of Hugh IV (specifically chosen by Hugh as heir, over Hugh's grandson who was senior in primogeniture).
  • [1369-1382] Peter II, King of Cyprus [and Titular King of Jerusalem] (b. 1354 or 1357; d. 13 October 1382; married, no issue). Son of Peter I.
  • [1382-1398] James I, King of Cyprus and Armenia [and Titular King of Jerusalem] (b. 1334; d. 9 September 1398; married, 12 children). Youngest son of Hugh IV.
  • [1398-1432] Janus, King of Cyprus [and Titular King of Jerusalem and Armenia] (b. 1375; d. 29 June 1432; twice married, six legitimate children and at least three illegitimate children). Eldest son of James I.
  • [1432-1458] John II, King of Cyprus [also John III & I, Titular King of Jerusalem and Armenia] (b. 16 May 1418; d. 28 July 1458; twice married, one legitimate daughter and one illegitimate son). Eldest son of Janus.
  • [1458-1464] Charlotte I, Queen of Cyprus [and Titular Queen of Jerusalem and Armenia] (b. 28 June 1444; d. 16 July 1487; twice married, no surviving issue). Daughter of John II.
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Old 05-29-2019, 02:48 PM
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Charlotte's reign was never secure, as her right to rule was challenged by her bastard half-brother. Beginning in 1460, he launched an invasion of Cyprus with Mamluk support, and by 1464 the entire Kingdom of Cyprus was in his hands, though Charlotte continued to hold a pretense to the thrones of Cyprus, Jerusalem and Armenia for the remainder of her life.

House of Lusignan (cont.)
  • [1464-1487; pretender] Charlotte I, Titular Queen of Cyprus, Jerusalem and Armenia (b. 28 June 1444; d. 16 July 1487; twice married, no surviving issue). Daughter of John II, III & I.
  • [1464-1473; usurper] James II, King of Cyprus (b. c, 11438 or 1439; d. 10 July 1473; married, one son). Illegitimate son of John II, III & I.
  • [1473-1474; usurper] James III, King of Cyprus (b. 6 July 1473; d. 26 August 1474; died in infancy). Son of James II.
House of Cornaro
  • [1474-1489; usurper] Catherine Cornaro, Queen of Cyprus (b. 25 November 1454; d. 10 July 1510; married, one son who predeceased her). Wife of James II and mother of James III.
In February 1489, Catherine Cornaro ceded her unquestionably illegitimate claim to the Kingdom of Cyprus to the Doge of Venice.

House of Savoy
  • [1487-1490] Charles I, Duke of Savoy [and Titular King of Cyprus, Jerusalem and Armenia] (b. 28 March 1468; d. 13 March 1490; married, two children). Great-grandson of Janus of Cyprus (son of Amadeus IX of Savoy, eldest son of Anne of Cyprus, eldest daughter of Janus).
  • [1490-1496] Charles II, Duke of Savoy [and Titular King of Cyprus, Jerusalem and Armenia] (b. 23 June 1489; d. 16 April 1496; unmarried, no issue). Son of Charles II.
  • [1496-1499] Yolande Louise of Savoy [Yolande Louise, Titular Queen of Cyprus, Jerusalem and Armenia] (b. 1487; d. 1499; married, no issue). Daughter of Charles II.
Following the death of Yolande Louise, her husband, Philibert II, Duke of Savoy, put forward his own claim on the pretense to the crowns of Cyprus, Jerusalem, etc. Seeing as it is common practice the jure uxoris rights cease at the termination of the marriage, any claim thus based is illegitimate, and the legitimate pretense must go to the next-most superior position according to the rules of primogeniture.

House of Trastámara
  • [1499-1506] Charlotte of Naples [Charlotte II, Titular Queen of Cyprus, Jerusalem and Armenia] (b. c. 1479 or 1480; d. 1506; married, one daughter). Great-great-granddaughter of Janus of Cyprus (only daughter of Anne of Savoy, eldest daughter of Amadeus IX of Savoy, eldest son of Anne of Cyprus, eldest daughter of Janus).
House of Laval
  • [1506-1554] Anne de Laval [Anne, Titular Queen of Cyprus, Jerusalem, Armenia and (from 1550) Naples] (b. 23 September 1505; d. 1554; married, 10 children). Only daughter of Charlotte of Naples.
House of La Trémoïlle
  • [1554-1577] Louis III de La Trémoille, duc de Thouars [Louis I & III, Titular King of Cyprus, Jerusalem, Armenia and Naples] (b. 1521; d. 25 March 1577; married, five children). Eldest son of Anne de Laval.
  • [1577-1604] Claude de La Trémoille, duc de Thouars [Claude, Titular King of Cyprus, Jerusalem, Armenia and Naples] (b. 1566; d. 25 October 1604; married, four children). Eldest son of Louis III de La Trémoille, duc de Thouars.
  • [1604-1674] Henri de La Trémoille, duc de Thouars [Henry III & I, Titular King of Cyprus, Jerusalem, Armenia and Naples] (b. 22 December 1598; d. 21 January 1674; married, five children). Eldest son of Claude de La Trémoille, duc de Thouars.
  • [1674-1709] Charles Belgique Hollande de La Trémoïlle, duc de Thouars [Charles III & IV, Titular King of Cyprus, Jerusalem, Armenia and Naples] (b. May 1655; d. 1 June 1709; married, two children). Grandson of Henri de La Trémoille, duc de Thouars (eldest son of Henri's predeceased eldest son, Henri Charles de La Trémoille).
  • [1709-1719] Charles Louis Bretagne de La Trémoille, duc de Thouars [Charles IV & V, Titular King of Cyprus, Jerusalem, Armenia and Naples] (b. 15 March 1683; d. 9 October 1719; married, one son). Son of Charles Belgique Hollande de La Trémoïlle, duc de Thouars.
  • [1719-1741] Charles Armand René de La Trémoille, duc de Thouars [Charles V & VI, Titular King of Cyprus, Jerusalem, Armenia and Naples] (b. 14 January 1708; d. 23 May 1741; married, two children). Son of Charles Louis Bretagne de La Trémoille, duc de Thouars.
  • [1741-1792] Jean-Bretagne-Charles de La Trémoille, duc de Thouars [Charles VI & VII, Titular King of Cyprus, Jerusalem, Armenia and Naples] (b. 5 February 1737; d. 19 May 1792; twice married, four sons). Son of Charles Armand René de La Trémoille, duc de Thouars.
  • [1792-1839] Charles Bretagne Marie de La Trémoille, duc de Thouars [Charles VII & VIII, Titular King of Cyprus, Jerusalem, Armenia and Naples] (b. 24 March 1764; d. 10 November 1839; thrice married, five children). Eldest son of Jean-Bretagne-Charles de La Trémoille, duc de Thouars.
  • [1839-1911] Louis Charles de La Trémoille, duc de Thouars [Louis II & IV, Titular King of Cyprus, Jerusalem, Armenia and Naples] (b. 26 October 1838; d. 4 July 1911; married, two children). Only son of Charles Bretagne Marie de La Trémoille, duc de Thouars.
  • [1911-1921] Louis Charles Marie de La Trémoille, duc de Thouars [Louis III & V, Titular King of Cyprus, Jerusalem, Armenia and Naples] (b. 28 March 1863; d. 17 June 1921; married, five children). Only son of Louis Charles de La Trémoille, duc de Thouars.
  • [1921-1933] Louis Jean Marie de La Trémoïlle, duc de Thouars [Louis IV & VI, Titular King of Cyprus, Jerusalem, Armenia and Naples] (b. 8 February 1910; d. 9 December 1933; unmarried, no issue). Only son of Louis Charles Marie de La Trémoille, duc de Thouars.
  • [1933-1971] Charlotte Marie Clotilde de La Trémoille [Charlotte III & I, Titular Queen of Cyprus, Jerusalem, Armenia and Naples] (b. 20 November 1892; d. 27 October 1971; married, one son). Eldest daughter of Louis Charles Marie de La Trémoille, duc de Thouars.
House of Ligne
  • [1971-2005] HH Prince Jean Charles Lamoral of Ligne-La Trémoïlle [John III, IV, II & I, Titular King of Cyprus, Jerusalem, Armenia and Naples] (b. 16 June 1911; d. 9 July 2005; married, three children). Son of Charlotte Marie Clotilde de La Trémoille.
  • [2005-present] HH Prince Charles-Antoine Lamoral of Ligne-La Trémoïlle [Charles VIII & IX, Titular King of Cyprus, Jerusalem, Armenia and Naples] (b. 30 September 1946; married, two sons). Only son of HH Prince Jean Charles Lamoral of Ligne-La Trémoïlle.
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Old 05-29-2019, 04:01 PM
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Dear Troy you have done a lot of work and gone to a great effort to type this for us. And I thank you for your time.
Most of these houses I have not heard of before.
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Old 06-02-2019, 01:22 PM
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Quote:
Originally Posted by Tarlita View Post
Most of these houses I have not heard of before.
While the Kingdom of Jerusalem was one of the purest examples there ever were of feudalist systems, there was, paradoxically, much more social mobility in the Outremer than in Europe during the Crusades. So it's not surprising that a lot of houses that are a little more on the obscure side ended up rising to the top in the Crusader states.


It's worth noting that the initial rulers of the County of Edessa, the Principality of Antioch, the County of Tripoli, and the Kingdom of Jerusalem—the four Latin states in the Levant that were created as a consequence of the First Crusade—were all from French noble families. The French influence in these Crusader states was so great that "Frankish" was used in the Outremer to describe all Western Europeans, regardless of what country they were from.


French laws and practices largely guided the laws and practices of these states, which rendered two legal realities that were necessary to enable this social nobility. Firstly, French law never created a distinction between ruler and subjects for the purpose of marriage and, consequently, not only were morganatic marriages not prohibited, but there was not even such a concept as a morganatic marriage. So, a ruler of one of these Crusader states could marry someone from any class background, and it would have no effect on the capacity of the children born from such marriage to inherit the Crown.


Secondly, these French noble families applied to the succession to the crowns of the Crusader states the same rules that applied to the succession to their lands and titles in France. While France applied the Salic law with respect to the succession to the Crown of France, the general rule for the succession to French noble titles and lands was male-preference primogeniture (a fact which, incidentally, played a huge role in the centralization of the French State in the early modern period—there was for a while during the Renaissance a common practice for French Kings to marry women who had inherited large estates within France, as a means of gradually bringing those estates under the control of the Crown; notably, the Holy Roman Empire applied the Salic law both to the Emperor and to all the Imperial Princes, so there was no opportunity for the HRE to centralize in the manner that the Kingdom of France had). So, rather than apply the Salic law of purely agnatic primogeniture, the Crusader states applied male-preference primogeniture.


Circumstances also played a hand. The Crusader states were in a nigh constant state of war, so the male life expectancy was drastically reduced, especially among the rulers and lords, as their most central function was to lead forces to defend their states and lands. As a consequence of this, nearly a third of all of the monarchs who inherited suo jure title to the Crown of the Kingdom of Jerusalem, from the coronation of Baldwin I to the Fall of Acre, were women.


The continual warfare also had an effect on the marriages of these women (as well as of women who inherited fiefdoms within the Kingdom). Pedigree was almost entirely thrown out the window as far as factors under consideration for potential mates for these women were concerned; instead, aptitude as a military commander and access to financial resources became the two things that were most considered in selecting their mates. For example, Fulk, as the former Count of Anjou, technically had all three, but Baldwin II did not at all consider pedigree when choosing Fulk as a husband for Melisende—Baldwin's primary concern was ensuring that his daughter would be married to a man who could defend her crown after Baldwin died and she inherited it from him, and toward that end her husband had to be someone who was skilled on the battlefield and had deep enough pockets to cover the costs of raising armies.
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Old 06-02-2019, 09:06 PM
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If the rule of male-preference primogeniture is applied, then, for the first 13 places, the order of succession would be:
  1. Prince Charles-Antoine Lamoral of Ligne-La Trémoïlle, current pretender. Born in Boulogne-sur-Mer, France, 30 September 1946, only son and second child of Jean Charles, Prince de Ligne de La Trémoïlle and Maria del Rosario de Lambertye-Gerbéviller. Succeeded to pretense upon his father's death, 9 July 2005. Married (firstly) 7 October 1971, Lady Moira Beatrice Forbes (daughter of Arthur Forbes, 9th Earl of Granard and Marie Madeleine de Faucigny-Lucinge); divorced 1975, no issue. Married (secondly) 23 January 1976, Princess Alyette Isabelle Odile Marie de Croÿ (daughter of Prince Rodolphe de Croÿ and Odile de Bailleul); still married, 2 sons.
  2. Prince Édouard Lamoral Rodolphe of Ligne-La Trémoïlle. Born in Paris, France, 27 September 1976, first son of Prince Charles-Antoine Lamoral of Ligne-La Trémoïlle and Princess Alyette Isabelle Odile Marie de Croÿ. Married 2 September 2009, Isabella Orsini (Italian actress; daughter of Mario Orsini and Lolita Rossi); still married, one son and two daughters.
  3. Prince Antoine Tau Édouard Adrien of Ligne-La Trémoïlle. Born in Paris, France, 10 January 2019, first son and third child of Prince Édouard Lamoral Rodolphe of Ligne-La Trémoïlle and Isabella Orsini.
  4. Princess Althea Isabelle Sophie Orsini of Ligne-La Trémoïlle. Born in Paris, France, 12 May 2010, first daughter and first child of Prince Édouard Lamoral Rodolphe of Ligne-La Trémoïlle and Isabella Orsini.
  5. Princess Athénaïs Allegra Isabella of Ligne-La Trémoïlle. Born in Paris, France, 9 May 2014, second daughter and second child of Prince Édouard Lamoral Rodolphe of Ligne-La Trémoïlle and Isabella Orsini.
  6. Prince Charles Joseph Malcolm of Ligne-La Trémoïlle. Born in Paris, France, 25 February 1980, second son of Prince Charles-Antoine Lamoral of Ligne-La Trémoïlle and Princess Alyette Isabelle Odile Marie de Croÿ. Married 20 November 2010, Ran Li; still married, one son.
  7. Prince Amadeo Joseph Gabriel of Ligne-La Trémoïlle. Born in Paris, France, 12 June 2012, first son of Prince Charles Joseph Malcolm of Ligne-La Trémoïlle and Ran Li.
  8. Princess Hedwige Marie of Ligne-La Trémoïlle. Born 1943, first daughter and first child of Jean Charles, Prince de Ligne de La Trémoïlle and Maria del Rosario de Lambertye-Gerbéviller. Married 1966, Charles Guillaume, Prince de Merode; still married, one son.
  9. Prince Emmanuel Werner Marie Ghislain of Merode. Born in Carthage, Tunisia, 5 May 1970, only son of Charles Guillaume, Prince de Merode and Princess Hedwige Marie of Ligne-La Trémoïlle. Director of the Virunga National Park in DR Congo since 2008. Married 6 December 2003, Dr. Louise Leakey (paleontologist and anthropologist, youngest documented person to find hominoid fossil; daughter of Richard Erskine Frere Leakey FRS and Dr. Meave G. (née Epps) Leakey); still married, two daughters.
  10. Princess Seiyia Ina of Merode. Born 2004, first daughter of Prince Emmanuel Werner Marie Ghislain of Merode and Dr. Louise Leakey.
  11. Princess Alexia Meave of Merode. Born 2006, second daughter of Prince Emmanuel Werner Marie Ghislain of Merode and Dr. Louise Leakey.
  12. Ludovic Alain Edmond Jean Marie of Polignac. Born 15 October 1974, only son and first child of Princess Nathalie Marie of Ligne-La Trémoïlle (1948-1992; second daughter and youngest child of Jean Charles, Prince de Ligne de La Trémoïlle and Maria del Rosario de Lambertye-Gerbéviller) and Alain Aimery Marie Edmond of Polignac.
  13. Diane Nathalie Ghislaine Rosario of Polignac. Born 11 November 1976, only daughter and second child of Princess Nathalie Marie of Ligne-La Trémoïlle (1948-1992; second daughter and youngest child of Jean Charles, Prince de Ligne de La Trémoïlle and Maria del Rosario de Lambertye-Gerbéviller) and Alain Aimery Marie Edmond of Polignac. Married 7 July 2001, Khalil Boisson of Chazournes; still married, one child.
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