Royalty of the Malay, Indonesian and Philippine Archipeligos

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The Antique Catholic Image of the Ecce Homo (or the Image of Jesus Christ when he was brought by Pontius Pilate to be seen by the public right after he had him whipped), which was Ferdinand Magellan's gift to the King of Cebu, Rajah Humabon, upon his conversion to Christianity, made its historic return to Cebu, on August 20, 2011, after more than 40 years of staying at Intramuros, Manila:

All sizes | Welcome Delegation at Cebu Airport | Flickr - Photo Sharing!

Here is an old picture of the Ecce Homo (circa 1965), you can see that he is wearing a crown of thorns, and he has no color. That's because when he arrived in Intramuros, Manila, they decided to change his look; the crown of thorns was removed and his wounds were fixed, and metal Tres Potencias, or rays of light, were added above his head. They also put color on his image. This is his original look when Ferdinand Magellan gave him to Rajah Humabon:

All sizes | Original Image of the Ecce Homo de Cebu | Flickr - Photo Sharing!

And this is how his image looks like now:

All sizes | Ecce Homo | Flickr - Photo Sharing!
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Yogyakarta, Indonesia

Grand royal wedding between Princess Gusti Raden Ajeng Nur Astuti Wijareni, youngest daughter of the Sultan of Yogyakarta, and Achmad Ubaidillah is scheduled to take place on October 18, 2011.
The date chosen for this memorable occasion has been carefully determined through ancient and sophisticated Javanese calculations based on the dates of birth of both the bride and the groom. - Source
Yogyakarta, Indonesia

Yogyakarta's Royal Groom-to-be: 'Never Dreamed I'd Marry a Princess'

Next week Yogyakarta will witness the royal wedding of Princess Gusti Raden Ajeng Nur Astuti Wijareni,
5th and youngest daughter of Sultan Hamengkubuwono X, and Achmad Ubaidillah, age 29.

The wedding, set to take place on Oct. 18 with 4,000 guests in attendance, coincides with the city’s 255th anniversary celebration.
Wijareni, fondly known as Reni to her family and friends, has been in a relationship with Ubaidillah or Ubai for more than four years. Ubai, a staff member at the vice president’s political communication division, was introduced to Reni by her older sister.

As a future member of the royal family, Ubai was given the royal title of KPH Yudanegara or the equivalent of a prince.

The royal wedding has been highly anticipated by the public and the media with stations reportedly planing special broadcasts from Yogyakarta. The rituals for the wedding will start on Oct. 16 and peak with the bride and groom being paraded around town in a horse-drawn carriage.
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Yogyakarta, Indonesia

Indonesia Readies for Royal Wedding
The royal wedding has been highly anticipated, with hundreds of foreign and local journalists set to cover the event and TV stations reportedly planning special broadcasts from Yogyakarta. Royal wedding party coordinator Yudhadiningrat said that there would be 1,500 guests during the first reception and 1,000 attendees during the evening reception. “I divided the reception into two sessions. President Susilo Bambang Yudhyono will come to the first reception and the vice president will come in the afternoon,” he said.

Royal Couple's Pre-Nuptial Rituals Begin

After 3 Days of Ceremonies, Today's the Wedding Day

Daughter of Sultan Hamengkubuwono X Weds in Humble Ceremony | The Jakarta Globe

An Indonesian princess married her prince on Tuesday in the historical sultanate of Yogyakarta.

Princess Nurastuti Wijareni, 25, married 29-year-old Achmad Ubaidillah in a traditional Javanese-Muslim ceremony attended by more than 2,000 guests that included the Indonesian president.

Yogyakarta, around 400 kilometres southeast of Jakarta in the centre of Java island, is one of Indonesia's last remaining sultanates, where the Sultan acts also as the special region's governor.
The groom, a commoner, works at the office of Indonesia's vice president.
Tens of thousands lined the streets in the afternoon to greet the couple, who were married at the sultan's 200-year-old palace in a ceremony led by the bride's father, Sultan Hamengkubuwono X.
The groom arrived in a traditional horse-drawn Javanese carriage and sat next to his bride, as they recited their marriage vows before the Sultan.

v Princess Nurastuti Wijareni & Achmad Ubaidillah


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An earring possibly belonging to Lapu-Lapu, the Datu of Mactan Island in Cebu, Philippines, was featured in the TV Documentary "Philippine Treasures" last September 11, 2011. Here is a picture of the earring:


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Ubud (Bali, Indonesia)

The Royal Ubud family pray during the Hindu Royal cremation - also know as the Pengabenan - for the late Anak Agung Niang Rai, mother of Gianyar Regent, Tjokorda Oka Artha Ardana Sukawati, at Puri Ubud in Gianyar Bali on August 18, 2011 in Ubud, Bali, Indonesia.

Niang Rai died in a Denpasar hospital in May; and will involve a nine level, 24m high 'bade' or body carring tower, made by upto 100 volunteers from 14 local villages. It will be carried to the cremation by 4500 Ubud residents.

**Pic** - credits Getty
Let me share this to all of you, the Princesses of the Pre-Hispanic Philippines are called Binukot. Binukots are daughters of Datus, and they are only kept at the Datu's house. Binukots are not allowed to touch the ground, or wander outside.
The Yogyakarta Sultanate

Biography of Sultan Hamengkubuwono/Hamengkubuwana (courtesy of

Sri Sultan Hamengkubuwana X (also seen as Hamengkubuwono) (born BRM Herjuno Darpito, 2 April 1946 in Yogyakarta) is the current monarch of the historic Yogyakarta Sultanate in Indonesia, and is currently also the elected governor of the modern Daerah Istimewa Yogyakarta Yogyakarta Special Region. He was inaugurated on 3 October 1998.

SS HB X has discontinued the polygamist tradition of Javanese royalty with kings having several wives and possible multiple concubines, as per his late father’s wishes to modernize the royal system and thus women’s rights, and to lead by example and is married to Queen consort Gusti Kanjeng Ratu (GKR) Hemas.

Their five daughters (in birth order) are:
Gusti Raden Ayu Nurmalitasari
Gusti Raden Ayu Nurmagupita
Gusti Raden Ayu Nurkamnari Dewi
Gusti Raden Ayu Nurabra Juwita
Gusti Raden Ayu Nurwijareni

SS HB X resides in the Keraton Yogyakarta complex and uses the Governor’s mansion solely for political affairs.

Biography of Sultan Hamengkubuwono's wife, Gusti Kanjeng Queen Hemas (courtesy of

Gusti Kanjeng Queen Hemas (born in Jakarta, October 31, 1952, age 59 years) is a member of the Regional Representative Council from the Province of Yogyakarta Special Region. She is also the wife of Sri Sultan Hamengkubuwono X.

Previously, GKR Hemas also been a member of the People’s Consultative Assembly 1997-1999 term of office of representatives faction group, and had also become the magazine’s editor Kartini.

Picture of the Sultan of Yogyakarta and his Wife, Gusti Kanjeng Queen Hemas. Courtesy of Knowing the Royals:
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An old picture of Datu Mandiaan of Zamboanga, with his wife probably taken in the late 1890's or early 1900's:

An old picture of the Sultan of Jolo, Sulu, Philippines (the Sultan's name is unknown):

Princess Raja Putriul with attendants, Cotabato, Philippines, 1891:

Sultan of Maguindanao with attendants, Mindanao, Philippines, 1901:

Sultan of Maguindanao with Governor Finley and subordinates, Zamboanga, Philippines, 1901:

A painting depicting Lapu-Lapu, Datu of Mactan, Cebu, Philippines, and his men fighting the Spaniards:
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Yogyakarta, Indonesia

HRH the Sultan Hamengkubuwono X receives Honoris Causa Doctorate at Institute of Indonesia on December 27th, 2011. - Article + photo
Yogyakarta, Indonesia

Indonesian Government Critic Faces Jail Term for Joke About Royal Family | The Jakarta Globe
Outspoken Indonesian government critic George Junus Aditjondro is facing up to four years in jail for allegedly insulting the Yogyakarta royal family.
The charges relate to an attempt by George to make a pun about the Yogyakarta Palace, comparing it to a “watched monkey.”
“The Yogyakarta Keraton [Palace] should not be equated with the UK kingdom,” he said. “The Yogyakarta Keraton is only a keraton, or kera ditonton [Watched Monkey],” George said during a political discussion at Gadjah Mada University on Nov. 30.
Following the comments, dozens of people, accusing George of humiliating the royal Yogyakarta family and the people of the special province, raided his home in an attempt to expel him from the city.
Kris said George had been charged under Article 156 of the Dutch colonial-era Criminal Code, which carries a maximum penalty of four years imprisonment.
Doubts over historical princess' existence has Malaysia in a stir‎

Free Malaysia Today - Doubts over historical princess' existence has Malaysia in a stir
From road names to coffee brands, the name Hang Tuah – a famous warrior of Malacca, Malaysia in the 16th century – has lived on for centuries in Malaysia and Indonesia and is as synonymous with the Malay history and culture as, say, Alexander the Great to the Greeks.

Except that now the very existence of Hang Tuah, alongside his four other comrades and a Chinese princess said to have married a Malacca sultan, is being called into question.
A renowned Malaysian historian has gone on record to refute the existence of Malacca’s most-celebrated warriors – Hang Tuah, Hang Jebat, Hang Kasturi, Hang Lekir and Hang Lekiu – and a princess called Hang LiPo, as there is no mention of them in Chinese historical records.
Ming Dynasty historical records were a well-preserved and important source of information, but there was no mention of the princess being married to the Sultan of Malacca.
The Chinese records showed that there was no Hang LiPo. She was supposed to be a princess sent to Malacca to marry the Sultan. But the chinese records didn’t show that. So, the story was probably made up to show how important Malacca was, that even the Emperor of China sent his daughter there to be married to the Sultan,” he said.

Hang LiPo, Hang Tuah did not exist
Yogyakarta, Indonesia

My Jakarta: Hira Juwita Prabukusumo, Microfinance Advocate | The Jakarta Globe
Hira Juwita Prabukusumo, the youngest daughter of Sultan Hamengkubuwono X’s younger brother Haryo Prabukusumo, is part of the royal family but she isn’t content just living a privileged life filled luxury. She has chosen to work and make her own way in the world.
Hira recently graduated from University of Gadjah Mada’s School of Architecture, and is working in Jakarta at Sampoerna Microfinance’s Business Development Division, where she finds fulfillment by helping people realize their dreams of owning a business and making a better future for themselves.
Sultanates of Indonesia.

The various and many former ruling Sultanates of Indonesia - Sumatra, Java, etc - and The Sultanates of The Philippines, are very interesting with many recent restitution cases and returned Sultans to their former Reigning Sultanates and ancestoral homes.

Some of these Sultanates in Indonesia include - The Sultanates of Achin, Palembang, Siak - in Sumatra.
Also The Sultanates of Singosari (Majapahit Dynasty), Demak, Bantam, Mataram, Jogjakarta, Surakarta (Susuhunans) - in Java.

The Sultanates of Sulu and Maguindanao - in the Philippines.

An excellent recent documentary was shown in Canada on some of the new returned and restituted Sultans.
This excellent article on those Sultanates is well worth reading -

Return of the sultans - Inside Indonesia - a quarterly magazine on Indonesia and its people, culture, politics, economy and environment
The Sultanate of Deli, Indonesia

The history of the Sultanate of Deli and also the Sultanate of Serdang is closely related to the heyday of the Sultanate of Aceh Darussalam during the administration of Sultan Iskandar Muda (1607-1636). Aceh Darussalam started its expansion in 1612 by invading the cities along the East Coast of Sumatra (Denys Lombard, 2007:134). Deli harbor was conquered just in six weeks, while the Kingdom of Aru surrendered in early 1613 AD. In some other sources, the Kingdom of Aru, located in East Sumatra, was called the Kingdom of Haru, as in the works Tuanku Luckman Sinar Basarshah II who frequently writes about the history of the kingdoms of East Sumatra.

Sultan Iskandar Muda granted Aru territory to Sri Paduka Tuanku Gocah Pahlawan as a retribution. In 1632, Sri Paduka Tuanku Gocah Pahlawan was appointed the vice of Sultan Iskandar Muda to rule the former territory of Aru successfully subjugated to Aceh (Tuanku Luckman Sinar Basarshah II, 2003:2). Acehnese interests in the occupation of the former Kingdom of Aru territory are
(1) To destroy the remaining resistance of the Kingdom of Aru which was aided by Portuguese;
(2) Spread the teachings of Islam into interior areas, and
(3) Set the rule that was part of the Aceh Darussalam (Basarshah II , nd: 49).

Shortly after being appointed ruler of Aru territory representing the Sultan of Aceh, Sri Paduka Tuanku Gocah Pahlawan was appointed by the four kings of the Batak Karo urung (country) as a Datuk Tunggal or Ulon Janji, which was a position with an authority equivalent to the position of prime minister or grand vizier (Basarshah II , nd: 50). In the coronation, an oath to obey was pronounced by the Orang-orang Besar and people for Sri Paduka Tuanku Gocah Pahlawan. At the same time, Lembaga Datuk Berempat was also established that served as an advisory council for the government of Sri Paduka Tuanku Gocah Pahlawan. The four Batak Karo kings became members of this institution.

The four kings of Batak Karo were the leaders of the four kingdoms in the Batak Karo region that had accepted the teaching of Islam and conquered by the Sultanate of Aceh Darussalam in the conquest led by Sri Paduka Tuanku Gocah Pahlawan. One of the four Batak Karo kings is King Undo Sunggal who is also father-in-law of Sri Paduka Tuanku Gocah Pahlawan. In 1632, Sri Paduka Tuanku Gocah Pahlawan married King Undo Sunggal`s daughter, named Princess Nang Baluan Beru Surbakti.

Sri Paduka Tuanku Gocah Pahlawan died in 1641, and the control over Deli was bequeathed to his son, Tuanku Panglima Perunggit titled Panglima Deli. Meanwhile, Sultan Iskandar Muda had died in 1636 AD in Aceh. The leadership of Sultanate of Aceh Darussalam was passed to Sultan Iskandar Muda son-in-law, Sultan Iskandar Thani, who was on the throne until 1641 (Djoened Marwati Poesponegoro & Nugroho Notosusanto, 1982:70).

Aceh Darussalam weakened after Sultan Iskandar Thani died. His successor was also his wife and the daughter of Sultan Iskandar Muda, Sultanah Safi al-Din Taj al-Alam (Puteri Sri Alam). The unstable Aceh Darussalam was an opportunity for Tuanku Panglima Perunggit. In 1669, Tuanku Panglima Perunggit proclaimed independence from the Sultanate of Aceh Darussalam and established a connection with the Dutch in Malacca (Basarshah II, nd: 50). Thus, officially the Sultanate of Deli established a sovereign government with the capital in Labuhan, located approximately 20 kilometers from Medan, the capital of North Sumatra province today.

After Indonesia gained its independence in 1945 and continued with the recognition of sovereignty by the Netherlands in 1949, the Sultanate of Deli, which was originally included in the territory of East Sumatra, since 1950 had been merged into the province of North Sumatra until now. On the other hand, in those days situation in Deli and North Sumatra have not been in a truly peaceful state. Royal families in northern Sumatra, including the Deli family, were threatened because of the opposition from the parties which declared as anti-royalties. The royal family at that time was considered as Dutch stooges and belonging to the feudal class.

Still in the same book, Tengku Luckman Sinar also writes that the rebellion incitements had been rumored since June 1942 during the era of Japanese occupation in Indonesia. The rebellion was started when the farmers harvested the rice, which was done with mutual cooperation and ended with the harvest feast (Sinar, 2007:121).

Acts of violence against the nobility reached its peak during the bloody incident known as the Social Revolution in 1946. Many kings and royal family in North Sumatra were murdered and robbed of property and belongings, including Tengku Amir Hamzah, the Indonesian poet who was beheaded in Kuala Begumit. The family of the Sultanate of Deli and Serdang survived thanks to the preservation of the Allied soldiers who were on duty in the field to accept the surrender of the Japanese (KESULTANAN ASAHAN). After the tragedy of the Social Revolution ended in 1946, the family and heirs of the Sultanate of Deli occupied Maimoon Palace as a residence since almost all the palace there had been destroyed or burned. Maimoon Palace was the only remaining palace because at the time of the Social Revolution it was guarded by Allied soldiers.

At the time of independence, Physical Revolution, and the next periods, the Sultanate of Deli still exists despite no longer have the political authority because it has become part of the Republic of Indonesia. Entering the New Order era, the sultanate was ruled by Sultan Azmy Perkasa Alam Alhaj who was on the throne from 1967 until 1998. Since 5 May 1998, Sultan Otteman Mahmud Perkasa Alam served as functionary of the sultanate. However, the 13th sultan of Deli who was a lieutenant colonel in Indonesian Army died in an Army CN235 plane crash at Malikus Saleh Airport, Lhokseumawe, Aceh, on 21 July 2005. On 22 July 2005, the Crown Prince inherited the throne as the 14th sultan of Deli and assumed the title as Sultan Mahmud Lamanjiji Perkasa Alam.

The lineage of the kings
Here are the names of the leaders of the Sultanate of Deli since its inception until now:

  • Tuanku Panglima Gocah Pahlawan (1632-1669).
  • Tuanku Panglima Parunggit (1669-1698).
  • Tuanku Panglima Paderap (1698-1728).
  • Tuanku Panglima Pasutan (1728-1761).
  • Tuanku Panglima Gandar Wahid (1761-1805).
  • Sultan Amaluddin Mangendar (1805-1850).
  • Sultan Osman Perkasa Alam Shah (1850-1858).
  • Sultan Mahmud Al Rashid Perkasa Alam Shah (1858-1873).
  • Sultan Ma`mun Al Rashid Perkasa Alam Shah (1873-1924).
  • Amaluddin Sultan Al Sani Perkasa Alam Shah (1924-1945).
  • Sultan Osman Al Sani Perkasa Alam Shah (1945-1967).
  • Sultan Azmy Perkasa Alam Alhaj (1967-1998).
  • Sultan Otteman Mahmud Perkasa Alam (5 May 1998-21 July 2005).
  • Sultan Mahmud Lamanjiji Perkasa Alam (since July 22, 2005).
1. Maimoon Palace,The Second Palace of Sultan Deli. The Palace still exists.
2. The Sultan and his good people
3. HRH Seripaduka Baginda Tuanku Sultan Mahmud Arya Lamantjiji Perkasa Alam (14th Sultan of Deli, reigning from 2005-NOW)
4. The Coat of Arms of the Sultanate of Deli
5. Puri Palace, the first Palace of Kesultanan Deli was attacked by the people who hate the Sultan in that era
6. The Great Hall of Maimoon Palace, 2nd Palace of Sultan Deli
7. The Great Hall of Maimoon Palace, 2nd Palace of Sultan Deli
8. Puri Palace from the air



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Indonesian Sultanate of Deli

Just read the above excellent article, originally in New Members Introduction post (by Tengku Dicky) on the Indonesian Sultanate of Deli.
Very interesting recent history and up-to-date information.
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The Meeting of all Kings and Sultans among Indonesia was Held in Deli

on 6th until 9th of July, Sultanate of Deli in North Sumatera was host about 42 Kings and Sultans among Archipelago (Indonesia). The Meeting was held at Maimoon Palace on Saturday, 7th July 2012. The Sultans and Kings who attended are = Sultan Hamengkubuwono X (Yogyakarta), Sultan Serdang (Serdang), Sultan Ternate (Sulawesi), Sultan Sambaliung (Kalimantan), Sultan Gunung Tabur (Kalimantan), sister of susuhunan (Solo), Royal Family of Sekar Kingdom (Papua), Royal Family of Riau-Lingga (Riau), Royal Family of Aceh (Aceh Darussalam), Royal Family of Buton (Sulawesi), Royal Family of Kasipuhan (Cirebon), Royal Family of Maros (Sulawesi), Royal Family of Bali Kingdom (Bali), and others little Kingdoms. The Young Sultan of Deli, Tuanku Mahmud Lamatjiji Perkasa Alam (Sultan Deli XIV) is very Grateful to all Kings and Sultans who had come and visit his palace. here are some pictures about the Meeting of Kings and Rajas among Indonesia in Deli

1. The Royals and Royal family from Sultanate of Deli

2. The arrival of Kings from Buton (East of Indonesia)

3. Royal Family from Deli Sultanate welcoming Kings and Sultans from the first gate of Sultan Deli's Palace

4. The Arrival of Representatives from Susuhunan Solo, Queen of Bima, and Sultan of Palembang Darussalam followed by other Kings and Sultans at Maimoon Palace (Palace of Sultan Deli)

5. The Special flag for Sultan Deli goes out above the palace

6. The Arrival of Sultan Deli followed by the Sultan's Guards

7. Performance of Traditional dance to welcome the Kings and Sultans at the great hall of Maimoon Palace

8. Sultan Hamengkubuwono X (King of Yogyakarta) had a conversation with Crown Prince of Deli

for more pictures, click this link
Silaturrahmi Nasional Raja/Sultan se-Nusantara (SILATNAS) 2012 di Deli - a set on Flickr


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Philippines a Republic and a Constitutional Monarchy at the same time

The Muslim rebels in the Philippines have finally made a peace agreement with the Philippine government (which is mostly Christian). The Muslim regions (called Bangsamoro state) will be given autonomy.

As a result, the Philippines will become a country with two systems. The greater Philippine state is a republic with a presidential system while the smaller Muslim state (Bangsamoro) will become a federation of constitutional monarchies (of many sultanate kingdoms) with a parliamentary system.

Hence, the Philippines will be a republic and a constitutional monarchy at the same time.
This new governance is similar to the malaysian system which the monarch of Malaysia is the Yang di-Pertuan Agong (YDPA), commonly referred to as the King of Malaysia. Malaysia is a constitutional elective monarchy, the Yang di-Pertuan Agong is selected for a five-year terms from among the nine Sultans of the Malay states. The other four states that do not have monarch kings, are rule by governors. The position has to date been, by informal agreement, based on systematic rotation between the nine sultans.
The Brunei and Malaysian royalties are role models for the Bangsamoro (Muslim) state of the Philippines.
The Philippines: Sultanate of Sulu and the proposed political entity of Bangsamoro

The "Framework Agreement on the Bangsamoro" doesn't appear to mention anything about a "constitutional monarchy". The Sultan of Sulu has stated that the Sultanate was left out of the negotiations [see below].

The FAQ from the Office of the President of the Philippines states:

Q: How will the Bangsamoro government look like?
A: The Bangsamoro shall have a ministerial form. Voters will vote for political parties, and the parties who win seats in the legislative body shall elect the head of the Bangsamoro.

The GPH believes that the ministerial system will support the development of a strong and responsbile party system in the Bangsamoro. The MILF and all other political forces, through political parties, will be able to participate in elections and seek power through democratic and peaceful means.

- - - - - - - - - -

Some parties are trying to link the creation of the Bangsamoro entity with territorial claims to the eastern part of the Malaysian state of Sabah, which was once a possession of the Sultanate of Sulu. In support of the claim a so-called "royal army" has arrived in Sabah.

From ABS-CBN News - 18 February 2013

Misuari supports Sulu's royal army

MANILA – Moro National Liberation Front (MNLF) founding chairman Nur Misuari has extended his support to the Filipinos who crossed to the Malaysian state of Sabah to claim the land. Misuari said the claimants, some 400 people who have been holed up in the Malaysian territory since last week, are the rightful heirs to the land.

The southern Philippine-based Islamic sultanate of Sulu once controlled parts of Borneo, including the site of the stand-off, and its heirs have been receiving a nominal yearly compensation package from Malaysia under a long-standing agreement for possession of Sabah.

Sultan Jamalul Kiram said he was prompted to send the group to Sabah after the sultanate was left out of a framework agreement sealed in October between Manila and Filipino Muslim rebels, which paves the way for an autonomous area in the southern Philippines that is home to the Muslim minority of the largely-Christian nation.

The sultanate's spokesman, Abraham Idjirani, later said the sultan's brother Raja Muda Abimuddin Kiram, who led the group to Sabah, had told him via telephone that the party was preparing to stay. Sultan Jamalul Kiram, in a summit held in Davao last October in response to the framework agreement, had declared his support to pursue their Sabah claim.

...Sabah was given to [the Sultan's] great grandfather Panglima Mahabassal Elidji by the sultan of Brunei Darussalam, which once owned the land.The sultanate later leased Sabah to the British North Borneo Company, which then transferred the territory to Malaysia.

- - - - - - - - - -

If the Sultan of Sulu is to be involved in the Bangsamoro entity, the question arises as to who among a group of sixty or so claimants, pretenders and fraudsters is the legitimate Sultan.

Multiple Sultans of Sulu making claims for Sabah - YouTube

v The Proposed Political Entity of Bangsamoro
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Now that there is peace between the Philippine government and the Muslim rebels, the Muslim regions can now go on with their lives and to restore their culture and traditions.

There is no opposition against the restoration of the various sultanates in the muslim regions of the Philippines. And it is supported by common muslims. Formally there will be a need to change the constitution of the Philippines to allow monarchies in the Philippine republic again, and it will be done as needed in the coming years. But it appears that even if there's no official recognition by the constitution of the Philippines, the local muslim people will still informally recognize and support their various sultans along with the rituals and pageantry.

Most of the various sultanates in the Bangsamoro (Muslim) state of the Philippines are trouble free except for the Sulu Sultanate. So, Sulu might have an absent monarch for a while. But the other sultanates have no problem at all to either formally or informally reign in their various sultanate kingdoms.

And, for now, the Muslim rebels and the Philippine government made framework agreements that doesn't involve an amendment to the country's constitution. And restoring the monarchies of the Muslim regions will need amendments of the constitution in the years to come.

The Bangsamoro (Muslim) state's future parliament will be given the responsibility to discuss the restoration of the many sultanate kingdoms and to make recommendations to the central government, as it is popularly desired by the Muslim people, and also to discuss the problems besetting particularly the Sultanate of Sulu.

It appears that the many sultanates of Bangsamoro (Muslim state) is somewhat associated as being part of a religion. There is a separation of church and state in the Philippines. So right now the sultans are treated like catholic cardinals of the Philippines although sultans are not actually religious leaders but they are virtually treated as such. The present framework agreement between the Philippine government and Muslim rebels doesn't involve amendments to the constitution. It will be the future Bangsamoro parliament which will recommend to the central government regarding the official restoration of the sultanate monarchies.
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If they end up playing no political role in the future Bangsamoro entity, the Sultans may best define themselves as symbols of their respective Sultanates and peoples, and as the custodians of local cultural traditions.
If they end up playing no political role in the future Bangsamoro entity, the Sultans may best define themselves as symbols of their respective Sultanates and peoples, and as the custodians of local cultural traditions.

And they are indeed relegated to that decent role around the latter half of the 20th century and up to the present.

And even if once they are officially recognized by the constitution, they will only have ceremonial roles in government.

I think a temporary solution to the problems besetting the Sultanate of Sulu is that the Bangsamoro state should have a rotational elected monarchy similar to Malaysia. So that the elected king of Bangsamoro state can also reign as monarch of Sulu, or so that Sulu can have a reigning monarch while they sort out who is the true Sultan of Sulu.
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Try to Google "The Indigenous Peoples Rights Act of 1997 (IPRA)" which obliges the Philippine government to respect the various ethnic royalties of the Philippines.

Some of the ethnic kings in the Philippines prefer the title Rajah, and for some Datu, and some Lakan, instead of Sultan.
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:eek: I can't believe it !!! :eek: Absolute monarchy still literally exists in the Republic of the Philippines!!! :eek:

I have underestimated the Filipino Muslims' reverence to their sultans! :bang: They are even willing to die following the commandments of their sultan! :ohmy: They never listen to the President of the Philippines! They only obey their sultan! It appears the sultans of the Philippines can form, anytime, their own royal sultanate army! Even thousands of veteran Muslim rebels are willing to sign up in their royal army. And the Philippine authorities are even a bit weary to try to disband them for fear of alienating the Muslims.

Looks like an absolute monarchy to me to have your own loyal army that only listens to you. Perhaps in the future they will also have a royal navy and a royal air force.

Try to Google the Sabah claim of the Sultan of Sulu.
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The Sultan's claim to Sabah is well-reported in the Australian newspapers. The many deaths among the Sultan's supporters is no cause for rejoicing and while the mini-invasion of Sabah puts pressure on Manilla, it may be counter-productive for the Sultan and the "royal army" to deliberately increase tensions with Malaysia.

One lesson for the central government from all of this is that when it comes to affairs concerning Sulu, it would be politic to have the Sultan involved in the consultations, if only as a formality.
The Sultan's claim to Sabah is well-reported in the Australian newspapers. The many deaths among the Sultan's supporters is no cause for rejoicing and while the mini-invasion of Sabah puts pressure on Manilla, it may be counter-productive for the Sultan and the "royal army" to deliberately increase tensions with Malaysia.

One lesson for the central government from all of this is that when it comes to affairs concerning Sulu, it would be politic to have the Sultan involved in the consultations, if only as a formality.

Indeed the Muslim royal families and the MNLF were left out from the peace agreement involving the creation of the Bangsamoro entity. Now it appears that the MNLF is willing to make a deal with the Muslim royal families to establish absolute monarchies in Bangsamoro. The MNLF seems to be trying to find relevance. Therefore, the Philippine government and the MILF will form a parliamentary government while the MNLF and the royal families who were ignored in the peace agreement will form absolute monarchies in Bangsamoro state. In the future there will be power struggles between the Bangsamoro prime minister and the Sultans. The two Muslim governments will have to talk in the future and learn to become one.

The MNLF will become the royal army of the sultans. It is a return of absolute monarchies in the Bangsamoro (Muslim) state. :ohmy:
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