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Old 08-08-2019, 05:27 PM
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East Francia, 843–962

Louis the German 11 August 843 — 23 August 876 Son of Emperor Louis the Pious and grandson of Charlemagne.

Carloman (Karlmann) Carolingian 28 August 876 — 22 March 880 Son of Louis the German; ruled in Bavaria; from 877, also King of Italy.

Louis the Younger (Ludwig III. der Jüngere) 28 August 876 — 20 January 882 Son of Louis the German; ruled in East Francia, Saxony; from 880, also Bavaria.

Charles the Fat (Karl III. der Dicke) 28 August 876 12 February 881 - 11 November 887 Son of Louis the German; ruled in Alemannia, Raetia, from 882 in the entire Eastern Kingdom; from 879, also King of Italy.

Arnulf of Carinthia (Arnulf von Kärnten) 30 November 887 25 April 896 - 8 December 899 Son of Carloman.

Louis the Child (Ludwig IV. das Kind) 21 January 900 — 20/24 September 911 Son of Arnulf of Carinthia.

Conrad I (Konrad I.) 10 November 911—23 December 918

Ottonian dynasty
Henry I the Fowler (Heinrich I. der Vogler) Liudolfing (Saxon) 23 April 919 — 2 July 936

Arnulf the Bad (Arnulf der Böse, Herzog von Bayern) Luitpolding (Bavarian) 919 —921 Rival king to Henry I

Holy Roman Empire, 962–1806
The title "King of the Romans", used under the Holy Roman Empire, is considered equivalent to King of Germany. A king was chosen by the German electors and would then proceed to Rome to be crowned emperor by the pope.

Ottonian dynasty (continued)
Otto I the Great (Otto I. der Große) 7 August 936(Emperor) 2 February 962(King) 7 May 973 Son of Henry I; first king crowned in Aachen Cathedral since Lothair I; crowned as Otto by the grace of God King; crowned Holy Roman Emperor in 961.

Otto II the Red (Otto II.) 26 May 961(King) 25 December 967(Emperor) 7 December 983 Son of Otto I;
Otto by the grace of God King under his father 961–973;
also crowned Emperor in his father's lifetime.

Otto III 25 December 983(King) 21 May 996(Emperor) 21 January 1002 Son of Otto II; Otto by the grace of God King.

Henry II (Heinrich II. der Heilige) Ottonian 7 June 1002 (King) 26 April 1014(Emperor) 13 July 1024 Great-grandson of Henry I.

Salian dynasty
Conrad II (Konrad II.) 8 September 1024(King) 26 March 1027(Emperor) 4 June 1039 Great-great-grandson of Otto I.

Henry III (Heinrich III.) 14 April 1028(King) 25 December 1046(Emperor) 5 October 1056 Son of Conrad II;
King (of the Germans?) under his father 1028–1039.

Henry IV (Heinrich IV) 17 July 1054(King) 21 March 1084(Emperor) 31 December 1105 Son of Henry III;
King of Germany under his father, 1054–1056.

Rudolf of Rheinfelden (Rudolf von Rheinfelden) 15 March 1077 —15 October 1080 Rival king to Henry IV.

Hermann of Salm (Hermann von Luxemburg, Graf von Salm) 6 August 1081 — 28 September 1088 Rival king to Henry IV.

Conrad (Konrad) 30 May 1087—27 July 1101 Son of Henry IV;
King of Germany under his father, 1087–1098,
King of Italy, 1093–1098, 1095–1101 in rebellion.
Herrschaftsübergabe von Heirich IV.

Henry V (Heinrich V.) 6 January 1099(King) 13 April 1111(Emperor) 23 May 1125 Son of Henry IV;
King of Germany under his father, 1099–1105, forced his father to abdicate.

Supplinburger dynasty

Lothair II (Lothar II.) 30 August 1125(King) 4 June 1133(Emperor) 4 December 1137 He was Lothair II of Germany, but Lothair III of Italy.

Hohenstaufen and Welf

Conrad III(Konrad III.) 7 March 1138—15 February 1152 Grandson of Henry IV (through his mother); Previously Rival King to Lothair III 1127–1135

Henry Berengar(Heinrich (VI.)) 30 March 1147—August? 1150 Son of Conrad III;
King of Germany under his father 1147–1150.

Frederick I Barbarossa 4 March 1152(King) 18 June 1155(Emperor) 10 June 1190

Henry VI(Heinrich VI.) 15 August 1169(King) 14 April 1191(Emperor) 28 September 1197 Son of Frederick I;
King of Germany under his father 1169–1190

Frederick II(Friedrich II.) 1197 —1197 Son of Henry VI;
King of Germany under his father, 1196

Philip of Swabia(Philipp von Schwaben) 6 March 1198—21 August 1208 Son of Frederick I; rival king to Otto IV.

Otto IV(Otto IV. von Braunschweig) 29 March 1198(King) 4 October 1209(Emperor) 5 July 1215 Rival king to Philip of Swabia; later opposed by Frederick II; deposed, 1215; died 19 May 1218.

Frederick II(Friedrich II.) 5 December 1212(King) 22 November 1220(Emperor) 26 December 1250 Son of Henry VI;
Rival king to Otto IV until 5 July 1215.

Henry(Heinrich (VII.)) 23 April 1220—15 August 1235 Son of Frederick II;
King of Germany under his father, 1220–1235.

Conrad IV(Konrad IV.) May 1237—1 May 1254 Son of Frederick II;
King of Germany under his father, 1237–1250


Henry Raspe(Heinrich Raspe) 22 May 1246—16 February 1247 Rival King to Frederick II and great-great-great grandson of Henry IV.

William of Holland(Wilhelm von Holland) 3 October 1247—28 January 1256 Rival King to Frederick II and Conrad IV, 1247–1254.

Richard of Cornwall(Richard von Cornwall) 13 January 1257—2 April 1272 Brother-in-law of Frederick II; rival king to Alfonso of Castile; held no real authority.

Alfonso of Castile(Alfons von Kastilien) House of Ivrea 1 April 1257—1275 Grandson of Philip; rival king to Richard of Cornwall; held no authority; later opposed by Rudolf I; relinquished claims 1275, died 1284.

Habsburg and Nassau

Rudolf I(Rudolf I. von Habsburg) Habsburg 29 September 1273—15 July 1291 First of the Habsburgs.

Adolf of Nassau(Adolf von Nassau) 5 May 1292—23 June 1298 According to some historians, Adolf's election was preceded by the short-lived kingship of Conrad, Duke of Teck.

Albert I(Albrecht I. von Habsburg) 24 June 1298—1 May 1308 Son of Rudolf I; Rival king to Adolf of Nassau, 1298.

Luxembourg and Wittelsbach

Henry VII(Heinrich VII., Luxemburger) 27 November 1308(King) 13 June 1311(Emperor) 24 August 1313 Holy Roman Emperor.

Louis IV(Ludwig IV. der Bayer, Wittelsbacher) 20 October 1314(King) 17 January 1328(Emperor) 11 October 1347 Grandson of Rudolf I; rival king to Frederick the Fair, 1314–1322.

Frederick the Fair(Friedrich der Schöne, Habsburger) 19 October 1314/
5 September 1325—28 September 1322/
13 January 1330 Son of Albert I;
rival king to Louis IV, 1314–1322;
associate king with Louis IV, 1325–1330

Charles IV(Karl IV. von Luxemburg) 11 July 1346(King) 5 April 1355(Emperor) 29 November 1378 Grandson of Henry VII; rival king to Louis IV, 1346–1347;
also King of Bohemia, King of Italy and Holy Roman Emperor.

Günther von Schwarzburg 30 January 1349—24 May 1349 Rival king to Charles IV.

Wenceslaus(Wenzel von Luxemburg) 10 June 1376—20 August 1400 Son of Charles IV; king of Germany under his father 1376–1378; deposed 1400;
also by inheritance King of Bohemia; died 1419.

Rupert of the Palatinate(Ruprecht von der Pfalz, Wittelsbacher) 21 August 1400— 18 May 1410 Great-grandnephew of Louis IV.

Sigismund(Sigismund von Luxemburg) 20 September 1410/21 July 1411(King) 3 May 1433(Emperor) 9 December 1437 Son of Charles IV.

Jobst of Moravia(Jobst von Mähren, Luxemburger) 1 October 1410—8 January 1411 Nephew of Charles IV; rival king to Sigismund.

Albert II(Albrecht II.) 18 March 1438—27 October 1439 4th in descent from Albert I;
son-in-law of Sigismund

Frederick III(Friedrich III.) 2 February 1440(King) 16 March 1452(Emperor) 19 August 1493 4th in descent from Albert I; 2nd cousin of Albert II.

Maximilian I 16 February 1486(King) 4 February 1508(Emperor) 12 January 1519 Son of Frederick III; King of Germany under his father, 1486–1493; assumed the title "Elected Emperor" in 1508 with the pope's approval.

Charles V (Karl V.) 28 June 1519(King) 28 June 1519(Emperor) 3 August 1556 Grandson of Maximilian I; died 21 September 1558.

Ferdinand I 5 January 1531(King) 14 March 1558(Emperor) 25 July 1564 Grandson of Maximilian I; brother of Charles V; King of Germany under his brother Charles V 1531–1556; last king to be crowned in Aachen Cathedral.

Maximilian II 22 November 1562(King) 25 July 1564(Emperor) 12 October 1576 Son of Ferdinand I;
King of Germany under his father 1562–1564.

Rudolf II 27 October 1575(King) 2 November 1576(Emperor) 20 January 1612 Son of Maximilian II;
King of Germany under his father, 1575–1576.

Matthias 13 June 1612(King) 13 June 1612(Emperor) 20 March 1619 Son of Maximilian II.

Ferdinand II 28 August 1619(King) 28 August 1619(Emperor) 15 February 1637 Grandson of Ferdinand I.

Ferdinand III 22 December 1636(King) 15 February 1637(Emperor) 2 April 1657 Son of Ferdinand II;
King of Germany under his father 1636–1637

Ferdinand IV 31 May 1653—9 July 1654 Son of Ferdinand III;
King of Germany under his father.

Leopold I 18 July 1658(King) 18 July 1658(Emperor) 5 May 1705 Son of Ferdinand III.

Joseph I 23 January 1690(King) 5 May 1705(Emperor) 17 April 1711 Son of Leopold I; King of Germany under his father 1690–1705.

Charles VI(Karl VI.) 27 October 1711(King) 27 October 1711(Emperor) 20 October 1740 Son of Leopold I.

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Old 08-08-2019, 06:46 PM
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Charles VII(Karl VII.) 14 January 1742(King) 14 January 1742(Emperor) 20 January 1745 Great-great-grandson of Ferdinand II; Husband of Maria Amalia, daughter of Joseph I.


Francis I(Franz I.) 13 September 1745(King) 13 September 1745(Emperor) 18 August 1765 Great-grandson of Ferdinand III; Husband of Maria Theresa, daughter of Charles VI.

Joseph II 27 March 1764(King) 18 August 1765(Emperor) 20 February 1790 Son of Francis I and Maria Theresa; King of Germany under his father 1764–1765.

Leopold II 30 September 1790(King) 30 September 1790(Emperor) 1 March 1792 Son of Francis I and Maria Theresa.

Francis II(Franz II.) 7 July 1792(King) 7 July 1792(Emperor) 6 August 1806 Son of Leopold II; Dissolved the Holy Roman Empire; also Emperor of Austria 1804–1835; President of the German Confederation (1815-1835), died 1835.

Modern Germany, 1806–1918

Confederation of the Rhine, 1806–1813

Napoleon (Emperor of the French and King of Italy) Protector of the Confederation of the Rhine 12 July 1806-19 October 1813.

Karl Theodor von Dalberg, Prince-Archbishop of Regensburg, Grand Duke of Frankfurt Prince-primate of the Confederation of the Rhine
25 July 1806-26 October 1813

Eugène de Beauharnais,
Grand Duke of Frankfurt
26 October 1813-December 1813

German Confederation, 1815–1866

Francis I,Emperor of Austria
20 June 1815-2 March 1835

Ferdinand I, Emperor of Austria
(Ferdinand I., Kaiser von Österreich) Ferdinand I; Keizer van Oostenrijk.jpg Head of the presiding power (Präsidialmacht)
2 March 1835-12 July 1848

Archduke John of Austria
Imperial Vicar (Reichsverweser) of the revolutionary German Empire
12 July 1848-20 December 1849

Frederick William IV, King of Prussia
Emperor of the Germans elect: 28 March 1849-28 April 1849
Presidium of the Union (Unionsvorstand) of the
Erfurt Union: 26 May 1849-29 November 1850

Francis Joseph I, Emperor of Austria (Franz Joseph I., Kaiser von Österreich)
Head of the presiding power (Präsidialmacht)
1 May 1850-24 August 1866

North German Confederation, 1867–1871

Wilhelm I, King of Prussia(Wilhelm I, König von Preußen)
Holder of the Bundespräsidium of the North German Confederation
1 July 1867-1 January 1871

German Empire, 1871–1918

Wilhelm I, German Emperor (Wilhelm I., Deutscher Kaiser)
1 January 1871-9 March 1888

Friedrich III, German Emperor (Friedrich III., Deutscher Kaiser)
9 March 1888-15 June 1888

Wilhelm II, German Emperor(Wilhelm II., Deutscher Kaiser)
15 June 1888-9/28 November 1918

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Old 12-06-2019, 04:07 PM
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In 1918 Wilhelm II abdicated as Emperor of Germany. Was it also necessary that those who ruled a principality such as Waldeck and Pyrmont, a grand duchy such as Baden, and a kingdom such as Bavaria and Saxony also have to abdicate? Or did they have the option not to abdicate?
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Old 09-17-2020, 10:20 AM
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I will also put here the lists of kings who ruled some areas of Germany (Hanover, Bavaria, etc).

Kings of Bavaria:
  • Maximilian I Joseph 1805–1825
  • Ludwig I 1825–1848 (d. 1868)
  • Maximilian II 1848–1864
  • Ludwig II 1864–1886
  • Otto 1886–1913 (d. 1916)
  • Ludwig III 1913–1918

Kings of Hanover:
  • George I Louis 1708–1727
  • George II Augustus 1727–1760
  • George III William Frederick 1760–1806 and 1814-1820
  • George IV 1820-1830
  • William IV 1830-1837
  • Ernest Augustus 1837-1851
  • George V 1851-1866

Kings of Saxony:
  • Frederick Augustus I the Just 1806 – 1827
  • Anthony the Kind 1827 – 1836
  • Frederick Augustus II 1836 – 1854
  • John 1854 – 1873
  • Albert the Good 1873 – 1902
  • George 1902 – 1904
  • Frederick Augustus III 1904 – 1918

Kings of Württemberg:
  • Frederick I 1806-1816
  • William I 1816-1864
  • Charles I 1864-1891
  • William II 1891-1918

Kings of Prussia:
  • Frederick I 1701-1713
  • Frederick William I 1713-1740
  • Frederick II 1740-1786
  • Frederick William II 1786-1797
  • Frederick William III 1797-1840
  • Frederick William IV 1840-1861
  • William I 1861-1888
  • Frederick III 1888
  • William II 1888-1918 (abdicated)
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Old 09-17-2020, 10:48 AM
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German Loyalty

Am I wrong, or was never a reigning German Monarch killed or violently removed from office by the people - without the exception of the last Emperor Willy II.?
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Old 09-17-2020, 11:50 AM
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Originally Posted by victor1319 View Post
Am I wrong, or was never a reigning German Monarch killed or violently removed from office by the people - without the exception of the last Emperor Willy II.?

With my knowledge after Napoleonic Wars any German monarch wasn't ousted violently/assassinated/killed on war. Of course before that there was surely several German dukes, princes and HRE emperors who were ousted violently, assassinated or killed on battle.

With my knowledge only German monarchs before end of WW1 who were ousted (altough non-violent means) were Ludvig II and Otto of Bavaria.

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