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  #181  
Old 05-26-2020, 08:50 AM
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May 26th,1250 : Death of Pierre Ier,Duke of Brittany .

Pierre de Dreux was the husband of Alix ,Duchess of Brittany he died in 1250 and was buried at Braisne Abbey in Aisne which is the burial site of the Counts of Dreux.

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Peter_I,_Duke_of_Brittany

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  #182  
Old 05-27-2020, 01:12 AM
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May 27, 1707 the death of one of the most well known royal mistresses Françoise-Athénaïs de Rochechouart, Marquise de Montespan. Better known as Madam de Montespan. She was the senior royal mistress of Louis XIV.

Francoise came from two of the oldest French noble families. Her father was Gabriel de Rochechouart de Mortemart, Duke of Mortemart,Prince of Tonnay-Charente, a close friend of Louis XIII. And her mother was Diane de Grandseigne, lady in waiting to Anne of Austria. She was one of five kids.

her siblings:
-Louis Victor: followed their father as Duke of Mortemart. He served as general of the galleys, Viceroy of Sicily and First gentleman of the king's chamber. He had six children.
-Gabrielle: married Claude Leonor Damas de Thianges, Marquis of Thianges with whom she had four children. Her daughter Dianne married a nephew of Cardinal Mazarin, and was the grandmother of French diplomat Louis Jules Mancini Mazarini. She is an ancestress to the Monaco royal family.
-Marie Christine: nothing known of her
-Marie-Madeleine Gabrielle: was a nun. Considered the queen of abbesses, she was appointed the Superior general of Fontevraud Abbey.

She was said to have inherited her family's wit. She was educated at the convent of St Mary's at Saintes like her elder sister before her. She was said to be quite religious and took communion every day. At the age of 20 she would join the court, as a lady in waiting to Princess Henrietta Anne. Henrietta was married to the king's brother Philippe, Duke of Orleans.

In 1663 she was married to Louis Henri de Pardaillan de Gondrin, marquis de Montespan. She was 23 and her husband was 22. Prior she had been in love with Louis de La Trémoille, who was the elder son and heir to the Duc de Noirmoutier but Louis had been forced to flee to Spain. They lived in a small house near the Louvre which allowed her to continue her role as a lady in waiting to the Duchess. She was not only famed at court for her beauty but for being cultured, a witty conversationalist and politically smart. It made her a sought after mistress by more then the king.

she bore her husband two children:
-Marie Christine de Pardaillan de Gondrin: she died at age 12. She had accompanied her father when he was exiled from court after protesting his wife's affair. She died at one of his castles in Gascony.
-Louis Antoine de Pardaillan de Gondrin: succeeded his father's titles as well as eventually Duke of Antin. He married Julie Françoise de Crussol, daughter of the Duke of Uzes. They had two sons. His Paris home became the home of the Duke of Richelieu

Francoise resented openly the position of the Spanish born queen Maria Theresa. By 1666 she was vying to replace Louis' current mistress Louise de La Valliere. Louise had born the king four children, a 5th born in 1667. The queen by 1666 had born her husband 3 children, only one of whom the Grand Dauphin was alive (other two died within 2 months of life). Of the 6 children the queen bore, only 3 made it to their first birthday, and only the Grand Dauphin made it to adulthood (La Petite madame made it to 5 and Philippe Charles died short of his third birthday).

Louise laughed at her when she knew what Francoise was doing but she under estimated her. Francoise was popular including being very close to the Dauphin. She managed to become friendly with Louise and the queen, and when both women were pregnant, was asked to entertain the king at private dinners. She is said to have finally seduced the king by dropping her towel. The queen and Louise both regretted their decision, when she cultivated a true relationship with the king. Louise fell to second place, the king giving the women connecting rooms to hide his new mistress. Louise eventually retired to a convent.

One of her friends at court was Anne Louise, Duchess of Noailles. She was a lady in waiting to the queen. Lady Boyer's granddaughter would eventually marry a son of Francoise.

She was brought down by the affair of the poisons. Between 1677-1682 36 members of the court were executed on charges of poisoning and witchcraft. Suspicion of her involvement led the king's eye to wander to Marie Angélique de Scorailles (a lady in waiting to Elizabeth Charlotte). Francoise found herself relegated to superintendant of the queen's household at the time. Marie Angelique died, suspicion she was poisoned, before she could become the king's mistress. She was accused of being involved in some poisonings including an attempt perhaps on the king, but she was never found guilty of any actual crimes.

In 1691 she retired to the convent Notre-Dame-des-Champs, Paris. At the time her father became governor of Paris and her brother marshal of France in thanks from the king. Francoise was a very wealthy woman and was a benefactor of many hospitals as well as to the arts during her retirement. She spent her last years in severe penetance and died while taking water at Bourbon-l'Archambault trying to cure her illness. Her death was felt hard by her younger children though the king refused to allow them to wear mourning.

She bore the king seven children:

-Louise Francoise- died at age 2
-Louis Auguste- was legitimized by his father and made Duke of Maine. He was the founder of the House of Bourbon-Maine. His wife Louise Benedicte was a daughter of the Duke of Enghien. They had 7 children. He was said to be his father's favorite child.
-Louis Cesar- Count of Vexin. He had a crooked spine and a limp. He was made abbot of St Denis even though he died when he was 10. Since he was so young, he had remained at court even with the appointment.
-Louise Francoise (the 2nd)- was married to Louis III, Prince of Condé. The couple had 9 children. Her husband was Duke of Bourbon when they wed.
-Louise Marie Anne- died at the age of 6.
-Francoise Marie- married her paternal 1st cousin Philippe II, Duke of Orléans. They had 8 children.
-Louis Alexandre- Count of Toulouse. He married Marie Victoire de Noailles. Marie was a granddaughter of Francoise' friend Lady Boyer (Marie was the daughter of her eldest son, the 2nd Duke of Noailles).They had one son.
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  #183  
Old 05-27-2020, 05:10 AM
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Madame de Montespan was buried beside her mother at the chapelle du couvent des Cordeliers de Poitiers.Nothing remains of the convent it was ransacked during the Revolution and torn down,the burials were desecrated .
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  #184  
Old 05-29-2020, 08:33 AM
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On this day,May 29th 1627 : Birth of Anne Marie Louise d'Orléans, Duchess of Montpensier.

Daughter of Gaston de France,Duc d'Orléans and Marie de Bourbon,the Princess was born at at the Palais du Louvre in Paris.

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Anne_M...of_Montpensier

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Louvre_Palace

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  #185  
Old 06-01-2020, 03:21 AM
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June 1, 1146- death of Ermengarde of Anjou.

Her father was Fulk IV, Count of Anjou. Her mother was his first wife Hildegarde of Beaugency. She was the only child from their marriage. She was named after her paternal grandmother, Ermengarde-Blanche of Anjou. Ermengarde-Blanche was the daughter of Fulk III of Anjou (who her son was named for) and sister of Geoffrey II. When her brother died, the throne passed to her elder son who became Geoffrey III, but was eventually seized by Fulk. Ermengarde-Blanche had later married the Duke of Burgundy.

Fulk IV would marry four more times after his first wife died. He would have sons from his second and fifth wives.
-Geoffrey Martel: son of Fulk and Ermengarde de Bourbon (2nd wife). He succeeded his father but died while being besieged by one of his barons.
-Fulk: became Fulk V and King of Jerusalem. son of Fulk and his last wife Bertrade de Montfort. Bertrade left her husband and married Philip I of France (despite both their spouses still being alive). By his first wife Ermengarde of Maine he had four children. And two sons by his second wife. He was the grandfather of Henry II of England (his eldest son Geoffrey of Anjou was Henry's father) and of Baldwin IV, Sibylla and Isabella I of Jerusalem (their father Aemeric I was his younger son by his second wife).

She was well educated and grew up quite pious. She had a mind for religious reform, and great concern for the secular appropriation of church property.


Her first marriage was made in 1089 to William IX of Aquitaine. William was her half-cousin, the shared a grandmother. Her father Fulk and his mother Hildegarde were both children of Ermengarde-Blanch. Hildegarde was the only child of Ermengarde-Blanche's second marriage to the Duke of Burgundy. He was 18 and she was 21. He was a philanderer. She suffered major mood swings and would disappear off to a cloister for long periods after an argument and would return like nothing had happened. Between this and her failure to give him a child, he sent her back to her father in 1091 and had the marriage annulled. He would marry Philippa, Countess of Toulouse in 1094 who gave him three children.

In 1093 her father married her off a second time. It was likely to cement an alliance with Normandy which was under the control of the son of William the conqueror Robert Curthose. This time her spouse was Alan IV, Duke of Brittany. His first wife Constance had been the daughter of William the Conqueror. It is believed Alan had her poisoned by his servants.

In 1096 her husband took off to participate in the crusades and left her as regent until 1101. She preferred to spend her time in Nantes. She is known for her expansion of Royal Abbey of Our Lady of Fontevraud where she retreated at times. Its the abbey Eleanor of Aquitaine, Henry II and Richard the Lionheart would be buried (Henry II being her great-nephew through her youngest half brother).


Her husband was an unpopular ruler and was forced in 1112 to abdicate in favor of their son. Ermengarde and her husband were separated.


She retreated to the abbey where oddly she befriended her replacement in Aquitaine, Philippa. After finding William moved his mistress Dangereuse de l'Isle Bouchard into her home, Philippa had retreated to the abbey. Philippa's son William X would actually marry Dangereuse's daughter from her first marriage. Following the death pf Philippa, Ermengarde actually returned to Aquitaine and demanded that she be recognized as Duchess again. She even appealed to the Pope to step in but he declined. She would cause problems for her former husband for some years to come after.

There is some question of where she died. Some say she died in Jerusalem at the convent of St Anne. But records of the Redon abbey say she died there. Its possible she died in Jerusalem and her body was sent back to the abbey for burial. Its where her husband Alan was buried.


Her and Alan were the parents of three children:

-Geoffrey: died young
-Conan: succeeded his father as Conan III, Duke of Brittany. Conan allied himself with Stephen in his war with Empress Mathilda. It put him against his family, since Matilda was married to his cousin Geoffrey. Conan was married to Maud Fitzroy, a natural daughter of Henry I of England. They had three children. He disinherited his son Hoel and was succeeded instead by his daughter Bertha.
-Hawise: married Baldwin VII of Flanders when she was nine. The marriage only lasted 5 years so likely never consummated.
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Old 06-09-2020, 04:47 AM
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On this day,June 9th,1572 : Death of Jeanne III Queen of Navarre ,Dowager Duchess of Vendôme

Jeanne d'Albret was the daughter of Henri II of Navarre and Margaret d'Angoulême,she married Antoine de Bourbon, Duke of Vendôme in 1548 ,succeeded her father in 1555 and was the mother of Henri IV of France.Jeanne died in Paris and was buried at the now destroyed collégiale Saint-Georges which was the burial site of the house of Vendôme.

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Jeanne_d%27Albret

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  #187  
Old 06-24-2020, 04:09 PM
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On this day, 23 June 1703 : Birth of Princess Maria Karolina Zofia Felicja Leszczyńska future queen consort of France and wife of Louis XV.

Maria was born in Trzebnica, Silesia in modern day Poland,the second daughter of king Stanislaus I of Poland and queen Catherine Opalińska.

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Marie_Leszczy%C5%84ska

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  #188  
Old 07-03-2020, 12:42 AM
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July 3, 1642 death of Marie de Medicci.

Marie was born at Palazzo Pitti in Florence, April 26, 1575. Her father was Franceso I de Medicci, Grand Duke of Tuscany. Her mother Joanna of Austria, the daughter of Ferdinand I, Holy Roman emperor and granddaughter of Juana the Mad and Philip I. Her parents had seven children but only two of them reached adulthood.

-Eleanor- oldest and the other to reach adulthood. Married Vincenzo I Gonzaga, Duke of Mantua. Had five children.
-Romola- died less then 2 weeks after birth
-Anna- died at age 14. She had a failed betrothal to Charles, Margrave of Burgau.
-Isabella- died at 10 months old
-Lucrezia- died at almost 9 months old
-Philip- her only younger sibling. He suffered from hydrocephalus and died a few months before his 5th birthday.

Henry IV of France (Henry III of Navarre) divorced his wife Margaret of Valois in 1599. Margaret was the daughter of Henry II and Catherine de Medici (unlike Marie who was from a cadet branch, Catherine was of the main branch of the Medici family). The couple had been married since 1572 but had remained childless. After becoming king in 1589 he knew he needed to have an heir, and considered marrying his mistress Gabrielle d'Estrées though his counselors were opposed. Gabrielle died after giving birth to their still birth child in April 1599 (she had born him three children).

Henry and Marie were married October 1600 by proxy as her husband did not come to Italy. The marriage was celebrated in Florence with 4000 guests and had opera (a new music form at the time) performed. Marie brought a dowry of 600,000 crowns with her.

Henry was 47 at the time of his marriage, Marie was 25. His choice of Marie was mainly as he owed her father a huge debt. Her father had supported him in his wars financially. The only way Henry saw to repay it was to offer marriage to his younger daughter.


Though the marriage was successful child wise, it was a very unhappy one. She had issues with his official mistresses. Very much like Henry II did his wife, Henry treated Marie mainly as a brood mare. He had promised Catherine Henriette de Balzac d'Entragues, his official mistress after Gabrielle died, marriage but then turned around and married Marie. Catherine was spiteful and rude to his wife, calling her the 'fat banker's daughter'. She favored Margaret of Valois and convinced the king to allow his ex back to court. When Henry died, Marie saw to the exile of Catherine.

Marie wasn't crowned queen until May 13, 1610. It lasted only a day as her husband was assassinated the next day. As her son was only 9 at the time, Marie was named regent for him, a position she held until 1617.


Marie upheld her husband's ideals of religious tolerance. But she turned aside the anti-Hapsburg politics, being the daughter of a Hapsburg princess. Her position was strengthened by the early support of Cardinal Richelieu. But when her son came of age and took power he over turned her pro Hapsburg/Spanish policies and exiled her to Chateau Blois.

She was in exile for two years. In 1619 she escaped and became figure head of a revolt led by Gaston, Duke of Olreans. Though Gaston's troops were easily dispersed, Cardinal Richelieu helped Marie and her son Louis reconcile. She returned to his counsel in 1621. As her son turned to the cardinal more and more for advice, she tried to oust him from power and failed. She went into self exile in 1630.

In 1631 she headed to Brussels and in 1638 to Amsterdam. Her visit there was seen as a triumph to the new Dutch state. A huge celebration with pagents and more was held in her honor to welcome her there.

She would also visit her daughter Henrietta Maria in England.

She eventually settled in Cologne where she died in 1642. She was buried at the Basilica of Saint-Denis.

In contrast to the long childless marriage to Margaret, Henry's marriage to Marie produced six children (one only 9 months after they wed). All but one of whom reached adulthood and went on to have children.

-Louis- was born 9 months after his parents married. Louis XIII. Married Anne of Austria and had 2 sons (Anne and Marie were related. Anne's grandfather Philip II and Marie's mother Joanna were cousins, both the grandchildren of Philip I and Juana the Mad). Louis is the king in 'The three musketeers' book and movies, and father of the Sun King.

-Elisabeth: was the first spouse of Philip IV of Spain (double wedding as Philip was the brother of Anne). Though she bore her husband 11 children, only 2 made it out of infancy. Her son Balthazar died at 16. Her daughter Elizabeth married Louis The Sun King. Through Elizabeth and Louis she is the ancestress of the current Spanish kings as their grandson Philip became Philip V of Spain.


-Christine: married Victor Amadeus I of Savoy. She bore him 8 children. She served as regent after he died. Four of her children reached adulthood. She is an ancestress to Princess Michael of Kent through her son Charles Emmanuel.

-Nicolas Henri: Duke of Orleans. Died at age 4.

-Gaston: Duke of Orleans. Married twice. With his first wife Marie de Bourbon (daughter of Henri, Duke of Montpensier) one daughter Anne Marie (known as the Grand Mademoiselle). Marie died six days later. With his second wife Marguerite of Lorraine (daughter of Francis II, Duke of Lorraine) he had five children.


-Henrietta Maria: married Charles I of England. Mother of Charles II, James II, Mary Princess of Orange (mother of William III), Henrietta Duchess of Orleans and Henry Duke of Gloucester. Also three daughters who died young (Elizabeth made it to 15).
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  #189  
Old 07-03-2020, 10:26 AM
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Maria de Medici remains were one of the first to be violated during the desecration of the vault of the Bourbon in October 1793.Some of the mob hurled abuse at her remains blaming her for the murder of Henri IV and tore her remaining tufts of her hair as a keepsake. Her remains were then dumped in a common pit and covered in limewash.
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  #190  
Old 07-05-2020, 05:48 AM
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July 5, 1554 birth of Elizabeth of Austria, Queen of France.

Elizabeth was the daughter of Maximillian II, Holy Roman emperor and Maria of Spain. Her mother was the daughter of Charles V of Spain and Holy Roman Emperor. Her parents had a happy marriage which produced 16 children, 8 of whom reached adulthood (and one who died at 17). She was their fifth child.

Her siblings who reached adulthood:
-Anna: married her Uncle Philip II of Spain as his fourth wife. Bore him five children including his heir Philip III.
-Rudolf: succeeded his father as Rudolf II, Holy Roman emperor. Never married.
-Ernest: served as governor of the low countries. Never married
-Matthias: succeeded Rudolf. Married Anna of Tyrol. no children.
-Maximillian: archduke of further Austria, and king of Poland for a time though uncrowned. Never married.
-Albert: served as Albert VII as governor of the Low countries. Married Isabella Clara Eugenia of Spain. no children.
-Wenceslaus: died at 17
- Margaret: was a nun


She grew up in a pavilion at Hofburg palace with her sister Anna and her brother Matthias. They were raised in the catholic faith. Her father visited often and Elizabeth was his favorite child. She is said to have resembled him both in her looks and in her personality as well. She was reportedly a great beauty and quite pious. She was very intelligent and joined her brothers in their studies, often over shadowing them. Her mother over saw her religious education. She was inspired by Saint Elizabeth of Hungary who she was named in honor of.


In 1559 talk already arose of her marriage to the Duke of Orleans. The French ambassador was taken by her beauty even at the age of 8 in 1562. Her grandfather Emperor Ferdinand approved such talks, and gift were exchanged. Oddly she was never taught French during this time.


It was ten years later, after a failed attempt to marry her to Frederick II of Denmark, that the French proposal was seriously taken. Charles had succeeded his brother as Charles IX of France in 1560. Charles was 19 and Elizabeth was 15. His mother Catherine preferred her sister Anna first but Anna's marriage to her Uncle was already arranged.


October 22 1570 she was married by proxy. Her Uncle Ferdinand stood proxy for the young king. She left November 4th after celebrations but bad weather stopped them in Sedan, where it was decided a small wedding would take place. She was greeted by her brother in laws Henry of Anjou and Francois of Alencon. Charles came in secrecy, dressed as a soldier, to see her for himself while his brother was giving her a tour of the local architecture. He was said to have been enchanted by his first view of her.


They were married November 26 at Mézières by Charles, Cardinal de Bourbon. It was an extravagant wedding, the new queen dressed in cloth of silver and tiara of emeralds and pearls, despite the finances of France.

Charles and his mother shielded Elizabeth from the excesses of the French court. She spoke German, Latin, Spanish and Italian fluently but she had trouble learning French. She felt quite lonely at the French court and was kept out of the politics by her husband and mother in law. Despite her less then devout lifestyle in contrast to Elizabeth, Margaret of Valois (Charles' sister) was one of her closest friends. Though she was opposed to the protestant faith, she had been disturbed and angered by the St Bartholomew's massacre and her husband's involvement in it.

On October 27, 1572 she gave birth to her only child Marie Elisabeth. The baby was named after Elizabeth's mother. Her middle name though was shared with her mother, was in honor of Elizabeth I who served as the baby's godmother.

By the time of Marie's birth Charles' health was deteriorating. He died May 30, 1574 from TB when his daughter was 19 months old.

Following her husband's death she was known as the white queen. Her father sent for her to return to Vienna, after the 40 days of mourning. Though he had originally suggested her marriage to the new king, Henry III. Both Elizabeth and Henry had refused such a suggestion. She was given the county of Marche as her dowry and originally made Duchess of Berry which she later exchanged for Auvergne and Bourbon, by Henry. She visited her nearly 3 year old daughter one last time in August 1575 before she left Paris for good in December of that year.

She lived in her childhood home until the death of her beloved father in October 1576. Her brother tried to arrange her marriage to Philip II who was widowed a 4th time by Anna, but Elizabeth refused this marriage as well. She made the comment French queen's don't remarry.

She built a Jesuit college back in France despite never receiving revenues from her French lands. She also built what became known as the queen's monastery. Her focus was on education, care of the poor and healthcare. She saw to the education of the children of poor nobility.

She remained a close friend of her sister in law Margaret. When Margaret was osctracised by the rest of the family, she sent half of her revenue which she was receiving then from France, to Margaret to help her.

She died January 22, 1592 from pleurisy at the age of 38. She was buried in a simple marble slab at her convent. The convent though was closed in 1782 for the creation of the Lutheran city church of Vienna. Emperor Joseph II had her remains transferred to the crypts of St. Stephen's Cathedral, Vienna.

Elizabeth donated a great deal of her money to the poor and sick but also for prayers for her husband. Her extensive library was left to Rudolf, while her wedding ring went to her brother Ernest.


Her daughter Marie Elisabeth died at the age of 5 in 1578. She had the distinction of being the only male line grandchild of Henry II and Catherine despite four of their sons reaching adulthood. She had been moved to Paris when she died, dying at the Hotel Anjou. She was buried next to her father at the Basilica of Saint-Denis. During the French revolution her grave was desecrated and she was thrown in a common grave. In 1817 she was reinterred in the basilica's ossuary.
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  #191  
Old 07-05-2020, 06:23 AM
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One of my favourite paintings of Elisabeth d'Autriche was one by Francois Clouet who was commissioned in 1571 and it now hangs in the Louvre.

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Old 07-14-2020, 02:13 AM
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July 14, 1223 death of Philip II of France.

Philip was born August 21, 1165. He was the son of Louis VII of France and his third wife Adele of Champagne. He was one of two children of his parent's marriage. He had five sisters, two half-sisters from each of his father's prior marriages, and one younger full sister. His father had been married to Eleanor of Aquitaine (eventual wife of Henry II of England) and Constance of Castile. His own mother Adele was the daughter of Theobald II, Count of Champagne .

his sisters:
-Marie: (Eleanor's) married Henry I of Champagne. Henry was Adele's brother. They had four children.
-Alix (Eleanor's) married another brother of Adele, Theobald V, Count of Blois. They had seven children together.
-Margaret (Constance): married Henry the young king (Eleanor's son by her second husband Henry II). After his death she married Béla III of Hungary. Her only child was a son with Henry who died after only 3 days of life.
-Alys (Constance) was intended as a wife of Richard, and was sent to England. She is believed to have become a mistress to his father Henry, so Richard married Berrengaria instead. She was offered a bride to John but his mother refused so she wed William IV Talvas, Count of Ponthieu. She bore him two daughters as well as a stillborn son.
-Agnes (Adele):married three times. Byzantine empress by marriage to Alexios II Komnenos when she was 8. Her first husband was strangled by her eventual second husband Andronikos I Komnenos who she wed at 12. Her third husband Theodore Branas was a general. She had an unnamed daughter with Theodore who would marry Narjot de Toucy, Lord of Basarnes with whom she had four children.

His father wanted to have him named co-ruler at a young age as was tradition in the Capet family. Unfortunately the 13 year old prince had gone on a hunt with friends and got separated. He spent the night alone in the woods and suffered severe fevers from the cold he caught. His father made a pilgrimage to the shrine of Thomas of Becket to pray for his recovery. He learned his son had recovered but on his way home, Louis suffered a stroke.

Louis was in declining health and had his 14 year old son crowned king at Reims November 1, 1179. As Louis sunk further and further into senility, all real power passed to his son. This left his four Uncles and the nobles of the land quite discontented as did his marriage.

In April 1180 he took his first wife, Isabella of Hainault. Isabella was the daughter of Baldwin V, Count of Hainault. Isabella brought with her the county of Artois. The marriage was not popular with Adele as it lessened the power of her brother and nephew. Isabella was a popular queen, quite loved by the people during her time as Philip's wife.

September 1180 Louis died. Philip turned towards increasing his power and funds. The royal demesne had been reduced in his father's time (the land the king controlled and had his incomes from). Philip reclaimed control of these lands, expelling the Jews who were on them and taking their property. The land served to fund Philip's armies.


He over turned his father's tolerance for Jews, not just with the royal lands. He had them ransomed off for money and forced them to convert to Christianity or face heavy taxation. He tore down houses in Paris to create a market. In 1198 he allowed the Jews to return.


He fought with his own nobles as well as with England. He sided with Richard and John when they fought their father for control of England. They were the sons of his father's first wife.


Philip took part in the crusades with Richard and the Holy Roman emperor. But in 1191 Philip was angered when Richard set aside his half sister Alys and instead married Berengaria. This would lead to years of conflict between himself and Richard, and later with John when he came to the throne.


Beyond conflicts at home and abroad Philip also had marital issues to deal with. Isabella though very popular in France, had not had much success in giving him an heir. It took until 1187 for her to give him a child, his son Louis. Unfortunately March 14, 1190 she gave birth to a pair of twin boys. Robert died the same day and Philip died three days later. Isabella died from complications the day after Robert. Her husband had been away on campaign at the time. Her husband returned for her funeral, choosing the placement of her tomb, and spent a few days in mourning before he returned to Normandy. He did write the Pope that he missed her deeply.


-Louis: Louis became Count of Artois at the age of three, as it passed to him (a condition of the dowry) not his father. He would succeed his father as Louis VIII and would be known as the lion. He would marry Blanche of Castile whose mother Eleanor was a sister of Richard the Lionheart. They had 13 children. Succeeded by his 4th son Louis IX.


Having only one son, the issue arose of a new wife for Philip. His eventual choice was Ingeborg of Denmark. Ingeborg was the daughter of Valdemar I. She took the name Isambour in France. She was said to be very kind, very young but old in wisdom. She was 19 and he was 28. It seems though that he found she had bad breath on their wedding night and was so disgusted he refused to make her queen. He sent her to a convent and tried to have the marriage annulled on the grounds they never consummated the marriage. She would not go quietly though and attested to consummation of the marriage. William of Paris, a Franco-Danish churchman came to her defense when Philip tried to claim they were too closely related, showing a geneology chart that they were not.


Philip was seeking another wife still. He attempted to marry Margaret of Geneva, the daughter of William I. Margaret though was abducted on her way to Paris by Thomas, Count of Savoy. Thomas married Margaret himself, pointing out Philip was still married. She bore Thomas 14 children, 8 of whom were sons.

He did eventually take a third bride in 1196. His wife was Agnes of Merania. The 21 year old was the daughter of Berthold, Duke of Merania. She bore him two children.

-Philip: Count of Boulogne. He was legitimated by Pope Innocent III in 1201. He married Mathilda II, Countess of Boulogne and became Count of Boulogne, Mortain, Aumale, and Dammartin-en-Goële through her. They had a son and daughter. He revolted against Louis' widow after his half-brother died. His widow would marry Alfonso III of Portugal after he died. His son for unknown reasons renounced Mathilda's titles and went to England and doesn't seem to have had children.
-Marie: Was married twice. Her first husband Philip I of Namur died after only a year. He died October 1212, and April 1213 she married Henry I, Duke of Brabant. Henry was a widower himself, Mathilde had born him seven children but died in 1210. Henry was 48 and Marie was 15. She bore him two daughters, one who died young and Elizabeth who went on to marry Count Dietrich of Cleves, Lord of Dinslaken and then Gerhard II, Count of Wassenberg. Henry outlived both his wives, Marie dying in 1224 at the age of 26, her husband dying in 1235.

Despite marrying Agnes and having 2 children with her, Philip was still married to Ingeborg. Pope Innocent III declared his marriage to Agnes to be null and void considering he was married, and demanded that Philip return Agnes to her family. When Philip refused France was placed under an interdict in 1199 which continued until September 1200. He was under pressure not only from the Pope but also from Ingeborg's brother Valdemar (who would succeed the throne in 1202) took Ingeborg back in 1201. It was not until 1213 that she was recognized finally as queen. His children though with Agnes were legitamized by the pope in 1201.


Philip did a lot during his reign and not simply made war. He paved the streets of Paris, he created the large Les Halles central market, continued the construction of Notre Dame which had started in 1163, and had constructed the fortress with is now the Louvre. Under his guidance Paris became the first city of teachers in midevil world, having issued the charter for the University of Paris.

He fell ill in September 1222 and created a will. July 13, 1223 a small reprieve of his illness prompted him to decide to travel to Paris against the orders of his physicians. He would die on route the next day. He died at 58 in Mantes-la-Jolie, and his body was taken to Paris.

He was buried at the Basilica of St Dennis. Both his sons, as well as John I, King of Jerusalem were in attendance at his funeral.


Agnes had died in 1201, a year after Philip had eventually left her under pressure from the Pope. She was buried at Convent of St Corentin near Nantes.

Ingeborg would out live Philip, dying in 1237 at 63/4. Her husband is said to have told his son to treat her kindly, and both Louis VIII and his son recognized her as dowager queen. She spent the remainder of her life mainly at the priory Saint-Jean-de-l’Ile which she founded. She was buried at the Church of the Order of St John in Corbeil.
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Old 07-14-2020, 02:49 PM
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Philippe II (Auguste) was also the 1st French Monarch to style himself Roi de France/King of France as opposed to King of the Franks

A 19th century painting of the king by Louis-Félix Amiel.

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Old 07-16-2020, 11:50 PM
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July 17, 1429- Charles VII is crowned king of France during the Hundred years war, due in huge part to the campaign led by Joan of Arc.

Charles was 26. He was the eleventh child and 5th son of Charles VI of France and Isabeau of Bavaria. His four older brothers had all died the last in 1417.

On June 18 of that year Joan had led the French armies in the victory of the Battle of Patay, in which the English lost half their troops. After pushing further into English-Burgundian territory, Charles was crowned at Reims cathedral.

The 100 years war would continue until 1435, Joan of Arc captured by the Burgundians in 1431 and burned at the stake. Thanks to the support of his wife's family, Charles reached a treaty of peace with the Burgundians in 1435. From then on no prince of the blood recognized Henry VI as king. Paris and the rest of France were reclaimed in the following decades, all but Calais.

His wife was Marie of Anjou. Marie was the daughter of Louis II of Anjou and Yolande of Aragon. Yolande became a powerful ally of her son in law. Yolande was a great strategist, having a network of well placed women she placed into the beds of men she wanted information on. She was also a great supporter of Joan of Arc.

Marie would give her husband 14 children. The first four were born before he was crowned king, and three were born before the Burgundian peace. Eight died in childhood (one of them at 16), and of the 6 who reached adulthood, 5 married and 3 had children.

-Louis: succeeded his father as Louis XI. Married Margaret of Scotland and Charlotte of Savoy. He had 8 children with Charlotte including Charles VIII and a daughter Joan who would be briefly queen consort of France by marriage to Louis XII.
-John: died after a few hours
-Radegonde: betrothed to Sigismund, Archduke of Austria. Died of pleurisy at 16 before they were married.
-Catherine: born a year before her father was crowned. Married Charles I, Duke of Burgundy. She was 12 and her husband 7, so she lived with her husband's mother instead who treated her as a surrogate daughter. She died most likely of TB at 18, having never had children.
-James: first born after Charles was crowned. Died at age five.
-Yolande: the other child born between his coronation and peace with Burgundy (ending the war). Married Amadeus IX, Duke of Savoy and had ten children. She served as regent for her son Philibert I of Savoy.
-Joan: was born a few months before the final treaty. Married John II, Duke of Bourbon, but had no children.
-Philip: first born after the war, died in infancy
-Margaret: died at age one
-Joanna: died at age eight
-Marie: twin of Joanna, died in infancy
-Isabella: died young
-Magdalena: married Gaston, Prince of Viana and had two children. Both her son and daughter would rule Navarre.
-Charles: duke of Berry. Never married.
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  #195  
Old 07-30-2020, 03:57 AM
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On this day, July 30, 1683 ~ Demise of Maria Theresa of Spain, Queen of France, wife of King Louis XIV
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Old 08-02-2020, 04:58 AM
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August 2, 1330 death of Yolande of Dreux, Queen Consort of Scotland. She was Countess of Montfort in her own right.

Yolande was born in 1263.

Yolande's father was Robert IV, Count of Dreux. Her mother Beatrice was Countess of Montfort-l'Amaury in her own right. Beatrice was the daughter of John I Montfort who died when she was one on the seventh crusade. Yolande was the second of their six children, with three sisters and two brothers. Her father was succeeded by her brother John II.

Alexander III of Scotland was in need of a new wife. His wife Margaret of England (sister of Edward I) had died in 1275. Unfortunately all three of their children had died, the last being Alexander in 1284. His only heir was his granddaughter Margaret of Norway, the child of his daughter Margaret and her husband Eric II of Norway. Margaret was a year old when her Uncle Alexander died. Alexander III had been considering a bride since 1281 after the death of his youngest son David but the process sped up with the death of his last child. Yolande was the choice of Marie de Coucy, the Queen Dowager of Scotland, for her son. Marie de Coucy who died in the summer of 1285 was related to the Dreux family. A marriage to Yolande would also further separate Alexander from the influence of his brother in law Edward. Marie would not live to see the marriage as she died in June.


Yolande was accompanied to Scotland by her brother Jean. She married Alexander October 15, 1285 at Jedburgh abbey. The wedding was attended by nobles from France and Scotland. She was 22 and her husband was twice her age at 44.


The marriage was short lived as Alexander died March 18, 1286 barely five months later. The king had been riding to Fife to meet his wife when he got separated from his guides. He was found in the morning, having fallen from his horse and breaking his neck. He was buried at Dumferline abbey.


Yolande was pregnant at the time and was moved to Stirling castle. She was to serve as guardian until either her child or Margaret of Norway came of age. Her child would take precedence over Alexander's granddaughter. Its not clear what happened to the child though. The child was either stillborn or died shortly after birth. It seems from some records that the baby was still born in November. After the loss of the baby, preparations were being made for Margaret of Norway to be brought to Scotland.


Its unclear when she returned to France. She is noted having been in Scotland as late as 1288. She remained at Stirling castle during the time.


In 1294 she was back in France as she married her second husband. This time she married Arthur II, Duke of Brittany. Arthur was a grandson of Henry III of England. His mother Beatrice was the sister of Edward I and of Yolande's predecessor in Scotland, Margaret. Arthur was only 2 years older then her, born in 1261 making the groom 33 and the bride 31 when they were married.

Like Alexander, Arthur had been married prior to Yolande. His first wife was Marie, Viscountess of Limoges. He had married her at 14 and they had three children before Marie died in 1291. Marie and Yolande's parents were cousins. Marie's mother Margaret and Yolande's father Robert were the grandchildren of Robert III of Dreux.


Her stepchildren:


-John: was 7 when his father remarried. succeeded his father as John III of Brittany. He was married three times, but had no children. He hated his stepmother and tried to deny the throne to his half-brother and leave it to the French crown instead.


-Guy: was around 6 when they married. He died 10 years before John in 1331. He was married to Jeanne d'Avaugour and had at least one child, a daughter Joan who succeeded her father as Countess of Penthièvre. Joan was married to Charles of Blois and they would eventually rule as Duke and Duchess of Brittany after the Breton war of succession.

-Peter: Seigneur of Dol-Combourg and Sant-Maloù. He died in 1312 at the age of 23.

At the time of their marriage Arthur was only heir to the Duchy as his father died in 1305 at 66 years old. Arthur's mother though had died in 1275. Arthur would only serve as Duke for 7 years as he died in 1312 at 51. In 18 years the couple welcomed 6 children, only one of whom was a son.

-John: known as John Montfort. He inherited count of Montfort-l'Amaur from his mother. He married Joanna of Flanders and had two children. Due to his half brother trying to deny him the throne, the war of Bretton succession took place when John succeeded as Duke of Brittany. His son John would eventually claim the duchy and become John IV.

-Beatrice: Married Guy X, Lord of Laval. They had at least 2 sons. The title was inherited by both sons, and eventually their granddaughter Anne (the daughter of their 2nd son).

-Joan: married Robert, Count of Marie. Robert was the son of Robert III, Count of Flanders (he was the younger brother of the eventual Louis I, Count of Flanders). The couple had two children. Their daughter married Henry IV, Count of Bar.

-Alice: married Bouchard VI, Count of Vendome. They had at least 4 children together.

-Blanche: is said to have died young.

-Marie: became a nun

Yolande succeeded her mother as Countess of Montfort in 1311. She continue to over see her Scottish estates during the remainder of her life.

Her date of death is a bit uncertain but believed to be in 1330. Some have it as early as 1322 but there is record of her in 1324 having seen to the financial support of her daughter Marie when she became a nun. 1330 would be the latest possible date considered for her death.

https://historytheinterestingbits.co...sh-succession/
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  #197  
Old 08-02-2020, 05:55 AM
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Yolande de Dreux was buried at l'Abbaye de Cîteaux though nothing has survived of her burial.

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Old 08-06-2020, 04:32 AM
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On this day, August 6, 1775 ~ Birth of Louis Antoine, Duke of Angouleme, the son of King Charles X of France
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Old 08-07-2020, 02:19 PM
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The Prince was known as Louis Antoine d'Artois from birth,he was later created Duke of Angoulême and he was also the last Dauphin of France.

He married his cousin to Marie Thérèse de France in 1799 but there were no children from this union.
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Old Yesterday, 12:08 AM
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August 13, 1792 Louis XIV is arrested by the national tribunal and declared an enemy of the people.He would be executed in January of the following year.

1717- birth of Louis Francois, Prince of Conti

Louis was born in Paris. His father was Louis Armand II, Prince of Conti. His mother Louise Élisabeth de Bourbon was a daughter of Louis III, Prince of Condé. Both his parents were prince/ss of the blood. His mother was Duchess of Étampes in her own right, following the death of her maternal aunt Marie Anne (her mother was an illegitimate daughter of Louis XIV).

His parents had two children who reached adulthood. The other was a sister. Louise Henriette married Louis Philippe d'Orléans, Duke of Orléans. She and her husband had two children who made it from infancy, their son being executed during the French revolution.

Louis Francois pursued a military career. In the war for Austrian succession he was in the service of the Duke of Belle-Isle and went to Bohemia. He eventually was put in command of the army in Italy. He distinguished himself in several major battles including a victory at the Battle of Coni. He also spent time in Germany and the Netherlands before his retirement.

In 1760 he won an expensive bidding war against Madam de Pompadour for a vineyard later known as Romanee-Conti. To this day the wine from the vineyard is considered some of the most expensive.


He was considered for the throne of Poland at one point. And he had the support of the king. But he did not secure the throne. And in 1755 his influence with the king deteriorated thanks to Madam de Pompadour. During the seven years war he was denied the command of the army of the Rhine. He became known by the king as 'my cousin the advocate' and he was suspected of being a supporter of an uprising.

Following his fall from court he settled into a place as the Grand Prior of the Knights of the Order of Malta and took up residence at the Square du Temple.


https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Square_du_Temple


He was not just a military man but a great supporter of the arts. He had a vast art collection he purchased in the last 20 years of life. And his mistress Marie-Charlotte Hippolyte de Boufflers often held a salon in his home where many artists and thinkers gathered. Like his father he was a literary patron. He was a patron of Jean Jacque Rousseau.

He died August 2, 1776 just short of his 59th birthday.


Louis was married to Louise Diane d'Orléans, Mademoiselle de Chartres in 1731. She was the daughter of the Duke of Orleans.His wife died in 1736 giving birth to a stillborn baby. He never remarried. He had one son with his wife.

-Louis Francois Joseph: was the last prince of Conti. He married Maria Fortunata d'Este. Maria's mother was the elder sister of Louise Diane, and her father was Francesco III d'Este, Duke of Modena. He had no children with his wife who he formally separated from after his father died.
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