Charles was born Prince Charles Philippe of France. He was the youngest son of the Dauphin Louis Ferdinand and the Dauphine Marie Josephe. His grandfather King Louis XV bestowed on him the title of Count of Artois. Charles X reigned from 1824 until 1830.
Why did the Bourbon restoration fail in France? I don't think it was just a matter of having a less conservative king than Charles X since Louis Philippe was obviously far more liberal and he was also overthrown.