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  #41  
Old 05-29-2020, 04:59 AM
Muhler's Avatar
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Yes, as is evident from your post, Danish kings and pretenders killed each other all the time during the 1200's! Becoming king = a short life.
But the killings ended abruptly with the assassination of Erik Klipping in 1286.
There was simply so much chaos and bad PR following that murder that Erik Klipping ended up being the last Danish king murdered.

And not least because there was little need for killing the king afterwards. Because in 1282 Erik Klipping was forced to sign the Danish version of Magna Carta. Ensuring the rights of the nobility and ensuring that the law took precedence in disputes with (reasonably) fair trials. The power of the king was no longer absolute.

I have for years been thinking about writing about that assassination, because to this day the historians are still not sure who was really behind the murder and why.
One thing is certain though: It did not work out as planned afterwards!
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  #42  
Old 05-29-2020, 05:55 AM
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The Grave of Christopher I of Denmark is still preserved at the Ribe Domkirke,though I think it has seen better days!

https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikiped..._Ribedom51.jpg
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  #43  
Old 06-03-2020, 01:06 AM
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June 3, 1843 birth of Frederick VIII of Denmark.

Frederick was born Christian Frederik Vilhelm Carl at the Yellow Palace in Copenhagen. The palace had been given to his father by Frederik VII when he arrived from Germany. He was the son of Prince Christian of Schleswig-Holstein-Sonderburg-Glücksburg (future Christian IX). Frederick's mother was Louise of Hesse-Kassel. Louise was a niece of Christian VIII and a cousin of Frederick VII. Louise's mother was Princess Charlotte of Denmark, who like Christian VIII was a child of Hereditary Prince Frederick.

Frederick became a Prince of Denmark in 1853 when his father was named the heir to the throne. His mother's cousin Frederik VII was childless and with the male line of the main branch dying out with Frederik, an heir was needed.


Frederik was one of six kids and his father was known as the father in law of Europe.

-Alexandra: married the future Edward VII of the UK. great-grandmother of Elizabeth II as well as Harald of Norway.
-William-became George I of Greece. grandfather of Prince Philip, great grandfather of Queen Sofia and King Constantine II
-Dagmar-married Alexander III of Russia. Mother of Nicholas II
-Thyra-married Ernst August of Hannover. Great-grandmother of the current
-Valdemar- married Marie of Orleans. Grandmother of Anne of Romania.

After his confirmation in 1860 he was sent for military training but in 1863 was sent to Oxford. But November of the same year his father became king, and the young crown prince had to return back to Denmark. He took a place in the state council and started taking on duties with his father. He would be involved in the Second Schleswig War against Prussia.


His mother wanted a high marriage for Frederik like his sisters. She had hoped for one of the two single daughters of Queen Victoria but the queen was opposed to another Danish match. Instead the choice fell to Sweden.

In July 1868 at 25 he was engaged to the 17 year old Princess Louise of Sweden. Her father was Charles XV of Sweden and her mother was Louise of the Netherlands. She was her parent's only surviving child and the throne later passed to her Uncle Oscar II. The marriage was suggested to help the situation after Sweden had refused to assist Denmark against Prussia. They met for the first time in 1862 but in 1868 he was sent to Sweden to get to know her. It was said to have been a successful meeting between them.

Only July 28, 1869 the couple were married at the Royal palace in Stockholm. The couple made their home at Amalienborg palace.

He ascended the throne at 62 in 1906 on the death of his father. He had been crown prince for 43 years. He was reform minded and liberal, open to the new parliamentary system unlike his father. Unfortunately he only ruled for 6 years due to his advanced age and ill health.

May 14 1912 he was in Hamburg on his way back from Nice. He took a walk in the park where he collapsed on a park bench and died. He was found by a police officer and taken to the hospital where he was said to have died from a paralysis-attack. He was buried at Roskilde Cathedral. His wife would die in 1926.

He and Louise had 8 children:
-Christian: succeeded his father as Christian X at 42. He married Alexandrine of Mecklenburg-Schwerin and had two sons. He was the grandfather of Queen Margrethe II.

-Carl: succeeded the throne of Norway as Haakon VII. Married Princess Maud of Wales (his cousin, she was a daughter of Frederik's sister Alexandra). They had one son Olav V and were the grandparents of King Harald.

-Louise: married Prince Frederick of Schaumburg-Lippe. They had three children.

-Harald: married Princess Helena of Schleswig-Holstein-Sonderburg-Glücksburg and had five children. Their daughter Caroline Mathilde married Christian X's second son Knud. Had the succession laws not changed, her husband would have succeeded the throne when his brother died instead of his niece Queen Margrethe.

-Ingeborg: was a princess of Sweden by her marriage to Prince Carl, Duke of Västergötland. Carl was 1st cousins of her mother, the son of Oscar II. The couple had four children. Martha married the future Olav V of Norway (her first cousin, son of her Uncle Haakon) and was mother of Harald. She died three years before her husband became king. Their daughter Astrid married King Leopold III of Belgium and was mother of King Baudouin, King Albert II and Josephine-Charlotte of Luxembourg (making her grandmother to GD Henri and King Philippe)

-Thyra: remained unmarried.

-Gustav: remained unmarried

-Dagmar: married Jørgen Castenskjold and had five children.
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  #44  
Old 06-03-2020, 02:22 AM
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Thank you, Countessmeout.

A minor correction though.
Det Gule Palæ = The Yellow Palais is often translated to palace. It isn't. Palæ means mansion.

As you can see here it's located right next to Amalienborg: http://www.kulturarv.dk/1001fortaell...e-18/690x_.jpg

Today it's the home of the court's administration.
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  #45  
Old 06-03-2020, 02:46 AM
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Quote:
Originally Posted by Muhler View Post
Thank you, Countessmeout.

A minor correction though.
Det Gule Palæ = The Yellow Palais is often translated to palace. It isn't. Palæ means mansion.

As you can see here it's located right next to Amalienborg: http://www.kulturarv.dk/1001fortaell...e-18/690x_.jpg

Today it's the home of the court's administration.
Thanks for the proper translation

I had seen photos of the building before but not sure I had known it was a former royal home till now.
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  #46  
Old 06-07-2020, 03:24 PM
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Quote:
Originally Posted by Countessmeout View Post
June 3, 1843 birth of Frederick VIII of Denmark.
Frederick was also Crown Prince for over 43 years ,he must have thought he'd never be King!
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  #47  
Old Yesterday, 12:33 AM
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July 1, 1481 birth of Christian II of Denmark. As a king under the Kalmar union he also served as monarch of Norway and Sweden.

He was born at Nyborg castle, the son of King John. His mother was Christina of Saxony. Christina was the daughter of Ernst, Elector of Saxony and Elizabeth of Bavaria.

In 1513 he succeeded his father as King of Denmark and Norway. His succession to the throne of Sweden was postponed due to political issues. Christian had a fondness for the common people over his nobles. He took a commoner Dyveke Sigbritsdatter as his mistress and didn't give her up until she died in 1517 through suspicion of poisoning. Though the man who was suspected of poisoning her was found innocent by the courts, the king ordered his execution. Her mother continued as one of the king's financial advisors. Christian never missed a chance to reduce the power of his nobles.

In 1520 Christian II managed to conquer Sweden on his third attempt. He was aided by German, Scottish and French mercenaries. November 1st he was recognized as king. During the coronation celebrations he enacted what became known as the 'Stockholm bloodbath', imprisoning many of his Swedish guests and executing them as traitors and heretics.

He began reforms, trying to reduce the power of his nobles even more. And seeking aid from the middle class including people from Flanders. The Danish who were independent took offense to his favoring his Dutch allies. And Sweden rebelled against him as well.

In 1523 he was forced to flee to seek help. He spent eight years living in Brabant quite quietly while awaiting aid from his brother in law. He became a Lutheran which led to more issues. When his wife died, his children were removed from his care in fear they would become protestants as well. When his rivals later converted to Lutherans, he would convert back to catholocism. This put him back in the good books of the emperor.

After one last attempt to seize his country, he surrendered to King Frederick on July 1, 1532. Frederick was his Uncle, the younger brother of John. He surrendered in return for safe passage from his Uncle. Frederick was not a man of his word though. He kept Christian prisoner for 27 years at Sønderborg Castle. He died in January 1559. His imprisonment had been that of a noble and he was allowed to host parties and hunt. Frederick died in 1533 and his son Christian III died January 1 1559, 24 days before Christian II. Christian II was 77 years old at the time of his death.

Christian III's son Frederick II ordered a royal funeral for the late king. He was buried with his wife, son and parents in Odense.


Christian was married to Isabella of Austria. She was the daughter of Juana the mad and Philip I, and her brother was Emperor Charles V. She died near Ghent in 1525 at 24. She bore her husband six children.


-John: died at the age of 14

-Philip Ferdinand: died in infancy

-Maximilian: twin of Philip, died in infancy

-Dorothea: married Frederick II, Elector Palatine but had no children.

-Christina: married twice. She was duchess of Milan by marriage to Francesco II Sforza and Duchess of Lorraine by her marriage to Francis I, Duke of Lorraine. With Francis she had three children. She was considered as a bride for Henry VIII after Jayne Seymour died (after Francesco died). She was opposed due to the fate of his other wives. Henry was first cousins with her mother Isabella (their mothers Juana and Catherine were sisters).

-stillborn son

Following their mother's death and later their father's imprisonment, the kids were raised by Margaret of Austria. Margaret was Isabella's paternal aunt, a sister of Philip I.
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  #48  
Old Yesterday, 04:42 AM
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Thanks, Countessmeout.

The good King Christian II started a chain of events that he no doubt did not intend and basically things went out of control.
He was basically disposed by the nobility who backed his uncle, during the dramatic civil war known as the Feud of the Count.

He was right in trying to curb the power of the nobility, they put their own interests above that of the country, which is why he was supported by peasants and burghers.
At the time we in DK still had the term "mand af hus" which is basically an old term for general mobilization. Meaning that all free man (by 1500 that translated too all self-employed men) was armed and trained in using weapons, so that they could muster within a few hours in defense of the country, when the church-bells rang and the cry "mand af hus" was heard. The defense of DK depended on this by now old-fashioned citizens militia.
To the chagrin of the nobility the feudal system seen in most of Europe had never been fully implemented in DK. There were simply too many armed free men around, ready to rebel at the drop of a hat! That could be against taxation or a transgression by a local noble.
That doesn't mean it was a period of constant fighting. These uprising were more a kind of armed demonstrations, with a little vandalism and some beatings until the king send someone to smooth things out and find an amiable solution. - Sometimes the king send soldiers though...!
Because burghers and peasants had political rights and held seats in local councils alongside the nobility. - It's difficult to introduce genuine feudalism if those you wish to be the feudal lord over can veto you - and are armed...

That the king tended to side with the burghers and peasants against the nobility was nothing new. The nobility had the money and the power, the burghers and peasantry had the numbers. They balances each other out.
But the gap between high and low wasn't as wide at later became. A lord would know his tenants by name and take an interest in them, in return he got respect and loyalty rather than submission.
The downside to all this was that there was endless squabbling over trivial matters. This proto-democracy resulted in stagnation and Denmark was in serious need of reforms on a national level.
One popular way to kickstart reforms and introduce change (not only in DK) was to invite settlers from more progressive and innovative parts of Europe (in this case from Flanders, later Dutch, later German, later Poles) give them land and tax privileges and force the Danish population to implement changes simply to avoid being competed out of business. Settlers could make a fortune that way and many wealthy families were founded this way. To this day there are still a number of prominent families with Dutch names here in DK who go back to these settlers.

Anyway, that's the background.
Christian II did indeed take Sweden and in order to gain complete control of Sweden - and terrorize the Danish nobility, he betrayed and beheaded a number of leading Swedish nobles. The Stockholm Bloodbath.
It was according the laws and customs at the time an act of tyranny and it totally backfired!
The Swedes rebelled of course. In Sweden this was (and is) considered the worst atrocity since the crucifixion of Christ - what the Swedish burghers and peasantry thought is perhaps more nuanced... But it lead to Sweden becoming genuinely independent and of course what remained of the Kalmar Union was history.
The message was not lost on the Danish nobility! Nobles were an international class and Swedish and Danish nobles had intermarried since the dawn of time. So they had no problems agreeing on the king being a tyrant who had to go and thus started a viscous civil war.
Burghers and peasantry were not at all interested in the nobility gaining the upper hand and supported Christian II. The nobility hired combat hardened mercenaries from Central Europe. The Danish citizens militias had little chance however hard and tenacious they fought.

But to make things even more confusing and complicated Lutheranism had gained a solid foothold in DK, at least among the educated segments of the population, so in the middle of a bloody and cruel civil war the Reformation was introduced in 1536. Denmark was officially no longer Catholic.

On top of that the peasantry and workers, that is the large segment of the population who were not self-employed or owned their own land also rebelled, very much inspired by the central European peasants rebellions that took place around the same time.
They were basically socialist rebellions in response to feudalism and the ever harsher living conditions peasants in particular lived under in most of Europe. They called for political reforms, redistribution of wealth and land and protection under the law. They were very justified demands, no matter what glasses you wear!
Very often the rebellions were supported by monks and parish priests, who lived among the population and saw how they were oppressed. And since the church supporter those in power that led to the genuine rise in a religious alternative, Protestantism. - Who was lord when Adam and Eve in Paradise were? Was a cry heard often. And Christ himself was poor and never owned land, but walked among the poor. So who were the blessed? So nobility and class came not from God, but from man. That had a lot of appeal!
The rebellions were crushed with great cruelty. And I mean crushed! At last one historian has suggested that the crushing of these central European revolts changed especially the German national character. What later became virtues like ordnung, discipline, sense of duty and obedience stems from this period - otherwise they would have been whacked on the head! It's expressed in German this way: sie war so oft geknecht dass sie kneckte bekommen (from memory). Very difficult to translate but it roughly means something like: They were beaten into slavery.

That too happened in Denmark. The peasant revolt here was led by a man called skipper Klement. (*) And crushed.

The Feud of the Count ended. It had been a traumatic war. It was time to unite and heal the wounds under Frederik II. The people was disarmed. No more revolts! The defense of the realm was placed in the hands of the king and nobles. Administrative reforms were introduced, a central administration put in place with a proper capital, Copenhagen.
Catholic churches were converted into Lutheran churches, but quietly. No statues smashed, but left in place or simple placed in storage. (I suspect they had a look at what happened in Yorkshire, England at the same time and wanted to avoid anything like that happening in DK.) Some monasteries were closed down but in most the monks and nuns were allowed to remain until they died or left for a Catholic country. 50 years later there were no monks or nuns left. It was a good and humane approach, because many of those monks and nuns were younger daughters and sons of the nobility or nobles who had been retired out or were handicapped.
It did present some problems though. Because the Catholic church ran orphanages, poorhouses and hospitals - now all that all of a sudden was the responsibility of state and that was the start of a national healthcare system, albeit very primitive by today's standard.

150 years later Frederik III succeeded in what had failed for Christian II, he curbed the power of the nobility and introduced Absolutism.

(*) Skipper Klement is to this day a socialist hero and this catching song is about him:
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