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  #41  
Old 05-29-2020, 04:59 AM
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Yes, as is evident from your post, Danish kings and pretenders killed each other all the time during the 1200's! Becoming king = a short life.
But the killings ended abruptly with the assassination of Erik Klipping in 1286.
There was simply so much chaos and bad PR following that murder that Erik Klipping ended up being the last Danish king murdered.

And not least because there was little need for killing the king afterwards. Because in 1282 Erik Klipping was forced to sign the Danish version of Magna Carta. Ensuring the rights of the nobility and ensuring that the law took precedence in disputes with (reasonably) fair trials. The power of the king was no longer absolute.

I have for years been thinking about writing about that assassination, because to this day the historians are still not sure who was really behind the murder and why.
One thing is certain though: It did not work out as planned afterwards!
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  #42  
Old 05-29-2020, 05:55 AM
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The Grave of Christopher I of Denmark is still preserved at the Ribe Domkirke,though I think it has seen better days!

https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikiped..._Ribedom51.jpg
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  #43  
Old 06-03-2020, 01:06 AM
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June 3, 1843 birth of Frederick VIII of Denmark.

Frederick was born Christian Frederik Vilhelm Carl at the Yellow Palace in Copenhagen. The palace had been given to his father by Frederik VII when he arrived from Germany. He was the son of Prince Christian of Schleswig-Holstein-Sonderburg-Glücksburg (future Christian IX). Frederick's mother was Louise of Hesse-Kassel. Louise was a niece of Christian VIII and a cousin of Frederick VII. Louise's mother was Princess Charlotte of Denmark, who like Christian VIII was a child of Hereditary Prince Frederick.

Frederick became a Prince of Denmark in 1853 when his father was named the heir to the throne. His mother's cousin Frederik VII was childless and with the male line of the main branch dying out with Frederik, an heir was needed.


Frederik was one of six kids and his father was known as the father in law of Europe.

-Alexandra: married the future Edward VII of the UK. great-grandmother of Elizabeth II as well as Harald of Norway.
-William-became George I of Greece. grandfather of Prince Philip, great grandfather of Queen Sofia and King Constantine II
-Dagmar-married Alexander III of Russia. Mother of Nicholas II
-Thyra-married Ernst August of Hannover. Great-grandmother of the current
-Valdemar- married Marie of Orleans. Grandmother of Anne of Romania.

After his confirmation in 1860 he was sent for military training but in 1863 was sent to Oxford. But November of the same year his father became king, and the young crown prince had to return back to Denmark. He took a place in the state council and started taking on duties with his father. He would be involved in the Second Schleswig War against Prussia.


His mother wanted a high marriage for Frederik like his sisters. She had hoped for one of the two single daughters of Queen Victoria but the queen was opposed to another Danish match. Instead the choice fell to Sweden.

In July 1868 at 25 he was engaged to the 17 year old Princess Louise of Sweden. Her father was Charles XV of Sweden and her mother was Louise of the Netherlands. She was her parent's only surviving child and the throne later passed to her Uncle Oscar II. The marriage was suggested to help the situation after Sweden had refused to assist Denmark against Prussia. They met for the first time in 1862 but in 1868 he was sent to Sweden to get to know her. It was said to have been a successful meeting between them.

Only July 28, 1869 the couple were married at the Royal palace in Stockholm. The couple made their home at Amalienborg palace.

He ascended the throne at 62 in 1906 on the death of his father. He had been crown prince for 43 years. He was reform minded and liberal, open to the new parliamentary system unlike his father. Unfortunately he only ruled for 6 years due to his advanced age and ill health.

May 14 1912 he was in Hamburg on his way back from Nice. He took a walk in the park where he collapsed on a park bench and died. He was found by a police officer and taken to the hospital where he was said to have died from a paralysis-attack. He was buried at Roskilde Cathedral. His wife would die in 1926.

He and Louise had 8 children:
-Christian: succeeded his father as Christian X at 42. He married Alexandrine of Mecklenburg-Schwerin and had two sons. He was the grandfather of Queen Margrethe II.

-Carl: succeeded the throne of Norway as Haakon VII. Married Princess Maud of Wales (his cousin, she was a daughter of Frederik's sister Alexandra). They had one son Olav V and were the grandparents of King Harald.

-Louise: married Prince Frederick of Schaumburg-Lippe. They had three children.

-Harald: married Princess Helena of Schleswig-Holstein-Sonderburg-Glücksburg and had five children. Their daughter Caroline Mathilde married Christian X's second son Knud. Had the succession laws not changed, her husband would have succeeded the throne when his brother died instead of his niece Queen Margrethe.

-Ingeborg: was a princess of Sweden by her marriage to Prince Carl, Duke of Västergötland. Carl was 1st cousins of her mother, the son of Oscar II. The couple had four children. Martha married the future Olav V of Norway (her first cousin, son of her Uncle Haakon) and was mother of Harald. She died three years before her husband became king. Their daughter Astrid married King Leopold III of Belgium and was mother of King Baudouin, King Albert II and Josephine-Charlotte of Luxembourg (making her grandmother to GD Henri and King Philippe)

-Thyra: remained unmarried.

-Gustav: remained unmarried

-Dagmar: married Jørgen Castenskjold and had five children.
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  #44  
Old 06-03-2020, 02:22 AM
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Thank you, Countessmeout.

A minor correction though.
Det Gule Palæ = The Yellow Palais is often translated to palace. It isn't. Palæ means mansion.

As you can see here it's located right next to Amalienborg: http://www.kulturarv.dk/1001fortaell...e-18/690x_.jpg

Today it's the home of the court's administration.
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  #45  
Old 06-03-2020, 02:46 AM
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Quote:
Originally Posted by Muhler View Post
Thank you, Countessmeout.

A minor correction though.
Det Gule Palæ = The Yellow Palais is often translated to palace. It isn't. Palæ means mansion.

As you can see here it's located right next to Amalienborg: http://www.kulturarv.dk/1001fortaell...e-18/690x_.jpg

Today it's the home of the court's administration.
Thanks for the proper translation

I had seen photos of the building before but not sure I had known it was a former royal home till now.
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  #46  
Old 06-07-2020, 03:24 PM
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Quote:
Originally Posted by Countessmeout View Post
June 3, 1843 birth of Frederick VIII of Denmark.
Frederick was also Crown Prince for over 43 years ,he must have thought he'd never be King!
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  #47  
Old 07-01-2020, 12:33 AM
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July 1, 1481 birth of Christian II of Denmark. As a king under the Kalmar union he also served as monarch of Norway and Sweden.

He was born at Nyborg castle, the son of King John. His mother was Christina of Saxony. Christina was the daughter of Ernst, Elector of Saxony and Elizabeth of Bavaria.

In 1513 he succeeded his father as King of Denmark and Norway. His succession to the throne of Sweden was postponed due to political issues. Christian had a fondness for the common people over his nobles. He took a commoner Dyveke Sigbritsdatter as his mistress and didn't give her up until she died in 1517 through suspicion of poisoning. Though the man who was suspected of poisoning her was found innocent by the courts, the king ordered his execution. Her mother continued as one of the king's financial advisors. Christian never missed a chance to reduce the power of his nobles.

In 1520 Christian II managed to conquer Sweden on his third attempt. He was aided by German, Scottish and French mercenaries. November 1st he was recognized as king. During the coronation celebrations he enacted what became known as the 'Stockholm bloodbath', imprisoning many of his Swedish guests and executing them as traitors and heretics.

He began reforms, trying to reduce the power of his nobles even more. And seeking aid from the middle class including people from Flanders. The Danish who were independent took offense to his favoring his Dutch allies. And Sweden rebelled against him as well.

In 1523 he was forced to flee to seek help. He spent eight years living in Brabant quite quietly while awaiting aid from his brother in law. He became a Lutheran which led to more issues. When his wife died, his children were removed from his care in fear they would become protestants as well. When his rivals later converted to Lutherans, he would convert back to catholocism. This put him back in the good books of the emperor.

After one last attempt to seize his country, he surrendered to King Frederick on July 1, 1532. Frederick was his Uncle, the younger brother of John. He surrendered in return for safe passage from his Uncle. Frederick was not a man of his word though. He kept Christian prisoner for 27 years at Sønderborg Castle. He died in January 1559. His imprisonment had been that of a noble and he was allowed to host parties and hunt. Frederick died in 1533 and his son Christian III died January 1 1559, 24 days before Christian II. Christian II was 77 years old at the time of his death.

Christian III's son Frederick II ordered a royal funeral for the late king. He was buried with his wife, son and parents in Odense.


Christian was married to Isabella of Austria. She was the daughter of Juana the mad and Philip I, and her brother was Emperor Charles V. She died near Ghent in 1525 at 24. She bore her husband six children.


-John: died at the age of 14

-Philip Ferdinand: died in infancy

-Maximilian: twin of Philip, died in infancy

-Dorothea: married Frederick II, Elector Palatine but had no children.

-Christina: married twice. She was duchess of Milan by marriage to Francesco II Sforza and Duchess of Lorraine by her marriage to Francis I, Duke of Lorraine. With Francis she had three children. She was considered as a bride for Henry VIII after Jayne Seymour died (after Francesco died). She was opposed due to the fate of his other wives. Henry was first cousins with her mother Isabella (their mothers Juana and Catherine were sisters).

-stillborn son

Following their mother's death and later their father's imprisonment, the kids were raised by Margaret of Austria. Margaret was Isabella's paternal aunt, a sister of Philip I.
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  #48  
Old 07-01-2020, 04:42 AM
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Thanks, Countessmeout.

The good King Christian II started a chain of events that he no doubt did not intend and basically things went out of control.
He was basically disposed by the nobility who backed his uncle, during the dramatic civil war known as the Feud of the Count.

He was right in trying to curb the power of the nobility, they put their own interests above that of the country, which is why he was supported by peasants and burghers.
At the time we in DK still had the term "mand af hus" which is basically an old term for general mobilization. Meaning that all free man (by 1500 that translated too all self-employed men) was armed and trained in using weapons, so that they could muster within a few hours in defense of the country, when the church-bells rang and the cry "mand af hus" was heard. The defense of DK depended on this by now old-fashioned citizens militia.
To the chagrin of the nobility the feudal system seen in most of Europe had never been fully implemented in DK. There were simply too many armed free men around, ready to rebel at the drop of a hat! That could be against taxation or a transgression by a local noble.
That doesn't mean it was a period of constant fighting. These uprising were more a kind of armed demonstrations, with a little vandalism and some beatings until the king send someone to smooth things out and find an amiable solution. - Sometimes the king send soldiers though...!
Because burghers and peasants had political rights and held seats in local councils alongside the nobility. - It's difficult to introduce genuine feudalism if those you wish to be the feudal lord over can veto you - and are armed...

That the king tended to side with the burghers and peasants against the nobility was nothing new. The nobility had the money and the power, the burghers and peasantry had the numbers. They balances each other out.
But the gap between high and low wasn't as wide at later became. A lord would know his tenants by name and take an interest in them, in return he got respect and loyalty rather than submission.
The downside to all this was that there was endless squabbling over trivial matters. This proto-democracy resulted in stagnation and Denmark was in serious need of reforms on a national level.
One popular way to kickstart reforms and introduce change (not only in DK) was to invite settlers from more progressive and innovative parts of Europe (in this case from Flanders, later Dutch, later German, later Poles) give them land and tax privileges and force the Danish population to implement changes simply to avoid being competed out of business. Settlers could make a fortune that way and many wealthy families were founded this way. To this day there are still a number of prominent families with Dutch names here in DK who go back to these settlers.

Anyway, that's the background.
Christian II did indeed take Sweden and in order to gain complete control of Sweden - and terrorize the Danish nobility, he betrayed and beheaded a number of leading Swedish nobles. The Stockholm Bloodbath.
It was according the laws and customs at the time an act of tyranny and it totally backfired!
The Swedes rebelled of course. In Sweden this was (and is) considered the worst atrocity since the crucifixion of Christ - what the Swedish burghers and peasantry thought is perhaps more nuanced... But it lead to Sweden becoming genuinely independent and of course what remained of the Kalmar Union was history.
The message was not lost on the Danish nobility! Nobles were an international class and Swedish and Danish nobles had intermarried since the dawn of time. So they had no problems agreeing on the king being a tyrant who had to go and thus started a viscous civil war.
Burghers and peasantry were not at all interested in the nobility gaining the upper hand and supported Christian II. The nobility hired combat hardened mercenaries from Central Europe. The Danish citizens militias had little chance however hard and tenacious they fought.

But to make things even more confusing and complicated Lutheranism had gained a solid foothold in DK, at least among the educated segments of the population, so in the middle of a bloody and cruel civil war the Reformation was introduced in 1536. Denmark was officially no longer Catholic.

On top of that the peasantry and workers, that is the large segment of the population who were not self-employed or owned their own land also rebelled, very much inspired by the central European peasants rebellions that took place around the same time.
They were basically socialist rebellions in response to feudalism and the ever harsher living conditions peasants in particular lived under in most of Europe. They called for political reforms, redistribution of wealth and land and protection under the law. They were very justified demands, no matter what glasses you wear!
Very often the rebellions were supported by monks and parish priests, who lived among the population and saw how they were oppressed. And since the church supporter those in power that led to the genuine rise in a religious alternative, Protestantism. - Who was lord when Adam and Eve in Paradise were? Was a cry heard often. And Christ himself was poor and never owned land, but walked among the poor. So who were the blessed? So nobility and class came not from God, but from man. That had a lot of appeal!
The rebellions were crushed with great cruelty. And I mean crushed! At last one historian has suggested that the crushing of these central European revolts changed especially the German national character. What later became virtues like ordnung, discipline, sense of duty and obedience stems from this period - otherwise they would have been whacked on the head! It's expressed in German this way: sie war so oft geknecht dass sie kneckte bekommen (from memory). Very difficult to translate but it roughly means something like: They were beaten into slavery.

That too happened in Denmark. The peasant revolt here was led by a man called skipper Klement. (*) And crushed.

The Feud of the Count ended. It had been a traumatic war. It was time to unite and heal the wounds under Frederik II. The people was disarmed. No more revolts! The defense of the realm was placed in the hands of the king and nobles. Administrative reforms were introduced, a central administration put in place with a proper capital, Copenhagen.
Catholic churches were converted into Lutheran churches, but quietly. No statues smashed, but left in place or simple placed in storage. (I suspect they had a look at what happened in Yorkshire, England at the same time and wanted to avoid anything like that happening in DK.) Some monasteries were closed down but in most the monks and nuns were allowed to remain until they died or left for a Catholic country. 50 years later there were no monks or nuns left. It was a good and humane approach, because many of those monks and nuns were younger daughters and sons of the nobility or nobles who had been retired out or were handicapped.
It did present some problems though. Because the Catholic church ran orphanages, poorhouses and hospitals - now all that all of a sudden was the responsibility of state and that was the start of a national healthcare system, albeit very primitive by today's standard.

150 years later Frederik III succeeded in what had failed for Christian II, he curbed the power of the nobility and introduced Absolutism.

(*) Skipper Klement is to this day a socialist hero and this catching song is about him:
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  #49  
Old 07-10-2020, 01:47 AM
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July 10, 1086 the murder of Canute IV of Denmark.

He was born in 1042 as one of the many sons of Sweyn II of Denmark. His father had at least 20 children, but only one of them was born in wedlock despite having been married 3 times. He had married Gyda of Sweden a daughter of Anund Jacob of Sweden, and after her he married her stepmother Gunhild but they were forced to separate due to their close kin. His third was Tora Torbergsdatter who was the widow of Harald of Norway. Gunhild bore him his only legit son Svend who died young. Canute like all of his other siblings came from one of his father's many mistresses.

his other siblings:
-Knud Magnus: nothing known
-Harald: was Harald III of Denmark. Married Margareta Hasbjörnsdatter but had no children. He was succeeded by Canute.
-Olaf: succeeded Canute as Olaf I. Married Ingegerd of Norway and had one daughter. He died under strange circumstances, either killed himself or he was sacrificed. His widow would go on to marry Philip of Sweden.
-Eric: succeeded Olaf as Eric I. Married Boedil Thurgotsdatter who gave him one son. He had three other natural children including Erik II and Ragnhilde who was the mother of the future Eric III.
-Svend Tronkræver: was grandfather of Magnus II of Sweden.
-Ubbe: nothing known
-Benedict: nothing known
-Bjorn: Jarl of Nordalbingien. He had no known children. Was murdered.
-Niels: succeeded his brother Erik as king. Had two children with his first wife Margaret Fredkulla, and one child out of wedlock. His son Magnus would become Magnus I of Sweden. He was succeeded by Eric's son Eric II.
-Sigrid: married Prince Gottschalk who was in the service of Canute the Great (their great uncle). Her husband was deposed from his principality and she was whipped out of the country. Her son Henry eventually claimed her Danish lands.
-Ingerid: married the future Olaf III of Norway. Olaf was the brother of Ingegerd who had married her brother Olaf. She had no children by him but is said to have had a daughter by her second marriage.
-Sweyn: nicknamed the crusader. Was married to Florine of Burgundy. Was famous for going on the first crusade and fighting the Turks. Florine accompanied her husband on crusade and they were both killed in a battle.
-Thorglis: unknown
-Sigurd: died in a battle against the Wends
-Guttorn: unknown
-Omund: unknown
-Gunhild/Helene: unknown
-Ragnhild: married Svein Aslaksson


Canute was a great-nephew of Canute the Great. His grandmother Estrid Svendsdatter was the sister of Harald II of Denmark and Canute the Great. His grandfather Ulf was a jarl, and served as regent of Denmark for his brother in law, and guardian of Harthnacute.

He is first recorded as one of the leaders of a raid on England in 1075. When his father died and his brother Harald succeeded the throne, Canute went into exile in Sweden which suggests his opposition to his brother's reign.

He came to the throne of Denmark after his brother's death April 17 1080. He married Adela of Flanders, the daughter of Robert I. Flanders was an ally of Denmark, often a landing point of their fleet when they would invade England. Her half sister Bertha was the wife of Philip I of France.

Canute was an ambitious and devout king of Denmark. He was a champion of the church, increasing their authority, giving large gifts to the church, and demanding observation of religious holidays.

He also sought to increase royal power by stifling the power of his nobles. He claimed ownership of common land and of items from shipwrecks. He created laws to protect foreign merchants, but also allowed himself to claim the possessions of foreigners and those without kin. This made him unpopular with his people who were not used to a king taking such power.

He sought to reclaim the throne of England. He saw himself as the rightful heir of his great uncle, and William the conqueror as an invader. He had the support of Olaf III of Norway (his brother in law) and his father in law Robert. He gathered his fleet but they would never set sail for England. Issues had arisen with Henry IV, Holy Roman emperor who both he and Robert had an unfriendly relationship with. There was fear of hostilities with Henry which put his plans on hold.

The fleet was mainly made up of peasants who were anxious to return to their harvests when they didn't set sail. They sent the king's brother Olaf as their representative to be allowed to return home. It got Olaf exiled by his brother, but eventually the peasants were allowed to return home. He planned to gather them again in a year when he could set sail.

Before that happened a peasant revolt arose in Vendsyssel where Canute was at the time. On July 10 he took sanctuary in the wooden church of St Alban's priory in Odense. The rebels stormed the church, killing Canute, his brother Benedict and seventeen of their followers. He was killed by a lance through the leg. He was succeeded by the brother he exiled, Olaf.

Because of his death and his support for the church he quickly was considered for sainthood. Under Olaf's reign the country suffered crop failure which was seen as retribution for the murder of Canute, and miracles started being reported in his name. In April 1101 envoys of Erik I persuaded Pope Paschal II of the cult of Canute, and he became the first ever Dane to be canonized. His feast day is July 10, but he is some times celebrated in Finland and Sweden instead of St Knut's day January 13. St Knut's day though was originally meant to honor and still does, his nephew Canute Lavard who was the son of Eric I (only legit son) and like his uncle was canonized.

In 1300 his remains were interred in St Canute's cathedral which was made in his honor. His brother Benedict was buried there as well.

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/St._Canute%27s_Cathedral

He is on display there

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/St._Ca...knutsbones.jpg

After his death his widow Adela fled to Flanders with their son, leaving their daughters in Denmark. She lived at the court of her father and later her brother Robert II until 1092. She moved to Italy to marry Roger Borsa, Duke of Apulia. She bore him three sons, two who died in infancy, and a son William who succeeded him as William II. She served as regent for William until he came of age, after her second husband died in 1111. She died in 1115, a year after William came of age.

Canute and Adela had three children:

-Charles: Charles was raised at the court of his Uncle Robert II following his dad's death and became a close advisor of his cousin Baldwin VII. Baldwin named Charles his successor and Charles became Charles I 'The Good' of Flanders in 1119. Like his father he was assassinated in a church, in his case by members of the Erembald family who he had reduced the power of. Charles though was extremely popular in Flanders, and the commoners and nobles alike were outraged by his murder. The conspirators were caught and tortured to death by the nobles of Ghent and Burges. He had a brief childless marriage to Margaret of Clermont (she would go on to marry twice more and have sons with her second husband). He was beatified in 1882.

-Cecilia: When her father died, she was left in Denmark in the care of her Uncle Eric and his wife Boedil Thurgotsdatter. She went with them to Sweden. Eric came to the throne in 1095 and returned to Denmark but both Cecilia and her sister were married to Swedish nobles. She married Earl Eric who when she and Eric returned to Denmark, was made jarl of Falster. They had two sons Carl, Duke of Halland and Knud, and possibly a daughter. In 1131 she was visited by her cousin Canute Lavard who was on his way to a meeting with their cousin Magnus (son of their Uncle Niels). She tried to convince her cousin not to go knowing it was a trap. He unfortunately didn't listen and was murdered by Magnus.

-Ingegerd: twin of Cecilia. She was married to Folke the Fat. He was one if not the most powerful noble in Sweden at the time. The couple had two sons Knut and Benedict. Through Benedict/Bengt they were the ancestors of the House of Bjelbo. . Unlike her sister it doesn't seem she ever returned to Denmark. Three kings of Norway and one king of Denmark are descended from her through Bengt. Olaf II who would rule from 1376-1387 was her descendent.
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Old 07-10-2020, 02:59 AM
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July 10, 1920 King Christian X of Denmark crossed the old German border on a white horse to formally take command of the part of Schleswig that had decided to rejoin Denmark in a plebiscite held earlier that year. According to his granddaughter Queen Margrethe it was the most important day of his life. The two old duchies of Slesvig & Holsten had formed a part of the Danish monarchy since the Middle ages but had finally been lost to the German Reich in 1864 after two destructive wars. The colour of the horse that King Christian rode while crossing the border was important since the well known soothsayer Miss Fanny had seen a vision before she died in 1881 of a king of Denmark crossing the border on a white horse on the day Slesvig was no longer German. Finding an all white horse wasn't easy but contrary to popular belief the horse wasn't painted white & did not stain the King's uniform. After a long search an all white horse called Malgré Tout was found on the estate of Count Danneskiold-Samsoe. One of its hoofs can today be seen on the King's desk which is displayed at the Amalienborg museum.

https://www.instagram.com/tv/CCc6bum...d=95qlclpx9eke

https://www.instagram.com/tv/CBcn_Hb...d=3pprwjflrhrw
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  #51  
Old 07-10-2020, 04:57 AM
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And on that day 164.000 former German citizens now became Danish citizens again.
Which must have meant an increase of the overall population of a little more than 10 %.

The name of the gelding Christian X rode was Malgré Tout, he was from Paris.

The duchy of Schleswig/Slesvig went through two referendums.
One in the north (now a part of DK) where 75 % voted in favor of belonging to Denmark.
The second in the south led to 80 % voting in favor of belonging to Germany.
- Which was roughly in line with the demographic composition at the time.

Ironically prior to First Schlesvigan War there were actually talks about settling the issue by democratic vote, and studies have shown that such a vote would have led to pretty much the same result as in 1920, except for the German town of Flensburg becoming Danish.
But at the time democracy was brand new in most of Europe. In fact the first Danish Constitution and democratically elected government is from 1849, during the First Schleswigan War.

Had that referendum taken place we would have avoided two bitter wars and a deep national trauma - and just as interestingly Holstein and southern Schleswig might have remained independent much longer, rather than coming under the domination of Prussia.
And the dominance of Prussia in the German League might very well have been delayed because the Second Schleswigan War of 1864 would not have taken place. And there being no victory over Denmark, no military lessons learned, the war with Austria in 1866 might not have taken place either - Leading to a de facto politically united Germany which again went to war with France in 1870... - Leading to all European great powers guaranteeing Belgiums neutrality...
In an alternative universe 1914 might have been an uneventful year during the Long Peace of Europe.

Holstein, Lauenborg and southern Schleswig might IMO very well have developed into a monarchy by 1850. Adopting a democratic constitution of their own.

Because the citizens of Schleswig, Holstein and Lauenborg were not against introducing democracy, they just didn't want to come under a Danish constitution i.e. becoming provinces in Denmark rather than remaining autonomous duchies. But having two constitutions within the same realm was an impossibility and that was one of the key reasons for the First Schleswigan War.
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Old 07-10-2020, 12:46 PM
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The story about Christian X on his white horse and the little girl sitting in front of him, could have been written by Disney!
https://www.instagram.com/p/CCc6bumAjdb/

Christian X was a harsh man and a bit of a family tyrant as you know. But deep down he was also a sensitive man.
One of the enduring stories about the Reunification is Christian X on his white horse, with a little girl sitting in front of him.
He wrote about that in his diary:
"Beaming faces with teary eyes were directed at me, while the call: Our King - was heard incessantly. So overwhelming was this reception that I felt deeply moved and when a little girl later on was lifted up to me with a bouquet of flowers I put in the kiss I gave her forehead all the joy and gratitude I myself felt and when the little being put her arms around my neck I had the feeling that I had embraced Southern Jutland - now that the girl sat trustful in front of me on the horse."

In this article are lots of pics and stories from the reunification:
https://graenseforeningen.dk/sites/g...foreningen.pdf

So let's get straight to the girl.

Her name was Johanne Martine Klippert, she was born 1st August 1911. But in 1915 her mother out of misery and poverty had to give up her child and hand her over to an orphanage. (It is hinted her father was killed in the war, leaving his wife destitute.)
Later that year she was adopted by a vicar and his wife named Braren and thus became Johanne Martine Braren.

On the 10th July 1920 the family witnessed Christian X riding through a portal signifying the reunification and a few hundred meters down the road, stood the family waving Dannebrog and holding a bouquet of flowers.

Elisabeth Braren, Johanne's adoptive mother, tells the story:
"The road went down a little towards us and when the King came riding I saw that everyone gave him their hands. Surely he can't keep on doing that all the way to town, I thought.
We had ended up standing in front when the police cleared the way (for the King) I wouldn't trouble the King by offering him my hand, but gave Johanne a white and red rosebud that she could present him. She cheerfully offered them, but the King too her whole hand and smiled teary-eyed: Mat I have her up on the horse a little, may I?" At first I didn't answer, I thought I had misheard, but then he asked again. I answered: "Yes, please."
Then he lifted her up to sit in front on the saddle, bowed down and kissed her mouth, whereupon she grabbed him around the neck and kissed his cheek. "Would you like to go with me to Copenhagen", said the King, but she answered: "No, I want stay with my mother." The King asked me to follow suit. I couldn't.
Johanne all the time held her arm around the neck of the King and the Kingheld her flad in the hand where he held the reins."

But the crowd presented Elisabeth Braren from keeping up and she was now concerned for her daughter:
"After a while I saw that Johanne was afraid, she couldn't see me and was about to cry. Then I had to break free from the crowd and into the ditch, which I ran along, until I came in front of the procession. Then I broke through again, but was stopped by three police officers, who wanted to know my name. The King had asked for it as well, I didn't want to shout my name (*) and therefore said to him: I will send the King.
Now I had to give my name to the police. When I got there I called Johanne by name, but for the cheering and hurrahs it was almost impossible for her to hear me. In that moment the horse stopped and I lifted her down. When I took her down, the King said: May I keep her.
He got no reply, because I saw in her face a terror for what my answer would be."
(This moment is captured in the photo named Fig 12 in the above link.)

"The King asked for my address and my name. I replied: The King will get it.
A gentleman ran up and said: We must have Your address at once.
I answered him: Mrs. Braren, born Mynster, Aastrup. (**)
As fast as I could with down the ditch. There she had a little nervous attack (cried her head off) which expressed itself if wailing tones. I calmed her down, put on her hat and quietly we walked behind the whole swarm of people.
Standing with me in the ditch, she exclaimed: I would never have believed that in all my life.
Oddly enough she had during the night dreamed that she ran after the King's white horse with roses in her hand. In all the commotion we didn't get to see the Queen at all.
The King visited us in Aastrup four times, also the Queen.
Exactly one month later Johanne got a lovely picture of the the King in a silver-frame and a letter.

(*) A decent women of good repute, doesn't shout out her name and address to strange men, not even kings, like a fishmongers wive would!

(**) There were no house numbers back then. But everyone in the parish of Aalestrup, especially the postman, would know who Mrs. Braren was.

- What a sweet story, eh?
And I almost got a nervous breakdown as well, because the connection to TRF is unstable right now, with the text vanishing and disappearing all the time!
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  #53  
Old 07-10-2020, 05:13 PM
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Originally Posted by Countessmeout View Post
July 10, 1086 the murder of Canute IV of Denmark.

He was born in 1042 as one of the many sons of Sweyn II of Denmark. His father had at least 20 children, but only one of them was born in wedlock despite having been married 3 times. He had married Gyda of Sweden a daughter of Anund Jacob of Sweden, and after her he married her stepmother Gunhild but they were forced to separate due to their close kin. His third was Tora Torbergsdatter who was the widow of Harald of Norway. Gunhild bore him his only legit son Svend who died young. Canute like all of his other siblings came from one of his father's many mistresses.

his other siblings:
-Knud Magnus: nothing known
-Harald: was Harald III of Denmark. Married Margareta Hasbjörnsdatter but had no children. He was succeeded by Canute.
-Olaf: succeeded Canute as Olaf I. Married Ingegerd of Norway and had one daughter. He died under strange circumstances, either killed himself or he was sacrificed. His widow would go on to marry Philip of Sweden.
-Eric: succeeded Olaf as Eric I. Married Boedil Thurgotsdatter who gave him one son. He had three other natural children including Erik II and Ragnhilde who was the mother of the future Eric III.
-Svend Tronkræver: was grandfather of Magnus II of Sweden.
-Ubbe: nothing known
-Benedict: nothing known
-Bjorn: Jarl of Nordalbingien. He had no known children. Was murdered.
-Niels: succeeded his brother Erik as king. Had two children with his first wife Margaret Fredkulla, and one child out of wedlock. His son Magnus would become Magnus I of Sweden. He was succeeded by Eric's son Eric II.
-Sigrid: married Prince Gottschalk who was in the service of Canute the Great (their great uncle). Her husband was deposed from his principality and she was whipped out of the country. Her son Henry eventually claimed her Danish lands.
-Ingerid: married the future Olaf III of Norway. Olaf was the brother of Ingegerd who had married her brother Olaf. She had no children by him but is said to have had a daughter by her second marriage.
-Sweyn: nicknamed the crusader. Was married to Florine of Burgundy. Was famous for going on the first crusade and fighting the Turks. Florine accompanied her husband on crusade and they were both killed in a battle.
-Thorglis: unknown
-Sigurd: died in a battle against the Wends
-Guttorn: unknown
-Omund: unknown
-Gunhild/Helene: unknown
-Ragnhild: married Svein Aslaksson


Canute was a great-nephew of Canute the Great. His grandmother Estrid Svendsdatter was the sister of Harald II of Denmark and Canute the Great. His grandfather Ulf was a jarl, and served as regent of Denmark for his brother in law, and guardian of Harthnacute.

He is first recorded as one of the leaders of a raid on England in 1075. When his father died and his brother Harald succeeded the throne, Canute went into exile in Sweden which suggests his opposition to his brother's reign.

He came to the throne of Denmark after his brother's death April 17 1080. He married Adela of Flanders, the daughter of Robert I. Flanders was an ally of Denmark, often a landing point of their fleet when they would invade England. Her half sister Bertha was the wife of Philip I of France.

Canute was an ambitious and devout king of Denmark. He was a champion of the church, increasing their authority, giving large gifts to the church, and demanding observation of religious holidays.

He also sought to increase royal power by stifling the power of his nobles. He claimed ownership of common land and of items from shipwrecks. He created laws to protect foreign merchants, but also allowed himself to claim the possessions of foreigners and those without kin. This made him unpopular with his people who were not used to a king taking such power.

He sought to reclaim the throne of England. He saw himself as the rightful heir of his great uncle, and William the conqueror as an invader. He had the support of Olaf III of Norway (his brother in law) and his father in law Robert. He gathered his fleet but they would never set sail for England. Issues had arisen with Henry IV, Holy Roman emperor who both he and Robert had an unfriendly relationship with. There was fear of hostilities with Henry which put his plans on hold.

The fleet was mainly made up of peasants who were anxious to return to their harvests when they didn't set sail. They sent the king's brother Olaf as their representative to be allowed to return home. It got Olaf exiled by his brother, but eventually the peasants were allowed to return home. He planned to gather them again in a year when he could set sail.

Before that happened a peasant revolt arose in Vendsyssel where Canute was at the time. On July 10 he took sanctuary in the wooden church of St Alban's priory in Odense. The rebels stormed the church, killing Canute, his brother Benedict and seventeen of their followers. He was killed by a lance through the leg. He was succeeded by the brother he exiled, Olaf.

Because of his death and his support for the church he quickly was considered for sainthood. Under Olaf's reign the country suffered crop failure which was seen as retribution for the murder of Canute, and miracles started being reported in his name. In April 1101 envoys of Erik I persuaded Pope Paschal II of the cult of Canute, and he became the first ever Dane to be canonized. His feast day is July 10, but he is some times celebrated in Finland and Sweden instead of St Knut's day January 13. St Knut's day though was originally meant to honor and still does, his nephew Canute Lavard who was the son of Eric I (only legit son) and like his uncle was canonized.

In 1300 his remains were interred in St Canute's cathedral which was made in his honor. His brother Benedict was buried there as well.

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/St._Canute%27s_Cathedral

He is on display there

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/St._Ca...knutsbones.jpg

After his death his widow Adela fled to Flanders with their son, leaving their daughters in Denmark. She lived at the court of her father and later her brother Robert II until 1092. She moved to Italy to marry Roger Borsa, Duke of Apulia. She bore him three sons, two who died in infancy, and a son William who succeeded him as William II. She served as regent for William until he came of age, after her second husband died in 1111. She died in 1115, a year after William came of age.

Canute and Adela had three children:

-Charles: Charles was raised at the court of his Uncle Robert II following his dad's death and became a close advisor of his cousin Baldwin VII. Baldwin named Charles his successor and Charles became Charles I 'The Good' of Flanders in 1119. Like his father he was assassinated in a church, in his case by members of the Erembald family who he had reduced the power of. Charles though was extremely popular in Flanders, and the commoners and nobles alike were outraged by his murder. The conspirators were caught and tortured to death by the nobles of Ghent and Burges. He had a brief childless marriage to Margaret of Clermont (she would go on to marry twice more and have sons with her second husband). He was beatified in 1882.

-Cecilia: When her father died, she was left in Denmark in the care of her Uncle Eric and his wife Boedil Thurgotsdatter. She went with them to Sweden. Eric came to the throne in 1095 and returned to Denmark but both Cecilia and her sister were married to Swedish nobles. She married Earl Eric who when she and Eric returned to Denmark, was made jarl of Falster. They had two sons Carl, Duke of Halland and Knud, and possibly a daughter. In 1131 she was visited by her cousin Canute Lavard who was on his way to a meeting with their cousin Magnus (son of their Uncle Niels). She tried to convince her cousin not to go knowing it was a trap. He unfortunately didn't listen and was murdered by Magnus.

-Ingegerd: twin of Cecilia. She was married to Folke the Fat. He was one if not the most powerful noble in Sweden at the time. The couple had two sons Knut and Benedict. Through Benedict/Bengt they were the ancestors of the House of Bjelbo. . Unlike her sister it doesn't seem she ever returned to Denmark. Three kings of Norway and one king of Denmark are descended from her through Bengt. Olaf II who would rule from 1376-1387 was her descendent.

Christian Albrecht von Benzonof painted 'The death of Canute IV of Denmark in the Church of Saint Albanus ' in 1843 depicting the murder of the king.

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  #54  
Old 07-10-2020, 06:23 PM
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It's a well-known painting - and it hardly contains a single historically correct detail.
Pretty much the only correct detail is that the king, Knud in Danish, was killed in that church.
For the next 200 years Danish kings tended to live short lives and die violently.
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  #55  
Old 07-11-2020, 05:11 PM
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Originally Posted by Muhler View Post
It's a well-known painting - and it hardly contains a single historically correct detail.
Pretty much the only correct detail is that the king, Knud in Danish, was killed in that church.
For the next 200 years Danish kings tended to live short lives and die violently.
I didn't realize until further reading that Canute IV of Denmark was also made the Patron Saint of Denmark in 1101.

Martyred King and Saint,no wonder the painting is so dramatic.
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Old 07-31-2020, 08:14 PM
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On this day, July 31,1790 ~ The wedding of King Frederik VI of Denmark and Marie of Hesse-Kassel at Gottorp Castle in Schleswig-Holstein
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Old 08-01-2020, 01:05 AM
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On this day, July 31,1790 ~ The wedding of King Frederik VI of Denmark and Marie of Hesse-Kassel at Gottorp Castle in Schleswig-Holstein
Following the old tradition of marrying in the brides home. Though born in Hesse, she spent most of her childhood in Schleswig. Gottorp was their main home though her mother who was the sister of Christian VII had an estate they also used. Her father had been a second son but was appointed governor of Schleswig Holstein by his brother in law when Marie was two.

When the couple married Marie was not considered a foreigner.

Sadly the couple only had two daughters who reached adulthood and no grandchildren.
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Old 08-01-2020, 06:03 AM
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A very enjoyable thread, thank you all.

Quote:
Originally Posted by Muhler View Post
I have for years been thinking about writing about that assassination, because to this day the historians are still not sure who was really behind the murder and why.
One thing is certain though: It did not work out as planned afterwards
I would enjoy reading that post.
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