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  #521  
Old 06-05-2020, 12:51 AM
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June 5, 1341 the birth of Edmund Langley, Duke of York.

Edmund was the 4th surviving son of Edward III and Philippa of Hainault. He got his nickname from being born at Kings Langley Palace. His parents had thirteen children, eight sons and five daughters.

-Edward: the Black Prince. Married Joan of Kent. He had two sons, his younger Richard succeeded Edward III as Richard II.
-Isabella: married Enguerrand de Coucy, Earl of Bedford, and had two daughters.
-Joan: was betrothed to Peter of Castile but died on route to Castile. Peter's daughters from his eventual marriage would marry Joan's younger brothers.
-William of Hatfield: died shortly after birth
-Lionel: Duke of Clarence. married Elizabeth de Burgh, 4th Countess of Ulster and Violante Visconti. He had one daughter Philippa from his first marriage who was the grandmother of Anne Mortimer who herself was the grandmother of Edward IV and Richard III.
-John of Gaunt: duke of Lancaster. Was married three times. The future Henry IV was his son by his first marriage. He had 13 children.
-Blanche- died shortly after birth
-Mary-married John IV Duke of Brittany but had no children as she died only a few months after her wedding.
-Margaret- married John Hastings, 2nd Earl of Pembroke. Sadly she died around the same time as Mary did, and before she had children.
-Thomas of Windsor- died from the plague in infancy
-William of Windsor- died in infancy
-Thomas of Woodstock- Duke of Gloucester. married Eleanor de Bohun. They had five children.


Edmund's godfather was John de Warenne, 7th Earl of Surrey. When John died in 1347 his title was inherited by a nephew. But his lands north of the Trent, in Yorkshire, were given to his godson.

He was made a knight of the garter in 1361 and Earl of Cambridge in 1362. Edmund led a number of military expeditions in France and Spain. He led an unsuccessful attempt to assert his brother John's claim to Castile, with King Ferdinand. After Castile and Portugal reached a peace agreement, Edmund led his men home.

From 1376-1381 he was the Constable of Dover castle. In 1385 he was elevated to the rank of Duke of York by his nephew now Richard II. He was keeper of the realm for his nephew when he went on expeditions in France and Ireland, and when he went to claim his bride. He eventually opposed the future Henry IV (also his nephew) but he ended up joining his cause and was rewarded well for siding with him. He remained loyal to Henry IV until the end of his life.

Edmund died in 1402 at the palace of his birth. He was first buried at the priory but was moved to All Saints Kings Langley when the priory was dissolved in 1575. It was temporarily moved in 1877 for church remodel. He was the last sibling to die, and the oldest as well. His last sibling to die was John who died in 1399 at almost 59. Edmund was 61. The youngest of their siblings, Thomas, died in 1397.

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Edmund..._tomb_2018.jpg

He was married twice. His first wife Isabella was the daughter of Peter of Castile and was the sister of John's second wife Constance. After her death he married Joan Holland. Joan's father Thomas Holland, Earl of Kent was the son of Edmund's late sister in law Joan of Kent (Edward's wife). Joan of Kent was married twice before Edward, and Thomas was her eldest son from her first marriage. Edmund only had children by his first marriage.


children:

-Edward: 2nd duke of York. Died at the battle of Agincourt. Married Beatrice of Portugal and Philippa de Mohun but left no children.

-Constance: married Thomas le Despenser, 1st Earl of Gloucester. They had three children. Through her daughter Isabel she was the great grandmother of Anne Neville, the wife of Richard III. She later went on to be a mistress of Edmund Holland who was a brother of her stepmother Joan. They had a daughter Eleanor together.

-Richard of Conisburgh: Earl of Cambridge. He married Anne Mortimer who was a grand-daughter of Philippa of Clarence, Lionel's daughter. They had three children. Their son Richard was the father of Edward IV and Richard III.
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  #522  
Old 06-06-2020, 03:56 AM
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June 6, 1333- murder of William de Burgh, 3rd Earl of Ulster and 4th Baron of Connaught.

William's mother was Elizabeth de Clare. Elizabeth's mother was Joan of Acre, daughter of Edward I and Eleanor of Castile. Her father was the Earl of Herford.

His father John was the son of Richard Óg de Burgh, 2nd Earl of Ulster (John died before his father so William succeeded his grandfather).John's sister Elizabeth married Robert the Bruce, becoming Queen of Scotland and was mother of David II. His sister Maud was married to Elizabeth's brother Gilbert, the 8th Earl of Hertford (double wedding).

He was the only child of his parents. But his mother married twice again. Her second husband Theobald II de Verdun died of typhoid six months after they married while she was pregnant. Her third husband Sir Roger D'Amory, Lord D'Amory, Baron of Amory in Ireland was an arranged marriage by Edward II. He was violent and cruel, and made mortal enemies of her brother in law Hugh the younger (husband of her sister Eleanor). He joined Mortimer's forces against the king and died after being captured at the Battle of Boroughbridge from wounds. She had a daughter from each.

-Isabel de Verdun: married Henry Ferrers, 2nd Baron Ferrers of Groby at the age of 11. She bore him five children, 4 who survived infancy. She died of the plague in 1349, 6 years after her husband.
-Elizabeth D'Amory: married Sir John Bardolf whom she had issue.

William became Earl of Ulster when his grandfather died in 1326. In 1328 he was summoned to parliament and was named Lord Lieutenant of Ireland for a year.

In 1327 he was married to Maud of Lancaster. Maud's father Henry, Earl of Lancaster was a grandson of Edmund Crouchback (son of Henry III). Maude was the sister of Henry of Grossmont, Duke of Lancaster. Henry's daughter Blanche would marry John of Gaunt (his first wife) making him grandfather to Henry IV. Maude bore her husband one child.

In 1332 he had his cousin Walter Liath de Burgh starved to death at Greencastle. Walter's sister Gylle sought revenge against him. Gylle's husband Richard de Manderville was involved in the murder of William. His murderers, all English of Ireland were captured and some were hung and some torn asunder for his death.

The murder led to the Burke (the new family last name) civil war. In the end it led to the end of the family's power over Connaught and loss of much of their land to the Gaelic-Irish.


His one child was a daughter:

-Elizabeth: 4th countess of Ulster in her own right, 13 months at the time of her father's death. Elizabeth was raised in England and married Lionel of Antwerp and was mother of his daughter Philippa. The house of York were descended from her through Philippa and Philippa's granddaughter Anne.


Maud would later marry Sir Ralph de Ufford, and would return to Ireland where he served for a time as Justicar but he did a poor job of it. After her second husband's death she retired to a convent and died in 1377. She had born a second daughter to Ralph, Maud. Maud de Ufford married Thomas de Vere, 8th Earl of Oxford and was mother of the 9th earl.
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  #523  
Old 06-06-2020, 05:32 AM
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Very interesting Anglo-Irish nobles and I wonder what became of Gylle de Burgh?
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  #524  
Old 06-06-2020, 11:47 PM
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Very interesting Anglo-Irish nobles and I wonder what became of Gylle de Burgh?
Unfortunately I couldn't find anything on her after her husband's execution.

I know technically nobility and not royals but royal blood (maternal side) and he was a father in law to Lionel of Antwerp and ancestor to kings. Not to mention a nephew by marriage to Robert the Bruce.

June 7, 1394- death of Anne of Bohemia, first wife of Richard II.

Anne was born in Prague in the kingdom of Bohemia in 1366. Her father was Charles IV, Holy Roman Emperor. She was the eldest child of her father's 4th marriage to Elizabeth of Pomerania. Her mother was the daughter of Bogislaw V, Duke of Pomerania and Elizabeth of Poland.

Her parents had:
-Sigismund: who succeeded as Holy roman emperor. Married Margaret of Hungary and Barbara of Celle. He had only one child Elizabeth by Barbara.
-John: only holder of the Duke of Gorlitz. He married Richardis Catherine of Mecklenburg (also princess of Sweden). They too only had one daughter also named Elizabeth who was Duchess of Luxembourg.
-Charles: died in infancy
-Margaret: married John III, Burgrave of Nuremberg. Seems a tradition, she too only had one child named Elizabeth.
-Henry died in infancy

Her father had been married to Blanche of Valois (sister of Philip V of France), Anne of Bavaria and Anna von Schweidnitz. Anne had 7 half siblings from her father's earlier marriages.
-son: died in infancy (1st wife)
-Margaret: married Louis I of Hungary. childless (1st)
-Catherine: married Rudolph IV of Austria and Otto V of Bavaria. childless. (1st)
-Wenceslaus- only child by second wife, died in infancy
-Elizabeth: married Albert III of Austria. childless (3rd)
-Wenceslaus IV of Bohemia: he married Joanna of Bavaria and later her cousin Sofia. Neither marriage produced a child (3rd)
-son: died in infancy (3rd)


She spent most of her childhood at Hradshin Palace and usually under the care of her half brother Wenceslaus IV. On her journey to England though she came under the protection of her uncle Wenceslaus I, Duke of Luxembourg. He was a younger brother of her father Charles.

Anne's marriage to Richard II was a very political move. Her father was the most powerful monarch in Europe at the time. Pope Urban VI sanctioned the marriage to strengthen his own position as Pope and allies against the French. The French supported the other pope, Clement. Her father ruled over half the population and territory of Europe at the time.

The marriage had a lot of opposition in England. Anne brought no dowry with her and instead Richard paid a hefty sum to her brother. The only thing she brought with her was that English merchants were now free to trade in Bohemia and any of the other lands in the Holy roman empire. Richard had been offered the hand of Caterina Visconti. Caterina's father was Lord of Milan and she would have brought a hefty dowry with her to England. Caterina's niece was the wife of Charles VI of France.

Negotiations were difficult. They took until 1380 as Richard's negotiation team was captured and held for ransom on their return from Prague. She arrived in 1381 but her ships were dashed in a storm after she disembarked. The couple were married at Westminster January 20, 1382. Her arrival in London was greeted by hostiles. But their wedding was followed by days of receptions and tournaments. Though they were only 15 at the time, the couple were said to have had a loving marriage. Their wedding was only the 5th royal wedding at the abbey, and the last for over 500 years.

The couple were married for 12 years before Anne died of the Plague at Sheen Manor. Her death devastated her husband. In his grief he had the manor destroyed. It was believed by some historians that Anne had a calming effect on her husband and his actions. His unwise actions in the years following, which led to the loss of his throne, is used to support this.

Though Anne never bore children, and had been unpopular at first, there is evidence she had grown to be loved by the people. Referred by some as Good Queen Anne. She was thought to be kind and good by the common people. And was known to intercede on their behalf with her husband including after the peasant's revolt.

2 years after her death her husband would marry Isabella of Valois. Isabella was the daughter of Charles VI and Isabeau of Bavaria (niece of Caterina Visconti). This marriage was also childless. Isabella would later have a daughter by her second husband the Duke of Orleans.

Richard would be starved to death in prison in 1400, after being forced to abdicate by Henry IV.


Interesting to note the Crown of Princess Blanche likely originated with her. It was part of the dowry of Henry IV's daughter Blanche when she married Louis III, Elector of Palatinate. It was part of the treasury during Richard II's reign. The design was Bohemian though it was likely crafted by a French jeweler in Prague, likely a gift to Anne.

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Crown_of_Princess_Blanche
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  #525  
Old 06-07-2020, 12:54 AM
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2 years after her death her husband would marry Isabella of Valois. Isabella was the daughter of Charles VI and Isabeau of Bavaria (niece of Caterina Visconti). Isabella also failed to give him a child (she later bore a daughter to her second husband the Duke of Orleans).
Well, considering that Isabella was six when they married and nine when Richard II died, that's not too surprising! She died of childbirth complications when she was 19. Isabella's younger sister Catherine would marry Henry V, be the mother of Henry VI, and the grandmother of Henry VII.
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  #526  
Old 06-07-2020, 01:23 AM
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Well, considering that Isabella was six when they married and nine when Richard II died, that's not too surprising! She died of childbirth complications when she was 19. Isabella's younger sister Catherine would marry Henry V, be the mother of Henry VI, and the grandmother of Henry VII.
Though through her second, non-royal, marriage. It was the elder of her two sons by her husband Owen who would be the father of Henry VII.
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  #527  
Old 06-07-2020, 07:21 AM
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On this day : the 7th of June 1977 - Queen Elizabeth II’s Silver Jubilee Procession in London enroute to St. Paul's Cathedral.

Look at those crowds!
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  #528  
Old 06-08-2020, 01:07 AM
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Though through her second, non-royal, marriage. It was the elder of her two sons by her husband Owen who would be the father of Henry VII.
Yes, I should have included that...
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  #529  
Old 06-08-2020, 04:34 PM
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On this day : June 8th,1376 : Death of Edward the Black Prince,Prince of Wales and Duke of Cornwall.

Edward was born in 1330 the son of Edward III of England and Philippa of Hainault and is remembered as one of Englands greatest military commanders during the Hundred Years' War.The Prince died at the Palace of Westminster and was buried in Canterbury Cathedral where his tomb is still preserved.

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Edward_the_Black_Prince

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Old 06-08-2020, 05:04 PM
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On this day : the 7th of June 1977 - Queen Elizabeth II’s Silver Jubilee Procession in London enroute to St. Paul's Cathedral.

Look at those crowds!
It's quite mind boggling to think that 43 years ago she'd already been queen for a quarter of a century!
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  #531  
Old 06-08-2020, 05:14 PM
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It's quite mind boggling to think that 43 years ago she'd already been queen for a quarter of a century!
Yes there's something so nostalgic looking back a the Silver Jubilee Celebrations.



London Street Party -Thames TV

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Old 06-08-2020, 05:38 PM
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On this day : the 7th of June 1977 - Queen Elizabeth II’s Silver Jubilee Procession in London enroute to St. Paul's Cathedral.

Look at those crowds!
My mother and I were there that day! Unsurprisingly, I was not able to spot myself in the crowd...
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  #533  
Old 06-08-2020, 06:08 PM
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Wouldn't it great if you could. My father was at the coronation.

Not in the actual abbey.

I always look out for him when looking at the crowds. You never know!
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  #534  
Old 06-10-2020, 12:39 AM
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June 10, 1437- death of Joan of Navarre second wife of Henry IV.

Joan was born in 1368. Joan's father was Charles II of Navarre. She was named after her mother Joan of Valois. Her maternal grandparents were John II (the Good) of France and Bonne of Luxembourg. Her father was known (in contrast to his father in law's nickname) as Charles the bad.

She was one of their seven children:
-Marie: married Alfonso d'Aragona, Duke of Gandia
-Charles: succeeded as Charles III. Was married to Eleanor of Castile. They had 8 children. He was succeeded by his daughter Blanche.
-Bonne: died to be 25 but doesn't seem to have married
-Peter: married Catherine of Alençon, daughter of Peter II of Alencon. Count of Mortain. Died a year after his marriage. His widow went on to marry Louis VII duke of Bavaria who she had two children.
-Philip: died young
-Blanche: died young

October 2, 1386 Joan was married at 18. Her first husband was John IV, Duke of Brittany. John was 47 and had been married twice. Both of his late wives were English. His first wife Mary was the daughter of Edward III. His second wife was Joan Holland who was the daughter of Thomas Holland, Earl of Kent and his wife Joan of Kent. Joan Holland was a stepdaughter to Mary's brother Edward the Black Prince (her mother's third husband). Neither of his first marriages produced any children. Joan Holland died 2 years before John married Joan of Navarre.

She bore her husband 9 children.
-Joan: died in infancy
-Isabelle: died in infancy
-John: succeeded his father as John V as a minor. He married Joan of France who was his first cousin once removed (her grandfather Charles V and his grandmother Joan were siblings). Joan was the sister of Isabelle of Valois (wife of Richard II) and Catherine of Valois (wife of Henry V). They had seven children together.
-Marie: married John I, Duke of Alençon. John's sister Catherine was married to Marie's Uncle Peter of Navarre. They had five children.
-Margaret: married Alain IX, Viscount of Rohan and Count of Porhoë.
-Arthur: succeeded the sons of John, as Arthur III of Brittany. Though he married three times, like his nephews he had no children by his marriages.
-Gilles: was Lord of Chantocé and Ingrande. Died at 16 unmarried.
-Richard: Count of Étampes. Married Marguerite D'Orleans. They had six children. His son Francis would succeed his uncle Arthur as Duke of Brittany.
-Blanche: married John IV, Count of Armagnac. She bore him one daughter.

Her husband died in 1399 after 13 years of marriage. Her son John was only ten at the time. Since her son was a minor she was named both his guardian and regent during his minority.

Henry IV of England shortly after sought her hand in marriage. It was more a match of personal preference over any dynastic marriage. The couple were fond of each other. Joan though had not been willing to leave Brittany until she saw to her affairs and her sons who she could not take with her. They also needed a papal agreement to marry. She arranged for the Duke of Burgundy to become guardian to her sons and regent of Brittany. He agreed to uphold the Breton laws. And the pope gave approval in 1402.

Henry himself had been a widow since 1394. His first wife Mary de Bohun had born him six children. Joan brought her surviving daughters with her when she moved to England to marry Henry.

On February 7, 1403 the couple were married at Winchester cathedral. On the 26th she made her formal entrance into London where she was crowned queen. Joan was said to be beautiful and gracious but also stingy, and she favored her Breton courtiers so much that parliament exiled them. The couple had no surviving children together. There seems proof that she had a two still births early on though.

She had a good relationship though with her stepchildren. She often took the side of Henry V in fights with his father. Her own daughters returned home to France after three years on orders of their brother.

She was widowed in 1413 for a second time. She remained close for years with her stepson Henry who allowed her to use many of his homes when he went to France in 1415. Unfortunately her son Arthur was caught at the battle of Agincourt and had been brought back to England as a prisoner of his step-brother. Joan tried to sue for the release of her son unsuccessfully and it caused a major rift between Henry and Joan (Arthur would be released in 1420 in order to get his older brother to sign a treaty).

In 1419 the goods of her confessor were seized and a month later the confessor claimed Joan had been plotting against the king. Henry confiscated her wealth and imprisoned her Pevensey and later Leeds Castle. She was imprisoned until 1422 when Henry finally released his stepmother. She was released six weeks before Henry died.

Her fortune was returned on her release and she retired to Nottingham castle. She died at Havering-atte-Bower at 68/69 during the reign of her step-grandson Henry VI. She was buried next to her second husband Henry IV at Canterbury cathedral.
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Old 06-10-2020, 03:39 AM
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-John: succeeded his father as John V as a minor. He married Joan of France who was his first cousin once removed (her grandfather Charles V and his grandmother Joan were siblings). Joan was the sister of Isabelle of Valois (wife of Richard II) and Catherine of Valois (wife of Henry V). They had seven children together.
They were second cousins.
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Old 06-11-2020, 03:01 AM
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June 11, 1430 Birth of Edmund Tudor, 1st Earl of Richmond.


Edmund was the son of Catherine of Valois. Catherine who was the daughter of Charles VI of France and Isabeau of Bavaria, was the widow of Henry V and mother of Henry VI. Henry died in 1422. Catherine possibly had an affair with Edmund Beaufort but eventually married Welshman Owen Tudor. Owen had been in the staff of the king's steward. The couple wed in 1430 and Owen was granted the rights of an Englishman by parliament, needed as those of a Welshman were limited at the time.

Edmund the eldest of the couple's children. The couple had at least 4 children, but really only anything is known about Edmund and Jasper.
-Jasper- Earl of Pembroke. great military leader who would help his nephew claim to the throne as Henry VII. He married Catherine Woodville, who was a sister to Edward IV's wife Elizabeth but they had no children.
-another son who by accounts has been called Owen or Edward seems to have been a monk but the details are foggy on him
-Margaret: nothing known except she was a nun

Edmund was born at Much Hadham Palace in Hertfordshire. His mother died six years later in 1437 shortly after giving birth. Unfortunately enemies moved in and Owen found himself arrested. He was imprisoned at Newgate but in 1438 he escaped only to be recaptured and sent to prison at Windsor. His former stepson Henry VI freed him in 1439 and not only restored his property to him but also bestowed on him a pension. Owen would later die fighting in the war of the roses. He was captured when he joined his son Jasper at the battle of Mortimer's cross. He was originally to be imprisoned but was beheaded and his head placed on the gate. He was buried unmarked at Greyfriar's until his bastard son David paid for a tomb.

Following their father being imprisoned, Edmund and his siblings were sent into the care of Katherine de la Pole. Katherine was the sister of William de la Pole, the 1st Duke of Suffolk. They remained with Katherine until at least 1442. Katherine worked hard for her two young wards, making sure their half brother Henry took notice of them. He ensured his brothers had good priests to educate them. The boys and their father who they were reunited with entered the household of Henry who was quite fond of them. He made Edmund December 15 1449 the Earl of Richmond.

The brothers were invested as earls formally in January and took their seats in parliament. They were considered the most senior earls, only below the Dukes. Following the death of Humphrey, Duke of Gloucester, they were the king's closest family and trusted advisors. They knew little of politics and their main role was securing the king's power in Wales.

Both brothers received large monetary grants from their half brother. And Edmund took his large land grants and made them profitable including in the wool trade. He was owner of Baynard castle in London among others.

Edmund became guardian to Margaret Beaufort when she was nine. Margaret's father John was Duke of Sommerset and a grandson of John of Gaunt. Margaret's father and the king were cousins (their fathers were half brothers, sons of John of Gaunt). Margaret was not only her father's heiress but a very close relative to the king. Margaret was originally married to John de la Pole, William's son, but after William was murdered in 1450, the marriage was annulled. William had hoped if Henry VI failed to have children, he could make a claim to the throne on behalf of his grandchildren.


November 1 1455 Edmund married Margaret at Blestoe castle.


When Henry VI became ill and the Yorks and the queen fought over who should be regent, the Tudors sided with Richard of York. Unlike his brother, Edmund was not a constant presence though he attended the council meetings. He didn't take part in the start of the War of the roses. While the Yorks cancelled the grants that had been made by Henry VI during his reign, the land grants made to Edmund and Jasper remained untouched.


He was sent back to Wales to deal with Gruffudd ap Nicolas. When he was in Wales Henry VI regained his throne and deposed the Yorks. In retaliation the Yorks sent William Herbert into Wales with 2000 men. They captured Carmarthen Castle and took Edmund prisoner. They left him imprisoned when the troops moved on. On November 3, 1456 Edmund caught the Bubonic plague and died. He left a pregnant 13 year old widow. He was buried at a nearby Franciscan church but after the dissolution of the monestaries by his grandson Henry VIII he was moved to St Davids Cathedral.

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Edmund...mund_Tudor.JPG



Almost 3 months after his death his widow Margaret gave birth to their son Henry January 28, 1457. Margaret was in the care of her brother in law Jasper at Pembroke castle when she gave birth. Margaret married twice more but likely due to complications from the birth of Henry, had no further children.
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Old 06-12-2020, 05:46 PM
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June 10, 1437- death of Joan of Navarre second wife of Henry IV.

Joan was the second English queen consort from Navarre,the previous one was Berengaria de Navarre,queen of Richard the Lionheart.
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Old 06-12-2020, 08:20 PM
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Joan was the second English queen consort from Navarre,the previous one was Berengaria de Navarre,queen of Richard the Lionheart.
The only English queen never to enter England.

Joan was descended from her younger sister Blanche. Blanche was Joan's five time great-grandmother. Their brother Sancho VII was childless, and was succeeded by Blanche's son Theobald.
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Old 06-13-2020, 05:10 PM
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The only English queen never to enter England.
And Blanche of Navarre, Countess of Champagne also served as Regent of Navarre for her brother Sancho VII.

Highly interesting royal lady.
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Old 06-14-2020, 01:33 AM
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She was indeed.

June 14, 1216- the city of Winchester is captured by French troops during the First Baron's war. Following King John's refusal to abide by the Magna Carta that was signed in 1215, a group of land owners sought to over throw John.

Their candidate they posed for the throne was Louis the Lion. Louis was the son of Philip II of France and Isabella of Hainault.

Louis was originally proposed to be married to Eleanor of Brittany, a niece of Richard and John. Eleanor was the daughter of their brother Geoffrey. Her brother Arthur had been designated Richard's heir. But Henry VI disapproved of the marriage, and when Richard named John his heir instead, relations between Richard and Philip dissolved.

He was instead married to another niece of Richard, Blanche of Castile. Blanche was the daughter of Alfonso VIII and Eleanor of England. Her mother Eleanor was a sister to Richard, John and Geoffrey. It took a long negotiation which included with John to proceed with the marriage.

In March 1216 Louis and his men landed in Kent. On May 21 he would enter London with little resistance where he was proclaimed Louis I of England at Old St Paul's cathedral. Though he wasn't crowned, many came to pay him homage include Alexander II of Scotland.

With the seizing of Winchester he controlled almost half of the country. It seemed that his throne would be secure with this battle.


Unfortunately for him his wife's Uncle John would die in October. The barons started deserting the French prince in favor of John's nine year old son Henry. By 1217 the treaty of Lambeth was signed and Louis returned to France ending the civil/first Barons war.

He would succeed his father in 1223 but he died three short years later. His son would become Louis XI.

In England Henry of Winchester became Henry III in 1217. He assumed full control of his throne in 1227 at the age of 20.


Interesting enough the two young kings, Henry III and Louis IX married sisters. Alfonso II, Count of Provence had four daughters. His eldest daughter Margaret married Louis IX. His second daughter Eleanor married Henry III. And in fact his third daughter Sanchia married Richard of Cornwall, a brother of Henry III. The last daughter Beatrice married Charles I of Sicily.
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