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Old 01-19-2020, 07:41 AM
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List of monarchs of Luxembourg

The territory of Luxembourg has been ruled successively by counts, dukes and grand dukes. It was part of the medieval Kingdom of Germany, and later the Holy Roman Empire until it became a sovereign state in 1815.

House of the Ardennes (963-1136)
963- 998 Sigefroid
998-1026 Henri I - son of Sigefroid
1026-1047 Henri II - nephew of Henri I
1047-1059 Giselbert - brother of Henri II
1059-1086 Conrad I (first Count of Luxembourg) - son of Giselbert
1086-1096 Henri III - son of Conrad I
1096-1129 Guillaume - brother of Henri III
1129-1136 Conrad II - son of Guillaume

House of Namur (1136-1247)

1136-1196 Henri IV the Blind - cousin of Conrad II
1196-1247 Ermesinde - daughter of Henri IV

House of Luxembourg-Limbourg (1247-1443)
In 1354 the county was elevated to a duchy.
1247-1281 Henri V the Blond - son of Ermesinde
1281-1288 Henri VI - son of Henri V
1288-1310 Henri VII 1274 - son of Henri VI
1310-1346 Jean the Blind - son of Henri VII
1346-1353 Charles IV - son of Jean the Blind
1353-1383 Wenceslas I (first Duke of Luxembourg) - half-brother of Charles IV
1383-1419 Wenceslas II - son of Charles IV
1419-1437 Sigismond - half-brother of Wenceslas II
1437-1439 Albert II of Austria - son-in-law of Sigismond
1439-1443 Guillaume of Saxony - son-in-law of Albert of Austria

Burgundian Dominion (1443-1506)
In 1467, when Elisabeth II of Austria, last rival claimant to the title, renounced her rights, Philip III's son, Charles, Duke of Burgundy, assumed the title of duke of Luxembourg, making it a subsidiary title of the Duke of Burgundy.
1443-1467 Philip the Good
1467-1477 Charles the Bold - son of Philip the Good
1477-1482 Marie of Burgundy ( Maximilian I of Austria) - daughter of Charles the Bold
1482-1506 Philip the Fair (Juana of Spain) - son of Marie of Burgund

In 1482 Luxembourg passed to the House of Habsburg. After the abdication of Emperor Charles V, the duchy of Luxembourg fell to the Spanish line of the House of Habsburg.


First Spanish Dominion (1506-1684)
1506-1555 Charles V - son of Philip the Fair
1555-1598 Philip II - son of Charles V
1598-1621 Isabella (Albert of Austria) - daughter of Philip II
1621-1665 Philip IV - grandson of Philip II
1665-1684 Charles II - son of Philip IV

First French Dominion (1684-1698)
1684-1698 Louis XIV

Second Spanish Dominion (1698-1715)
1698-1700 Charles II - son of Philip IV
1700-1711 Philip V - great-nephew of Charles II
1711-1714 Maximilian Emanuel of Bavaria

Austrian Dominion (1715-1795)
1715-1740 Charles VI
1740-1780 Maria Theresa - daughter of Charles VI
1780-1790 Joseph II - son of Maria Theresa
1790-1792 Leopold II - brother of Joseph II
1792-1795 Francis II - son of Leopold II

Second French Dominion (1795-1815)
1795-1804 [French Republic]
1804-1814 Napoleon I

Orange-Nassau Dynasty (1815-1890)
In 1815, the Grand Powers assembled at the Congress of Vienna decided to create a Grand Duchy of Luxembourg and assign it personally to the King of Holland, William 1st of Orange-Nassau, in compensation for the transfer by him here in Prussia four years ago principalities located on the right bank of the Rhine.

From that date, the kings of the Netherlands also took the title of Grand Duke of Luxembourg. This personal union lasted until 1890, when the throne of the Grand Duchy of Luxembourg, according to the family pact of 1783, passed to the branch of Nassau-Weilburg.

1815-1840 Guillaume I (first Grand Duke of Luxembourg)
1840-1849 Guillaume II - son of Guillaume I
1849-1890 Guillaume III - son of Guillaume II

Nassau-Weilburg Dynasty (from 1890)
The Grand Duke of Luxembourg (or Grand Duchess in the case of a female monarch) is the head of state of Luxembourg. Luxembourg is the world's only extant sovereign Grand Duchy, a status to which Luxembourg was promoted in 1815 upon its unification with the Netherlands under the House of Orange-Nassau.

The Luxembourg constitution defines the Grand Duke's position:

“ The Grand Duke is the head of state, symbol of its unity, and guarantor of national independence. He exercises executive power in accordance with the Constitution and the laws of the country."

1890-1905 Adolphe
1905-1912 Guillaume IV - son of Adolphe
1912-1919 Marie-Adélaïde - daughter of Guillaume IV
1919-1964 Charlotte - sister of Marie-Adélaïde
1964-2000 Jean - son of Charlotte
2000- Henri - son of Jean
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Old 01-26-2020, 05:27 PM
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History of the Monarchy and Monarchs of Luxembourg

History of the sovereigns of Luxembourg:

From Sigefroid to Grand Duke Henri, the
Luxembourg has passed into your hands
of several dynasties before becoming, in
1815, a modern independent state.
Sigefroid is considered the founder
of Luxembourg in 963, from an exchange of
lands with the Saint-Maximin abbey of Trier:
during this, Sigefroid acquires, against
land located in Feulen, near Ettelbrück, a
castel built on a rocky promontory which over-
overlooks the Alzette valley. Sigefroid, in fact
being able to build a small castle, makes it appear
for the first time in the light of history the
name of Luxembourg ("Lucilinburhuc"). Indeed,
this castle constitutes the nucleus of the future city.
Sigefroid belongs to a noble family of the
Meuse-Moselle region but not yet wearing
the title of Count of Luxembourg; must wait
his great-grandson Conrad I, who reveals
for the first time in the history of the country the
name of "count of Luxembourg" on an act of
1083, by which he founded the Benedictine abbey of
Munster.

Source: https://sip.gouvernement.lu/dam-asse...-ducale-FR.pdf
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Old 01-26-2020, 05:29 PM
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From Sigefroid to the death of Conrad II in 1136,
eight successive counts in the same
family.
Under Conrad II died the first
Luxembourg county house.
It is reborn under the name Luxem-
bourg-Namur at the time when the emperor
Conrad III, the first Hohenstaufen on the
imperial throne, invests in the county of Luxembourg
Henri de Namur, said Henri the Blind. With this
Home, Luxembourg opens up to influence
Romanesque. Countess Ermesinde, daughter of Henri
IV, wife Thibaut de Bar then Waléran, duke of
Limburg. When he died, she reigned from
1226 to 1247 in a climate of peace and development
religious. In 1247, county dignity rose to
his son, Henri V, known as Henri le Blondel, with whom
begins the House of Luxembourg-Limburg.
Under Count Henry VII begins the ascension
sion of the counts of Luxembourg towards the most
high spheres of power. Indeed, in 1308,
Henri is elected to the throne of the Holy Empire.

Source: https://sip.gouvernement.lu/dam-asse...-ducale-FR.pdf
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Old 01-26-2020, 05:44 PM
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The county of Luxembourg is raised to the rank
duchy in 1354, by Charles IV, son of the count
John the Blind, who became king of Bohemia in
1310. The Maison de Luxembourg died in
1437 with the death of Emperor Sigismund, king
of Bohemia and Hungary, duke of Luxembourg.
His niece Elisabeth cedes his rights to Philippe de
Burgundy, and Luxembourg falls into the hands
dukes of Burgundy.
The Capture of Luxembourg by Philippe le Bon
in 1443 integrates the duchy of Luxembourg in
a larger whole, the Burgundian State
then the Netherlands. The Netherlands is not
not really kill a state, but a conglomerate
rat of relatively autonomous principalities. The
Burgundian regime strengthens the French influence
here in Luxembourg, French becoming
dominant language in administration. The
successors of the Dukes of Burgundy
(Habsburg of Spain in the 16th and 17th centuries
centuries, and Habsburg of Austria in the 18th century century) will retain the use of French.

Source: https://sip.gouvernement.lu/dam-asse...-ducale-FR.pdf
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Old 01-26-2020, 05:48 PM
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Philippe le Bon's son Charles the
Bold, undertakes to unite its territories of
South (Burgundy) to its northern principalities
stretching from Luxembourg to Holland.
His ambitions are scary and meet
many obstacles. His daughter, Marie de
Burgundy marries Archduke Maximilian
of Austria, emperor from 1486 to 1519. She
dies prematurely and leaves the legacy
Burgundy to his son, Philippe le Beau. This one
acquires by marriage the kingdoms of Aragon and
of Castile. Her son Charles V is elected
emperor, in 1519. The Netherlands, and with them
Luxembourg thus pass to the Habsburgs
Spain. In 1555-1556, Charles V abdicated
and proceeds to the sharing of his possessions: his
Brother Ferdinand I inherits the imperial crown
and Austrian lands and his son Philip II
from Spain and the Netherlands.
France's entry into the War of 30
years in 1635 places Luxembourg first
covetous plan. The war ends with
the Treaty of the Pyrenees, in 1659, under the terms
from which France obtains the cities and the
tees from Ivoix-Carignan, Montmédy, Marville,
Damvillers and Thionville, located in the duchy
from Luxembourg.
From 1678 to 1683, the troops of Louis XIV
occupy large Luxembourg territories
and seized the capital in 1684. To the treaty
of Regensburg, Louis XIV acquired the duchy of
Luxembourg. Vauban, who had directed the siege
of the City of Luxembourg, redeveloping the fort-
resse, but Louis XIV must renounce the
Luxembourg and return it to Charles II
from Spain in 1698 (Treaty of Ryswick).
At the end of the war of succession
from Spain, the Spanish Netherlands - and with
them Luxembourg - move to the Habsburgs
of Austria, in 1714: Emperor Charles VI in
take possession.

Source: https://sip.gouvernement.lu/dam-asse...-ducale-FR.pdf
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Old 01-26-2020, 05:51 PM
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The reign of Empress Marie-Thérèse
(1740-1780) is accompanied by
significant changes.
It begins a vast
reform movement
in order to improve the
functioning of institutions
tutions and income of
the State. Joseph II his son
succeeds in 1780, and continues
the work of his mother who foreshadows
the reformist work of the Revolution
French.
The reign of the Habsburgs touches
its end with the arrival of the Soviet troops
lutionnaires à Luxembourg, in 1795. The
duchy of luxembourg is attached to the
France as the “Forestry Department”.
This period leads to Luxembourg
in-depth transformations,
and determines its evolution at
19th century.

Source: https://sip.gouvernement.lu/dam-asse...-ducale-FR.pdf
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Old 01-26-2020, 05:53 PM
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The work of the French Revolution,
set up under the Management Board,
is marked in particular by the
denial of legal equality and
by the introduction of the civil code under
the consulate.
After Napoleon's defeat at
the battle of the peoples at
Leipzig, in 1813, and its
abdication in 1814, the
Luxembourgers want
would return the
Habsburg, but the
Vienna Congress of
1815 sees things
other. The main goal
cipal being to contain
France inside
of its borders, the
great powers
Europeans decide to
create a great kingdom
of the Netherlands, entrusted to the Orange-Nassau dynasty.
William I of Orange-Nassau therefore sees the
Enlarged Holland of the former Austrian Netherlands
dogs. The Duchy of Luxembourg is erected in
an independent state, ceded in a personal capacity
to the King of the Netherlands "to be possessed to per-
petuity by him and his successors in all pro-
priory and sovereignty "(Article 67 of the Act
Vienna Congress). So the kings of
Netherlands also become grand dukes
of Luxembourg, until 1890. In reality,
William I does not treat Luxembourg, erected
at the rank of Grand Duchy, as an independent State
during but as the 18th province of its
kingdom.
The Grand Duchy includes, as under
the old regime, two linguistic districts, the
German quarter which includes the capital where
the population mainly speaks luxem-
bourgeois, and the French-speaking district.

Source: https://sip.gouvernement.lu/dam-asse...-ducale-FR.pdf
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