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Old 11-30-2006, 06:47 PM
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Jacobites. The supporters of the legitimate Stuart succession (made ineligible by the Act of Settlement) who see the Duke of Bavaria, the senior descendant of the Stuarts and "representative and heir of King Charles I of England", as the rightful King of Great Britain. The claim will eventually pass to a future reigning Prince of Liechtenstein.

Don Jaime de Marichalar y Sáenz de Tejada, Duke of Lugo
He is the fourth of the six sons of Don Amalio de Marichalar y Bruguera, Conde de Ripalda, (who died in 1979) and his wife Doña Concepción Sáenz de Tejada y Fernández de Bobadilla. He was born in Pamplona on July 4, 1963. He studied at the Jesuit schools in Burgos, San Estanislao de Kostka in Madrid and Yago School in Dublin, Ireland. His higher education focused on Economics and he specialised in Business Management and Marketing, although he never got a degree. In 1986, he gained practical work experience in a number of financial businesses in Paris where he lived as a bachelor and during the early years of his marriage. After a number of years working in the international financial markets sector, in January 1998 he was appointed Managing Director's Senior Advisor for Credit Suisse First Boston in Madrid where the Duchess of Lugo and her husband have lived since then. He is also President of the Winterthur Foundation which promotes cultural activities. He married Infanta Elena of Spain on March 18th 1995 in the Seville Cathedral, and since then his styled HE The Duke of Lugo. They have two children.

Jaliliah Bint Al Ali – the daughter of Prince Ali and Princess Rym of Jordan

King James I (James VI of Scotland) – King of England, Scotland and Ireland, the first King of Great Britain. He succeeded the last Tudor Monarch, Elizabeth I, who died without issue.

Lady Jane Grey –The granddaughter of Henry VII’s sister Mary. Edward VI named Jane as his successor, ahead of his sisters, Princesses Mary and Elizabeth. Jane was Queen for only nine days, when Princess Mary, who was supported by the Army and people, entered London. Jane was arrested and later executed for treason, along with her husband and father.

Queen Jane (Jane Seymour) – Third wife of King Henry VIII, Jane was the only one, who managed to give him the son (Prince Edward, future Edward VI) he was longing. She died of post-natal complications.

Jazmin Grace Rotolo Grimaldi was born on March 4, 1992 in Palm Springs, California, United States). She is known for being the elder child of Albert II, Prince of Monaco.

Je Maintiendrai: (I will Maintain) motto on the Dutch royal coat of arms

Jean, Grand Duke of Luxembourg (1921-)-Born Prince Jean Benoit Guillaume Robert Antoine Louis Marie Adolphe Marc d'Aviano. Reigned from 1964-2000. Married Josephine-Charlotte, Princess of Belgium.
Princess Marie-Astrid Charlotte Leopoldine Wilhelmine Ingeborg Antoinette Elisabeth Anna Alberta
Prince Henri
Prince Jean
Princess Margaretha Antonia Marie Felicite
Prince Guillaume Marie Louis Christian

Jean-Baptiste Bernadotte - also known as Charles XIV John. Jean-Baptiste was born on January 26, 1763. He was in the French Army and by 1794 was a brigadier attached to the army of the Sambre et Meuse. On August 16, 1798 he married Désirée Clary, sister to Joseph Bonaparte’s wife. Jean-Baptiste and Désirée had one child, Oscar, born in 1799. In 1810 Bernadotte was picked to be the heir to King Charles XIII of Sweden. He succeeded to Charles in 1818. He died in Stockholm on March 8, 1844

Baron Jean-Léonard Taubert-Natta de Massy (3 June 1974) is a member of the extended Princely Family of Monaco.His mother, Elisabeth-Anne de Massy, is a daughter of Alexandre Noghès and HSH Princess Antoinette, Baroness de Massy. His father is Bernard Taubert-Natta.

Jean Raymond Gottlieb (b. 1967) is a former Paris gendarme and Palace Guard at the Palais Princier in Monaco.He was the Head of Security to Princess Stéphanie when they became lovers but resigned as bodyguard when the romance started. He is allegedly the father of her third child Camille who was born in 1998.

Jimmu – Jimmu was the first emperor and mythical founder of Japan. According to legend, he was born Wakamikenu no Mikoto on January 1, 711 BCE, a direct descendant of Amaterasu Omikami, the Sun Goddess. After defeating the opposing forces, he was proclaimed Emperor of Japan. Although it cannot be historically verified, it is said to have taken place in the 7th Century BC on 11 February 660 BC. He died March 11, 585 BCE. His posthumous name (Jimmu) means “devine might”.

Joachim Holger Waldemar Christian, Prince to Denmark, born 1969. Son of Margrethe II and Prince Henrik of Denmark. Married to Princess Alexandra of Denmark 1995-2005. Children: Nikolai and Felix. Lives at Schackenborg Manor, in Møgeltønder.

Prince Joachim of Belgium, Archduke of Austria-Este, Prince Imperial of Austria, Prince Royal of Hungary & Bohemia (1991-)-Born Prince Joachim Carl Maria Nikolaus Isabelle Marcus d'Aviano. Third child of Princess Astrid of Belgium and Archduke Lorenz of Austria-Este.

Josephine-Charlotte, Grand Duchess of Luxembourg (1927-2005)-Born Princess Josephine-Charlotte Ingeborg Elisabeth Marie-Jose Marguerite Astrid of Belgium. Married Grand Duke Jean of Luxembourg.
Princess Marie-Astrid Charlotte Leopoldine Wilhelmine Ingeborg Antoinette Elisabeth Anna Alberta
Prince Henri Albert Gabriel Felix Marie Guillaume
Prince Jean
Princess Margaretha Antonia Marie Felicite
Prince Guillaume Marie Louis Christian

King Juan Carlos of Spain
He was born 5 January 1938 in Rome and is the reigning King of Spain (Rey de España). On 22 November 1975, two days after the death of Francisco Franco, Juan Carlos was designated King according to the law of succession promulgated by Franco. He successfully oversaw the transition of Spain to a democratic constitutional monarchy. Juan Carlos' titles include King of Jerusalem, as successor to the royal family of Naples. He is also a direct descendant of Queen Victoria of the United Kingdom through his grandmother, Victoria Eugenie; of Louis XIV of France through the House of Bourbon; of the Emperor Charles V, who belonged to the Habsburg dynasty of the Holy Roman Empire; of the House of Savoy of Italy; etc. Besides Spanish, Juan Carlos speaks fluent English, French, Italian, Portuguese and Catalan. He is married to Queen Sofia, née Princess of Greece and they have three children.

HE Don Juan Filiberto Nicolás Gomez-Acebo y de Borbón, Vizconde de la Torre.
He's the oldest son of Infanta Pilar of Spain and Luis Gómez-Acebo y de Estrada, Vizconde de la Torre, who was a first cousin of Queen Margarita of Bulgaria. Besides being a Grandee of Spain, Juan Filiberto also bears the title of Vizconde (Viscount) od la Torre, title which he inherited from his father.

HE Don Juan Valentín Urdangarín y de Borbón
He's the oldest child of Infanta Cristina and Iñaki Urdangarín. He was born on September 29th, 1999 in Barcelona.

Juliana Welfare Fund [The Netherlands]: fund aimed to improve social welfare and encourage social cohesion.

Juni hitoe - The traditional robe worn for formal occasions by female members of the Japanese Imperial family. The name means "twelve layers," and the many-layered robe first appeared during the Heian era (794-1185). The number of layers was eventually reduced to five by sumptuary laws, and this is the number of layers worn today. The robes are worn over long red trousers called nagabakama, a type of hakama (see "Hakama" above).
Old 11-30-2006, 06:51 PM
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Kensington Palace – Royal Residence set in Kensington Gardens. Kensington Palace has been the residence of the British Royal Family since the 17th century. Nowadays it is the official residence of The Duke and Duchess of Gloucester, The Duke and Duchess of Kent, The Prince and Princess Michael of Kent and Zara Phillips. It was also the residence of Diana, Princess of Wales until her death.

Ceremony of the Keys – Ceremonies of the Keys are held in London and Edinburgh, as well as Gibraltar. Probably the most famous ceremony is the one that takes place every night at the Tower of London. This tradition comes from the 14th century with very slight changes.

Khaled Edward Blair (née Edward Blair) - Edward converted to Islam in May of 2004, taking the pre name Khaled. He married Princess Badiya Bint El Hassan in June of 2005. His father-in-law is Prince Hassan bin Talal (brother of the late King Hussein) and his mother-in-law is Princess Sarvath of Jordan

Kiko – Kiko Kawashima was born 11 September 1966. She married Prince Fumihito of Akishino of Japan on 29 June 1990. They have three children:
1) Mako of Akishino, born 23 October 23 1991.
2) Kako of Akishino, born 29 December 1994.
3) Hisahito of Akishino, born 6 September 2006.
See Fumihito.

Kiku - The Japanese name for the chrysanthemum, the symbol of the Japanese imperial house. The sixteen-petalled chrysanthemum (kiku) is the family crest (mon) of the imperial family and is also the pattern of the imperial seal of Japan (kiku no gomon).

Kimono – a term which means simply Japanese style clothing (see "Hakama" and "Juni hitoe" above). Empress Michiko regularly wears kimono while performing her official duties while the younger royals rarely do.

King Abdullah I Mosque, built between 1982 and 1989 in Amman, Jordan. It is capped by a blue mosaic dome beneath which 3,000 Muslims may offer prayer

King Crisis- Issue about the role of King Leopold III in World War II. The King remained in Switzerland. The crisis was eventually solved by an abdication

Kōkaku – Emperor Kōkaku of Japan was born 23 September 1771, son of Prince Kan'in-no-miya Sukehito, grandson of Emperor Higashiyama. His personal name was Morohito, but was later changed to Tomohito. His title was Sachi-no-miya. Being from an imperial collateral branch, he was expected to join the priesthood, but since he was adopted by the sonless and dying emperor Go-Momozono on his deathbed, he became the 119th Emperor of Japan on 16 December 1779. Kōkaku is the lineal ancestor of all the succeeding emperors of Japan, up to present monarch, Akihito. He abdicated in 1817 in favour of his son, Emperor Ninkō. He died 11 December 1840.

Kokyo - Imperial Palace of Japan, home of the Emperor of Japan. It was part of the former Edo Castle, surrounded by a moat and a huge stone wall. It is located in the centre of Tokyo. The palace was destroyed during the Second World War, but was later rebuild in the same style.

Koninginnedag: (Queen’s Day) The annual April 30 celebration of Queen Beatrix’s birthday

Kong Christian stod ved højen mast. Danish national anthem, used for royals.

Kongesangen – Norwegian royal anthem. Sung to the tune of “God save the King”.

Kongssetern – Private property of the Norwegian royal family. A manor house built in log-cabin traditional style – it is usually the setting for the Christmas celebrations.

Kousho Hajime - The ceremony of the Imperial New Year's lectures in Japan, a ceremony dating back to 1869. The ceremony takes place at the Imperial Palace in the presence of the emperor and members of the imperial family and involves lectures by experts in the fields of social and natural sciences

Kristina, Queen - Born December 8, 1626. Queen Regnant of Sweden from 1632 to 1654. She was the only legitimate child of King Gustav II Adolf and his wife Maria Eleonora of Brandenburg. At the age of 6, she succeeded her father to the throne of Sweden upon his death at the Battle of Lützen. When her father was alive he gave orders that Kristina should be brought up as a prince. Even as a child she displayed great precociousness. In 1649, when she was twenty-three, she invited the philosopher Descartes to Sweden to tutor her. Kristina also took the oath as king, not queen, because her father had wanted it so. Growing up, she was nicknamed the "Girl King". On June 5, 1654 Kristina abdicated her throne in order to practice openly her previously secret Catholicism, or to accept the same publicly so as to be at the center of a scientific and artistic renaissance. The sincerity of her conversion to Catholicism has been questioned. In 1651, the Jesuit Paolo Casati had been sent on a mission to Stockholm in order to gauge the sincerity of her intention to become Catholic. Her conversion was however not the only reason for her abdication, as there was increasing discontent with, in the words of her critics, her arbitrary and wasteful ways. Kristina died on April 19, 1689 in Rome.

Kronborg Castle – Castle in Elsinore/Helsingør, North of Copenhagen. Setting of Hamlet.

Kungeliga Slottet – Royal Palace in the middle of Stockholm. Main residence of the King and Queen

Kussnacht- In Switzerland, it was the location of the car-accident that caused Queen Astrid of Belgium's death.
Old 11-30-2006, 07:01 PM
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Laeken Castle- Residence of Prince Philippe and Princess Mathilde, Duke and Duchess of Brabant and their family

Princess Laetitia Maria of Belgium, Archduchess of Austria-Este, Princess Imperial of Austria, Princess Royal of Hungary & Bohemia (2003-)-Born Princess Laetitia Maria Nora Anna Joachim Zita. Fifth child of Princess Astrid of Belgium and Archduke Lorenz of Austria-Este.

Duke of Lancaster - As the current British Monarch, Queen Elizabeth II is also the Duke of Lancaster. The Duchy of Lancaster is not property of the Crown, but the personal property of the monarch, and has been so since 1399, when it merged with the Crown.

Laura Lopes – The daughter of The Duchess of Cornwall and Andrew Parker Bowles, step-daughter of The Prince of Wales. Laura married Harry Lopes, the grandson of the 2nd Baron Roborough and the 2nd Baron Astor of Hever.

Prince Laurent of Belgium (1963-)-Born Prince Laurent Benoit Baudouin Marie. Third child of King Albert II and Queen Paola of the Belgians. Married Claire Coombs. 3 Children

Lech: winter resort in Austria where the Dutch royal family has visited since the 1930s for skiing holidays.

Ledaal – The Norwegian King’s Residence in Stavanger, from 1949. Owned by Stavanger Municipality, but made available to the royal family.

Leiden: University of young queens and king. Queen Juliana, Queen Beatrix and Prince-Willem Alexander were educated here.

Infanta Leonor of Spain
She was born 31 October 2005, in Madrid, and is the first child of Prince Felipe and Princess Letizia, and thus second in the line of succession to the Spanish throne after her father. As the daughter of the heir to the throne, she is styled and titled Her Royal Highness, Infanta of Spain. Her birth has sparked discussion of a revision of the Spanish Constitution of 1978 to abolish the precedence of male heirs over their older sisters. In this case, she could become heir apparent when her father is king, and would then in all likelihood become Queen Eleanor (Leonor) I of Spain (except for Navarre, where she would be Eleanor II - there was a queen Eleanor in the 15th century).

Leopold I, King of the Belgians (1790-1865)-Born Prince Leopold George Christian Frederik of Saxe-Coburg-Saalfeld, Duke in Saxony. First King of the Belgians. Reigned from 1831-1865. Married Princess Charlotte Augusta of Wales. Marriage was childless. Married Princess Louise-Marie of Orleans. 4 Children

Leopold II, King of the Belgians (1835-1909)-Born Prince Loepold Louis-Philippe Marie Victor. Married Marie Henriette, Princess Imperial & Archduchess of Austria, Princess Royal of Hungary & Bohemia. 4 Children

Leopold III, King of the Belgians (1901-1983)-Born Prince Leopold Philippe Charles Albert Meinrad Hubertus Marie Miguel. Reigned from 1934-1951. Married Princess Astrid of Sweden. 3 children from this marriage. After the death of his first wife he married Mary Lillian Baels. 3 children from second marriage.

Doña Letizia, Princess of Asturias
She was born as Letizia Ortiz Rocasolano on September 15, 1972 in Oviedo, Spain to Jesús Ortiz Álvarez, a journalist, and Paloma Rocasolano Rodríguez, a registered nurse and also a hospital union representative. Letizia attended school at the La Gesta school in Oviedo, before her family moved to Madrid, where she attended high school at the Ramiro de Maeztu high school. At school, she met Alonso Guerrero, a teacher of language and literature, ten years her senior, with whom she started a long-term relationship that culminated on a civil wedding in August 1998 - Letizia was 25 years old. The couple divorced one year later. Letizia's first wedding happened at the same time of her parents' divorce. She completed a Bachelor’s Degree in Journalism at the Complutense University of Madrid, as well as a Master’s Degree in Audiovisual Journalism at the Institute for Studies in Audiovisual Journalism. In 2000 Letizia reported from Washington, DC on the presidential elections. In September 2001 she broadcast live from Ground Zero following the 9/11 attacks in New York and in 2003 she filed reports from Iraq following the war. In 2002 she sent several reports from Galicia in northern Spain following the ecological disaster when the oil tanker Prestige sank. Letizia got married to Prince Felipe on May 22nd, 2004 at Almudena Cathedral in Madrid. The couple has a daughter, Infanta Leonor, and another one whose birth is expected to May, 2007.

Liechtenstein, Principality of. The only country in the world that bears the name of its ruling family. The House Laws of the Princely Family form part of the Liechtenstein Constitution

Liege, Prince/Princess of- Title held by King Albert II and Queen Paola during the reign of King Baudouin.

Lilian, Princess - Princess Lilian of Sweden, Duchess of Halland was born Lillian May Davies on August 30, 1915 in Swansea, Wales. She is the daughter of William and Gladys Mary Davies. For a short time in the 1940s Lilian was married to actor Ian Craig. In 1943 she met Prince Bertil of Sweden, Duke of Halland and uncle to the current King of Sweden. The prince was barred from marrying a commoner, they were not allowed to marry for more than 30 years. One December 7, 1976 after receiving royal permission, Lilian and Bertil were married at the Palace Church of Drottningholm Palace in the presence of the King and Queen. Lilian has been a widow since 1997 when Bertil died.

Lilian Baels, Princess de Rethy (1916-2002)-Born Mary Lilian Baels. Second wife of King Leopold III. 3 Children

Line of the Succession to the British Throne – The line of the succession to the British Throne is determined by legitimate birth, male primogeniture and religion. First 11 people in the line of the succession: Prince Charles - Prince William - Prince Henry - Prince Andrew - Princess Beatrice - Princess Eugenie - Prince Edward - Lady Louise - Princess Anne - Peter Phillips - Zara Phillips. The Entire Line of the Succession.

Line to throne (Danish): Crown Prince Frederik, Prince Christian, Prince Joachim, Prince Nikolai, Prince Felix, Princess Benedikte, Princess Elisabeth

Line to throne (Monegasque): Princess Caroline, Andrea Casiraghi, Pierre Casiraghi, Charlotte Casiraghi, Princess Alexandra, Princess Stephanie, Louis Ducruet, Pauline Ducruet

Line to throne (Norwegian), Crown Prince Haakon, Princess Ingrid Alexandra, Prince Sverre Magnus, Princess Märtha Louise, Maud Angelica Behn, Leah Isadora Behn.

Lockhead Scandal: scandal that resulted from a $1.1 million bribe from this U.S. aircraft manufacturer in 1976 to Prince Bernhard in exchange for his influencing the Dutch government to purchase their fighter aircraft. While there was no criminal prosecution, the Prince resigned from most of his military, business and charity work.

Lodewijk Napoleon: first king of Holland, absorber of the throne while the Oranges fled to London

Lonely but not Alone: (Eenzaam, maar niet alleen) autobiography of Queen Wilhelmina

Lorentzen, Erling Sven – husband to Princess Ragnhild of Norway.

Louis, Prince of Luxembourg (1986-)-Third child of Grand Duke Henri and Grand Duchess Maria Teresa of Luxembourg. Married Tessy Antony. Renounced rights to the throne upon his marriage. Son: Gabriel Michel Louis Ronny de Nassau.

Louis II, Prince of Monaco (12 July 1870 – 9 May 1949) was the Sovereign Prince of Monaco from 26 June 1922 until 9 May 1949. It has been asserted that Louis has married Juliette in 1897: there is, however, no evidence for this allegation. They have an illegitimate daughter Charlotte Louise Juliette, born on 30 September 1898 in Constantine, Algeria. In 1946 he married Ghislaine Dommanget (1900 - 1991), a French film actress

Louis Robert Paul Ducruet was born in Monaco on 26 November 1992, the son of Princess Stéphanie of Monaco and Daniel Ducruet, a former Palace bodyguard.

Princess Louise of Belgium (2004-)-Born Princess Louise Sophie Mary. First child of Prince Laurent and Princess Claire of Belgium

Louise-Hippolyte, Princess of Monaco (1697-1731) is the ancestress of the current reigning royal family of Monaco. At the age of 18 she married James d'Estouville and went on to have five children. She acceded the throne of Monaco in 1731 and died the same year.

The Lady Louise Mountbatten-Windsor – The youngest granddaughter of Queen Elizabeth and The Duke of Edinburgh, legally Lady Louise is H.R.H. Princess Louise of Wessex (in the absence of a Letter Patent). She was born prematurely, via emergency Caesarean.

The Loyal Toast [UK]- The first toast at a formal gathering. In the Duchy of Lancaster, it is "The Queen, The Duke of Lancaster" while at the Channel Islands, it is "La Reine, notre Duc" or "The Queen, our Duke."

Princess Luisa Maria of Belgium, Archduchess of Austria-Este, Princess Imperial of Austria, Princess Royal of Hungary & Bohemia (1995-)-Born Princess Luisa Maria Anna Martine Pilar. Fourth child of Princess Astrid of Belgium and Archduke Lorenz of Austria-Este.
Old 11-30-2006, 07:23 PM
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Madeleine -Her Royal Highness Princess Madeleine, Duchess of Hälsingland and Gästrikland was born on June 10, 1982. She is the second daughter and youngest child of King Carl XVI Gustaf and Queen Silvia. In the fall of 2001, Madeleine spent some time in the United Kingdom studying English. For a few months in 2006 Madeleine spent time in New York City, New York for a trainee program at UNICEF. Madeleine is currently dating Jonas Bergström.

Magna Carta – ‘The Great Charter of Freedoms’ was the most significant influence that led to the rule of constitutional law. Magna Carta required the King to renounce certain rights, respect certain legal procedures and accept that the will of the King could be bound by law.

Princess Margaret – The younger daughter of King George VI and Queen Elizabeth, The Queen Mother and sister of Queen Elizabeth II. Princess Margaret was perhaps the most glamorous and controversial member of the British Royal Family at her time. She died in February 2002.

Margaretha, Princess of Liechtenstein (1957-)-Born Princess Margaretha Antonia Marie Felicite of Luxembourg. Fourth child of Grand Duke Jean & Grand Duchess Josephine-Charlotte. Married Prince Nikolaus of Liechtenstein. 4 Children

Infanta Doña Margarita of Spain - She is the youngest sister of current reigning King Juan Carlos of Spain. Doña Margarita has been blind since birth. She's married to Don Carlos Emilio Juan Zurita y Delgado (a medical doctor). They have two children. King Juan Carlos has granted Doña Margarita the title of Duchess of Soria.

Margrethe II, Queen – Born 1940. Oldest daughter of Frederik IX and Ingrid of Denmark. Not in line to the throne at the time of birth, but after a referendum in 1953, she and her sisters moved ahead of her uncle and his sons in the line. Married to Prince Henrik. Two sons. Inherited the throne in 1972.

Queen Maria Christina of Spain, Princess Imperial and Archduchess of Austria, Princess Royal of Hungary and Bohemia
She was the second Queen consort of King Alfonso XII of Spain and was Queen Regent of Spain during the minority of her son Alfonso XIII and during the abeyancy of the throne before his birth. She was a daughter of Archduke Karl Ferdinand and his wife, Archduchess Elisabeth Franziska of Austria. Maria Christina married King Alfonso XII of Spain at the Royal Palace in Madrid, and became the mother of his only three legitimate children: Infanta Mercedes, Princess of Asturias, Infanta Maria Teresa of Spain, and Alfonso (born posthumously).

Princess Maria Laura of Belgium, Archduchess of Austria-Este, Princess Imperial of Austria, Princess Royal of Hungary & Bohemia (1988-)-Born Princess Maria Laura Zita Beatrix Gerhard. Second child of Princess Astrid of Belgium and Archduke Lorenz of Austria-Este.

Maria Teresa, Grand Duchess of Luxembourg (1956-)-Born Maria Teresa Mestre. Married Hereditary Grand Duke Henri of Luxembourg. 5 Children

Marie-Adelaide, Grand Duchess of Luxembourg (1894-1924)-Born Princess Marie-Adelaide Therese Hilda Wilhelmine. Eldest child of Grand Duke Guillaume IV and Grand Duchess Maria Anna of Luxembourg. Reigned from 1912 until her abdication in 1919.

Archduchess Marie-Astrid, Princess Imperial of Austria, Princess Royal of Hungary & Bohemia, Princess of Luxembourg (1954-)-Born Princess Marie-Astrid Charlotte Leopoldine Wilhelmine Ingeborg Antoinette Elisabeth Anna Alberta. Married Archduke Carl-Christian of Austria. 5 Children

Marie Juliette Louvet (May 9, 1867 – September 24, 1930) was partner of Prince Louis II of Monaco and was the mother of his only child, Princess Charlotte of Monaco. Juliette Louvet became an entertainer of sorts, reportedly a cabaret singer (other sources identify her as a laundress and a dressmaker), then was Prince Louis' lover. She gave birth to their daughter, Charlotte, in Algeria on September 30, 1898.

Palacio de Marivent
Built back in 1923 by the architect Guillem Fortesa, the palace was built at a high rocky coastal promontory over the city of Palma, originally planned to be an art museum, according to the expressed wishes of Juan de Saridakis and his wife, madame Mounier. The restoration works were supervised by Queen Sofia herself. Small changes were made however, in order to preserve its global simplicity and respect the inner architecture of the palace. Thirty years later, the image of the Royal Family enjoying its summer vacations has been tied to the palace of Marivent and the island of Mallorca; a tradition that all the major institutions of that Independent Community want to preserve at any rate. Anticipating the royal family’s growth, the Government of the Balearic Islands signed, in the 90’s, an agreement with the Ministry of Defence, through which the bordering lands around the palace should be available to the Royal family, during the upcoming 100 years. It was the culmination of two years of negotiations between the President of that Independent Community and the Minister of Defence. Thanks to these conversations, it was possible that the heir to the throne had his own residence within the enclosure of Marivent; a slightly larger house than the two pavilions occupied by his sisters, Infantas Elena and Cristina, and their respective families.

Marquis of Baux (French: Marquis des Baux) is one of the Prince of Monaco's many hereditary titles, and one which is usually also given to the reigning Prince's eldest son. It was originally associated with the town of Les Baux de Provence, but later lost its administrative authority when control of the town reverted to France.

Marseilisborg – Queen Margrethe’s residence near Århus. Usually Easter or Christmas is spent here.

Mary, Crown Princess - Born Mary Elizabeth Donaldson. Married Frederik of Denmark in 2004. One child, with another on the way.

Queen Mary of Teck – The Consort of George V, Queen of the United Kingdom and Empress of India. Queen Mary set the tone of the Royal Family as the model of regal formality and proprierty. Queen Mary left collection of jewels, which is now considered priceless.

Queen Mary I (Bloody Mary) – The daughter of Henry VIII and Catherine of Aragon. A fierce catholic, Mary tried to bring back the Catholic religion during her reign by mass religious executions, which gained her the epithet ‘Bloody Mary’.

Queen Mary II – Reigned jointly with her husband, William III after the deposition of her father, the Catholic King James II. As Mary and William had no issue, the Throne was passed to Mary’s sister Anne.

Queen Mary of Scotland – Queen of Scotland and Queen Consort of France. Mary became Queen after her father’s death. She was raised in the French Court and married Prince Francois of France, who soon became King Francois II of France. After Francois’s death, she returned to Scotland. Mary was also the next in the line to the English throne. After revolts in Scotland, she flew to England, where she asked her rival, Elizabeth I, for shelter. She spent next 20 years in prison, but after taking part in conspiracy against Queen Elizabeth, she was executed on charges of treason.

Masahito - The given name of Prince Hitachi, the younger brother of Emperor Akihito of Japan.

Masako - Masako Owada was born 9 December 1963, the daughter of Hisashi Owada, a senior diplomat. She married Crown Prince Naruhito of Japan 9 June 1993. They have one daughter, Princess Aiko, born 1 December 2001. The Imperial Household Agency announced in 2004 that Masako was suffering from adjustment disorder, a stress-induced mental condition associated with her Crown Princess status, pregnancy, miscarriage, and busy life.

Master of Ceremonies: The office of the Dutch Master of Ceremonies coordinates important Court events and visits abroad, including state visits.
Old 11-30-2006, 07:28 PM
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Princess Mathilde of Belgium, Duchess of Brabant (1973-)-Born Mathilde d'Udekem d'Acoz. Married Prince Philippe of Belgium, Duke of Brabant. 3 Children

Empress Matilda (Maud)– As the only surviving child of King Henry I, Matilda was the heir to the English Throne, however English Barons supported Henry’s nephew Stephen. After a number of battles between Matilda’s and Stephen’s supporters they agreed that Stephen will be succeeded by Matilda’s eldest son, Henry (future Henry II, the first of Plantagenet dynasty). Matilda was the fist ever female ruler of the Kingdom of England (though not crowned).

Maud, Queen – born Princess Maud of Wales, at Sandringham. Daughter of King Edward VII and Queen Alexandra. Married to her cousin Carl, Prince of Denmark. Only child, Alexander, born 1903 (see. Olav V, king of Norway) Queen of Norway from 1905 until her death in 1938. It is through her that the Norwegian royals are in line to the British throne.

Maundy Money – A special British coinage given to deserving poor people in a religious ceremony, performed by Anglicans on Maundy Thursday (Thursday before Easter). Edward II was the first King to actively taking part in the give-away ceremony. In 2006 Queen Elizabeth II turned 80, so 80 men and 80 women each received 80 pence in Maundy Money on April 13.

Maurits Post: architect for Stadtholder William III of Orange from 1672 until his early death in 1677. Famous buildings include Slot Amerongen and the 3 Royal palaces; Soestjik Palace, Huis ten Bosch Palace and Noordeinde Palace.

May 17th – Norway’s National Day, commemorates the signing of the Norwegian Constitution on May 17th, 1814. The Crown Prince’s family start by greeting the Children’s parade to their home, Skaugum, and then later in the day the royal family greet the Children’s parade of Oslo from the Palace balcony.

Meiji - Emperor Meiji was born 3 November 1852, the son of Emperor Komei and Nakayama Yoshiko, a lady-in-waiting. He was formally adopted by Asako Ny?g?, the principal consort of Emperor K?mei, on 11 July 1860. His personal name was Mutsuhito. He acceded to the throne on 3 February 1867 at the age of fourteen as the 122nd Emperor of Japan. The era was changed to Meiji or Enlightened Rule which was later used for his posthumous name. See Meiji Restoration.

Meiji restoration -The restoration of the emperor as the pre-eminent ruler after the end of the Tokugawa shogunate, and during which the emperor was a figurehead for the real ruler, one of the shoguns of the Tokugawa family. The defeat of the shoguns and the opening of Japan to international trade by Commodore Perry marked the beginning of the modern era in Japan.

Mélanie de Lusignan was born in Monaco on January 18, 1985 and is the daughter of Baroness Elisabeth-Anne de Massy and her second husband Nicolai de Lusignan. She lost her place in the line of succession to the Monegasque Throne on the death of Prince Rainier.

Mette-Marit, Crown Princess – Born 1973. Married to Crown Prince Haakon of Norway. One son born outside of marriage, Marius, and two children with Haakon.

Michiko - Michiko Shōda was born 20 October 1934, the daughter of Hidesaburo Shoda and Fumiko Soejima. When she married Crown Prince Akihito of Japan on 10 April 1959, she was the first commoner to marry into the Imperial family. She became Empress consort in 1989. They have three children:
1) Crown Prince Naruhito, born 23 February 1960.
2) Prince Akishino (Fumihito), born 30 November 1965.
3) The former Princess Nori (Sayako), born 18 April 1969.

Middleton, Kate (Catherine Elizabeth, born 9 January 1982). A Princess in the making? The Berkshire girlfriend of Prince William of Wales who keeps a determinably low profile, and is demonstrating staying power. Looks set for the long haul.

HE Don Miguel Urdangarín y de Borbón
He is the third son of Infanta Cristina and Iñaki Urdangarin, he was born on April 30th, 2002 in Barcelona.

Mikasa - Prince Mikasa (Takahito) is the youngest brother of Emperor Showa (Hirohito) of Japan and is presently the oldest surviving member of the imperial family. He was born on 2 December 1915 and, after being educated at the Gakushuin School, joined the Japanese army. Prince Mikasa married Yoriko Takagi, the daughter of a nobleman, on 22 October 1941. They had three sons and two daughters. The daughters left the imperial family when they were married; two of the sons are fathers of daughters, and the third son is unmarried, so there are no heirs to the throne in the present generation of the Mikasa branch of the imperial family. After the war, Prince Mikasa studied archaeology and Middle Eastern studies, and has held several faculty and honorary positions in these subjects.

Military Order of William: highest civilian decoration bestowed by the House of Orange

Mistress of the Robes: The Mistress of the Robes maintains social contacts on behalf of the Dutch Queen, for instance with heads of diplomatic missions and members of the International Court of Justice. She also accompanies the Queen on visits abroad.
Old 11-30-2006, 07:42 PM
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Palacio de la Moncloa
It's is the official residence for the Prime Minister of Spain since 1977, when Adolfo Suárez moved the residence from a palace situated in the centre of Madrid, at Paseo de la Castellana. The residence is surrounded by several other buildings which altogether form the Moncloa complex. The ministry of the president is situated in this complex, as well as the vice presidencies (when they exist) and the press office. The palace used to belong to the Duke of Moncloa, the palace's namesake. The palace itself was completely destroyed during the Spanish Civil War and it was later rebuilt.

Duke of Montblanc
The title was created by King Juan I, when he gave it to his brother Martin in 1387. Since then, it became the official title of the heir of the kingdoms of Aragon, together with Prince of Gerona. Prince Felipe is the first Borbon to carry the title.

Mother of the Resistance: name given to Queen Wilhelmina during WWII. She received all the dutch who escaped to England & intended to fight the Germans.

The Motto – Dieu et mon droit (God and my right) has generally been used as the Motto of the British Monarch. It refers to the Monarch’s divine right to govern. It is emblazoned on the Royal Coat of Arms of the United Kingdom. Royal Motto of Carl XVI Gustaf: För Sverige i tiden (in English: "For Sweden, with the times")

Muna Al-Hussein – was born Antoinette ‘Toni”Gardiner in England. The second wife of the late King Hussein of Jordan, she was never named Queen though she was the wife of a King. She is the mother of King Abdullah II of Jordan, Prince Faisal, Princess Aisha and Princess Zein. She and King Hussein divorced on December 21, 1971. Princess Muna was allowed to remain Her Royal Highness Princess Muna al-Hussein of Jordan after her divorce.

Märtha, Crown Princess – Born Princess of Norway and Sweden in 1901. Princess of Sweden from 1905. Married Crown Prince Olav of Norway. Three children. Died in 1954.

Märtha Louise, Princess – Born 1971. Daughter of King Harald and Queen Sonja of Norway. Married to Ari Behn. Two daughters.

Mågerø – The king and queen of Norway’s summer house at Tjøme.
Old 11-30-2006, 07:53 PM
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NadwaPalace - The Arabic for Nadwa means "the assembly expanse". Nadwa was the private home of His Royal Highness Prince Nayef Bin Abdullah of Jordan. In 1980, it was renovated to become the home of Their Majesties King Hussein and Queen Noor, and remained so until their move to Bab As-Salaam. Today, Nadwa serves as a guest palace.

Nagano - Princess Kuni Nagano was born 6 March 1903, daughter of Prince Kuni Kuniyoshi. She was Crown Princess, then Empress Consort to Emperor Hirohito of Japan on his accession to the throne 25 December 1925. She was the longest living empress consort in Japanese history. She was Empress Dowager from January 1989 to June 2000. She is the mother of Emperor Akihito. She died 16 June 2000 and she is known posthumously as Empress Kōjun.

Name Day - On the seventh Day, Imperial tradition has it that the current emperor chooses the name and title of the children of his eldest son and heir. Emperor Akihito chose Aiko’s name for it’s meaning, “Child of Love.” Her title, Princess Toshi means “She who respects others.” Both names were written on traditional Japanese paper by Emperor Akihito himself and placed on Aiko’s pillow. Prince Hisahito, born on 6 September 2006, is currently third in line to succeed to the throne. His name means "serene and virtuous." In a traditional ceremony, a royal attendant pours water over the baby prince(ss) in a cedar tub, as scholars in ancient court dress plucked at strings of wooden bows and a court-appointed official read passages from the ancient Nihon Shoki. The Nihon Shoki, which was completed in 720 AD, is the oldest official history of Japan.

Nara - Nara was the capital city of Japan during the Nara Period of Japanese history (710 to 784 AD). It was established as the capital by Empress Genmei; at the time it was known as Heijo-kyo. This was a time of Japanese history when the country was very heavily influenced by Chinese culture; the city was patterned after the capital city of Tang dynasty China. During the Nara Period, Buddhism became a prominent religion after being embraced by Emperor Shomu. The Nihon Shoki (see above) was written during this period.

Naruhito - Crown Prince Naruhito of Japan was born 23 February 1960, the son of Emperor Akihito and Empress Michiko. He married Masako Owada 9 June 1993. They have one daughter, Princess Aiko, born 1 December 2001.

Nassau- "of Nassau" is the traditional surname used by the Grand Ducal Family

Nassau, Count/Countess of- title held by Prine Jean of Luxembourg, his wife Helene and their children, prior to being raised to the title of Prince/Princess of Nassau

National Anthem – “God Save the Queen” is a patriotic hymn, the Royal anthem of the British Royal Family as well as the Royal anthem of a number of Commonwealth Realms.

National Day – Monaco: On November 19th, Monaco celebrates its National Holiday with spectacular fireworks over the harbor the evening before and a mass in the Cathedral the next morning. An excellent opportunity to see the pomp and circumstance of the Principality, visitors can see the Knights of Malta, distinguished ambassadors, consuls and state officials decked out in medal-laden uniforms as they congregate in the Place St. Nicholas after the mass. Then it is off to the Prince’s Palace where onlookers can see the Princely family wave to the crowd from the windows of the palace.

National Day- The Belgian Royal Family helps to mark National Day on July 21 each year.

Nazi Occupation: German invasion of May 10, 1940 brought Holland into WWII and sent the Royal Family into exile in Canada

Nieuwe Kerk (New Church): crypt of the Dutch Royal Family located in this Delft church

Nihon Shoki - Oldest official history of Japan completed in 720 AD.

Nobel Prize - Awarded annually to those who have completed outstanding research, those who invented ground-breaking techniques or equipment, or made an outstanding contribution to society in physics, chemistry, literature, peace, medicine or physiology and economics. Alfred Nobel instituted the prize through his will. The first prize was handed out in 1901. With the exception of the Peace Prize all prizes are presented by the King of Sweden.

Noor Al Hussein– the fourth wife and widow of the late King Hussein of Jordan. Prior to her marriage, she was known as Lisa Najeeb Halaby. Before her marriage, she converted to Islam, and her first name was changed from Lisa to Noor, an Arabic word meaning "light". She is the mother of Prince Hamzah, Prince Hashim, Princess Iman and Princess Raiyah

Nooredeinde Palace: Previous royal residence in The Hague built in 1550 Since 1984, it has been the Queen’s place of work

Norge – The Norwegian royal yacht

North Star, The order of - The Order of the North Star (also known as The Order of the Polar Star) is a Swedish Royal order of chivalry that was created by King Frederick I of Sweden on February 23, 1748, together with the Order of the Sword and the Order of the Seraphim. Its motto is, Nescit Occasum which means "it knows no decline". Up until 1975, the Order of the Polar Star was a reward for Swedish and foreign "civic merits, for devotion to duty, for science, literary, learned and useful works and for new and beneficial institutions". Since 1975 the order is only awarded to foreigners and members of the royal family.

Norway. A Kingdom with a dynasty founded by a Danish Prince and an English Princess. Set a curious precedent by denying the HRH to its newest Prince in 2005.
Old 11-30-2006, 08:02 PM
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Official Websites – The official web site of the British Monarchy –, the official web site of The Prince of Wales -

Olav V, King – Né Prince Alexander Edward Christian Frederik of Denmark, at Appleton House, Sandringham, England in 1903. His parents, Prince Carl and Princess Maud of Denmark, gave him the name Olav upon their acceptance of the Norwegian crown, as it was a traditional royal Norwegian name. Married his cousin Märtha of Sweden in 1929. 3 children: King Harald V, Princess Ragnhild Mrs. Lorentzen and Princess Astrid Mrs. Ferner. Assumed the throne upon his father’s death in 1957 He died in 1991.

Oldenburg. A quiet achiever among dynasties, whose members acquired thrones in Germany, Denmark, Sweden, Russia, Greece and Norway, and will claim Britain as one of theirs when a descendant of Prince Philip of Greece, aka the Duke of Edinburgh, assumes the throne.

Olympics - Where King Carl XVI Gustaf and Queen Silvia met. 1972 Summer Olympics in Munich, Germany

Omiyamairi – At three months of age, the heir(ess) takes part in an ancient rite called Omiyamairi to give her/him a healthy life. Wearing garments given to her/him at birth by her/his grandparents, s/he is presented to three shrines on the Imperial Palace grounds. There, a lady-in-waiting holds the Prince(ss) while her/his parents wait separately until the ritual is over. After the shrine visit, the Prince(ss) is formally presented to her/his grandparents as an official member of the Imperial family. This ceremony includes a ritual in which the Emperor and the Prince(ss) pretend to drink rice wine from a single cup.

Opening of the Parliament – An annual event held usually in October or November. The Queen (or King) makes her speech, wearing Imperial State Crown. The speech outlines the Government’s legislative agenda for the year.

Orange-Nassau: The dynasty was established as a result of the marriage of Hendrik III of Nassau-Breda from Germany and Claudia of Chalon-Orange from French Burgundy. This union created the new family name "Orange-Nassau and began 500 years of this family’s central role in the political life of the Netherlands that continues today. In 1815, after a long period as a republic, the Netherlands became a monarchy under the House of Orange-Nassau. The house also supplied a British Monarch, King William III.

Order of Precedence – An order of precedence is a sequential hierarchy of nominal importance of people. Separate orders exist for males and females. The Sovereign is always the first in the Order of Precedence; his female consort is first in the Female Order. Male Consort is usually granted precedence above all other males by Letters Patent.

Oscarshall – a pleasure palace from the mid 19th century. Situated near the Oslofjord. Built by Oscar I. Owned by the Norwegian state.

Ottawa Civic Hospital: Birthplace of Princess Margriet. Julianna’s rooms in the hospital were officially declared Dutch soils so that the new baby could have single citizenship and remain in line of succession to the Dutch throne.

It is the capital city of the Principality of Asturias in northern Spain. It is also the name of the municipality that contains the city and the administrative and commercial centre of the region. The city also hosts the annual Prince of Asturias Awards, held in the Campoamor Theatre. The Oviedo University's International Campus attracts a handful of foreign scholars. Oviedo is also Princess Letizia's hometown.
Old 11-30-2006, 08:08 PM
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HE Don Pablo Nicolás Sebastián Urdangarín y de Borbón
He's the second son of Infanta Cristina and Iñaki Urdangarin. He was born on December 6, 2000 in Barcelona.

House of Palatinate-Zweibrücken (Pfalz-Zweibrücken) - The Royal House of Sweden from 1654 to 1720.

Palma de Mallorca Palma is the major city and port in the island of Mallorca and capital city of the autonomous community of the Balearic Islands in Spain. It is situated on the south coast of the island on the Bay of Palma. Almost half of the total population of Mallorca live in Palma. The Marivent Palace was offered by the city to the then Prince Juan Carlos I of Spain. The royals have since spent their summer holidays in Palma. Palma is also the location chosen by the Spanish Royal Family to spend their Easter holidays and to attend Easter mass.

Parma, Prince of- Title held by male members of the Luxembourg Grand Ducal Family

Pauline Grace Maguy Ducruet is the daughter of HSH Princess Stéphanie of Monaco and Daniel Ducruet and was born on 4 May 1994.

Peter Phillips – The son of Princess Anne and Mark Phillips and eldest grandson of the Queen and Prince Philip.

Prince Philip, Duke of Edinburgh – Consort of Queen Elizabeth II. He was born Prince Philippos of Greece and Denmark but abandoned the titles to serve in the Royal Navy and renounced them in 1947. Prince Philip was created Duke of Edinburgh prior to his marriage to Princess Elizabeth.

Prince Philippe, Duke of Brabant (1960-)-Born Prince Philippe Leopold Louis Marie. Current heir to the throne. Married Mathilde d'Udekem d'Acoz. 3 Children

Prince Pierre of Monaco, Duke of Valentinois, Count of Polignac (24 October 1895 – 10 November 1964) is best known for having been the father of Rainier III of Monaco, and thus the paternal grandfather of Albert II of Monaco.Born Count Pierre Marie Xavier Raphael Antoine Melchior de Polignac, he was a son of Count Maxence de Polignac (1857-1936) and his Mexican-born Spanish wife, Susana de la Torre y Mier (1858-1913).He married Princess Charlotte of Monaco (née Charlotte Louise Juliette Louvet), the illegitimate and later adopted daughter of Louis II of Monaco and Marie Juliette Louvet.

Pierre Rainier Stefano Casiraghi (born September 5, 1987) is the youngest child of HRH Princess Caroline of Hanover and her second husband, Stefano Casiraghi. He is named for his maternal great-grandfather, Prince Pierre of Monaco, his maternal grandfather, Prince Rainier III of Monaco, and his father.

Infanta Doña Pilar of Spain - She's the oldest sister of current reigning King Juan Carlos of Spain. She married Don Luis Gomez-Acebo y de Estrada, Vizconde de la Torre (deceased). They had five children. King Juan Carlos has granted Doña Pilar the title of Duchess of Badajoz.

Pingo – nickname of Crown Prince Frederik of Denmark.

Precious Crown, Order of - The Order of the Precious Crown is conferred by the Japanese emperor and is restricted to female recipients. It has eight classes, the first of which is reserved for royalty. This order was instituted by Emperor Meiji in 1888. Since 2003, when the Order of the Rising Sun was expanded to include female recipients, the Order of the Precious Crown has been awarded only to female dignitaries from other countries.

Prince consort - Spouse of a reigning queen. Current prince consorts in Europe are Prince Phillip, the Duke of Edinburgh and Prince Henrik of Denmark.

The Prince of Wales (title) – Title, bestowed to the eldest son of the Monarch. The Prince of Wales is Heir Apparent to the Throne. The current Prince of Wales is Prince Charles. There is no title of Princess of Wales by birth. Female heirs to the throne are considered Heir Presumptive to the Throne. A Princess of Wales is the wife of The Prince of Wales. The current Princess of Wales is Camilla, The Princess of Wales.

The Princess Royal (title) – Title, traditionally (but not automatically) bestowed to the eldest daughter of the British Monarch. The title is held for life. There have been seven Princesses Royal in History. The current Princess Royal is Princess Anne.

Principality. A state ruled by a Prince. Once there were dozens; today Andorra is a principality in name only while Liechtenstein and Monaco have Reigning Princes with real power. Some principalities, such as Serbia and Bulgaria, raised themselves to Kingdoms

Prinsehytta – A cabin in the Norwegian mountains. Given to Crown Prince Olav of Norway by Swedish princes, as a coming of age present.

Prinsjesdag: annual opening of Dutch parliament when the Queen delivers her Speech from the Throne to a joint session of the Senate and House of Representatives

Pseudonyms - Sometimes a royal wants to be acknowledged for what they can do, rather who their ancestors are. For example Queen Margrethe of Denmark used the pseudonym Ingahild Grathmer when illustrating the Danish translation of Lord of the Rings.
Old 11-30-2006, 08:16 PM
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Qasr Al-Mushatta - The Palace was named after an Ummayad hunting lodge south of Amman. Located in the JordanValley near the town of southern Shuna and the Dead Sea, King Abdullah I of Jordan used to live and work here during the winter months. It was built in 1929 and was renovated in 1942, after which the Palace became a guest house for Prince Abdel Ilah, the Regent of Iraq. King Hussein continued to use it as a working farm and country home until the June 1967 war. On March 21, 1968, it was damaged by the Israeli army during the Battle of Karama. Today, it is still a working farm.

Qasr Al-Ma’wa: - Al-Ma’wa, or the "Sanctuary" was also built during the 1930’s. Al-Ma’wa, or "the top one" as it was referred to, was used by King Abdullah to receive representatives of Jordanian tribes every Friday. In 1979, al-Ma’wa became working offices for Her Majesty Queen Noor. It was renovated and expanded during the mid 1980’s. Al-Ma’wa is located within the Royal Court compound.

Queen. Either a reigning Queen (Queen Regnant), the wife of a King (Queen Consort), a former Queen Consort who is the mother of a monarch (Queen Mother) or the wife of the previous monarch (Queen Dowager).

Queen (title) – A Queen (Queen Regnant) is a female Monarch who possesses all the Monarchic Powers. The current Queen of the United Kingdom is Her Majesty Queen Elizabeth II.

Queens [The Netherlands]: Wilhelmina, Juliana and Beatrix, the three women who ruled the entire 20th Century

Queen Consort – Wife of the reigning Monarch. The word ‘Queen’ comes from Anglo-Saxon ‘cwen’, which means companion. Male spouses of the Monarch are not King Consorts (though this was the custom in the past) but rather Prince Consort.

The Queen (movie) – Movie about the British Royal Family, which gives the director’s view on the reaction of Queen Elizabeth to the death of Diana, Princess of Wales and her struggle to keep it a private tragedy for the Royal Family. The Queen is portrayed by Dame Helen Mirren.

The Queen’s Guard and Queen’s Life Guard – Names, given to contingents of cavalry and infantry soldiers charged with guarding the official Royal Residences in London.
Old 11-30-2006, 08:18 PM
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Raad van State (Council of State): a constitutionally established advisory body to the government which consists of members of the royal family and Crown-appointed members generally having political, commercial, diplomatic, or military experience. They review proposed legislation before a law is submitted to the parliament and serve as a channel of appeal for citizens against executive branch decisions.

Raghdan Palace – The word Raghadan originates from the Arabic verb, "raghad" to reflect a comfortable life. Stones from the southern town of Ma’an were used for the exterior. Its windows were made from colored glass to resemble the al-Aqsa Mosque in Jerusalem. It became the home of King Abdullah I of Jordan and his family, and was also used as offices for the Royal Court.

Princess Ragnhild, Mrs. Lorentzen – Née Princess Ragnhild of Norway in 1930. Daughter of King Olav V and Crown Princess Märtha. Married to Erling Lorentzen Three children. Resides in Rio de Janeiro in Brazil.

Raina Al-Abdullah – is the queen consort of King Abdullah II of Jordan. Born in Kuwait of Palestinian parents, she is the mother of Prince Hussein, Princess Salma, Princess Iman and Prince Hashem.

Rainier I of Monaco (born 1267 - died 1314) was, in fact, the first sovereign Grimaldi ruler of the area now known as Monaco. He also holder the title of Lord of Cagnes. First, married Salvatica, daughter of Giacomo del Carretto, Margrave of Final. They have four children: Charles I, his successor, Vinciguerra, Salvaggia, Luca, Lord of Villefranche. Secondly, Rainier I married Andriola Grillo. This marriage was childless.

Rainier III, Prince of Monaco (Rainier Louis Henri Maxence Bertrand Grimaldi; 31 May 1923 – 6 April 2005), styled HSH The Sovereign Prince of Monaco, ruled the Principality of Monaco for almost fifty-six years, making him one of the longest ruling monarchs of the 20th Century. He was married to Grace Kelly, their children are: Caroline, Albert and Stephanie.

Raiyah Bint Al Hussein – daughter of the late King Hussein and Queen Noor of Jordan. She studied the International Baccalaureate at the United World College of the Atlantic and is currently studying at Edinburgh University

Rashid bin El Hassan – the son of Prince Hassan and Princess Savarth of Jordan. Currently a captain in the Jordan Armed Forces he also serves as Chairman of the Board of Trusties of the Hashemite Charitable Organization

Reigen - Emperor Reigen of Japan (9 July 1654 – 24 September 1732) became the 112th Emperor of Japan on 5 March 1663. He abdicated 2 May 1687 in favour of Imperial Prince Asahito (Emperor Higashiyama) and began to rule as a cloistered emperor. His personal name was Satohito and his title was Ate-no-miya.

Reign. The period of time between a monarch’s accession to the throne and their death, abdication or deposition. The longest reign in modern history was that of Karl Friedrich who was successively Margrave, Elector and Grand Duke of Baden from 1738 to 1811 (73 years).

Princess de Rethy- title of the second wife of King Leopold III of the Belgians, Lilian Baels. This title was never official due to the lack of government approval

King Richard I (Richard the Lionheart) – The third son of Henry II and Eleanor of Aquitaine, Richard become heir to the throne after the death of his elder brothers. King Richard participated in the Third Crusade and is believed to get the ‘Lionheart’ epithet for the courage he showed during the campaign.

King Richard III – The brother of King Edward IV, Richard became King by proclaiming his nephews (Edward V and Prince Richard) illegitimate and imprisoning them in Tower (the further fate of the Princes is unknown, though they are believed to be killed in Tower on Richard III’s orders). He was defeated in the Battle of Bosworth by Henry Tudor (future Henry VII). Richard III is immortalized in Shakespeare’s play “Richard III”.

Richard zu Sayn-Wittgenstein-Berleburg, Prince – born 1934. Married to Princess Benedikte of Denmark. 3 children.

Riddarholmskyrkan - The Church of Riddarholmen is the burial church of the Swedish monarchy. It is located on the island of Riddarholmen, near Stockholm. Swedish monarchs from Gustavus Adolphus to Gustav V are buried here, as well as earlier monarchs like Magnus Ladulås and Karl Knutsson Bonde.

Rijksvoorlichtingsdienst: the government information service condition of interviews, that does not allow Queen Beatrix to be directly quoted in the media. This rule does not apply to any other member of the royal family.

Riksdag - Sweden's Parliament. The Riksdag is a unicameral assembly with 349 members, who are elected to serve fixed terms of four years.

Rising Sun, Order of - The Order of the Rising Sun is the second most prestigious decoration awarded by the Japanese Emperor. It was instituted by Emperor Meiji in 1875 and is awarded for civil and military merit. In 2003, women became eligible to receive this decoration, which was previously restricted to male recipients. The order has nine classes.

Rocco dei Dreigoni: holiday house of the Dutch Queen

Rockcliffe Park: small but exclusive enclave (now a part of the city of Ottawa) that housed the Dutch royal family during their WWII exile in Canada

Rosenborg, Counts of - Danish princes who married without royal permission were degraded to Counts of Rosenborg.

Rosenborg Slot – Pleasure palace from 1606 in the middle of Copenhagen. Museum today.

Roskilde Cathedral - Burial place of Danish kings and queens since 1536.

Rym Al Ali – the wife of Prince Ali of Jordan and the mother of Princess Jillah. Formerly known as Rym Brahimi, she was a correspondent with CNN. She is the daughter of Lakhdar Brahimi, formerly United Nations Special Representative for Afghanistan
Old 11-30-2006, 08:28 PM
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Sadako - Princess Kujo Sadako of Japan was born 25 June 1884, the daughter of Prince Kujo Michitaka, head of Kujo branch of the Fujiwara clan. She married then Crown Prince Yoshihito on 25 May 1900. She was the first official wife of a Crown Prince or Emperor to give birth to a son since 1750 when Hirohito was born in 1901. She was a strong influence on imperial life because of her husband’s weak physical and mental health. When she died 17 May 1951, Empress Sedako was given the posthumous name of Empress Teimei. Teimei means "enlightened constancy". See Emperor Taish?.

Order of Saint Patrick – The order is associated with Ireland. Order of Saint Patrick was created in 1783 by George III and regular creation of knights of the order lasted until 1922. However no knight has been created since 1834. The British Monarch is Sovereign of the Order of St Patrick and appoints other members.

Salma Bint Al Abdullah –daughter of the King Abdullah II and Queen Rania of Jordan.

Sandringham HouseSandrigham House has been the private home of Sovereigns since 1862. The Queen and other members of the Royal Family regularly spend Christmas at Sandrigham and make it their official base until February.

Sarah Ferguson, Duchess of York – Former wife of Prince Andrew, Duke of York and mother of Princesses Beatrice and Eugenie. After the divorce the Duke and Duchess of York retained good relationship. Duchess of York is engaged in several charity and commercial projects.

Savarth El Hassan – the wife of Prince Hassan Bin Talal of Jordan. She is the mother of Princess Rhama, Princess Sumaya, Princess Badiya and Prince Rashid of Jordan.

Sayako – Princess Sayako of Japan, also known as Princess Nori was born 18 April 1969. She is the daughter of Emperor Akihito and Emperess Michiko. She lost her title of princess and became a commoner when she married Yoshiki Kuroda on 15 November 2005.

Schackenborg – Residence of Prince Joachim of Denmark. Manor house and farm in Southern Jutland.

Sebastien, Prince of Luxembourg (1992-)-Fifth child of Grand Duke Henri and Grand Duchess Maria Teresa

Secret of Huis ten Bosch: understanding that all Dutch ministers keep their meetings with the Queen a secret

Secretariats: Headed by the Principal Secretary, the secretariats perform secretarial duties for the Queen and the other members of the Dutch Royal House and make the initial preparations for events in the Netherlands.

Seraphim, The order of - or the Order of His Majesty the King is a Swedish Royal order of chivalry that was created by King Frederick I of Sweden on February 23, 1748, together with the Order of the Sword and the Order of the Polar Star. After the reorganization of the orders in 1975 the order is only awarded to foreign heads of state and members of the royal family. The order has only one grade with the dignity of Knight (Member for women and clergymen), and is the foremost order of Sweden.

Shinto - Shinto is the native religion of Japan and involves the worship of many gods including the Sun goddess, Amaterasu, the alleged ancestress of the Japanese emperors. In the early 20th century, Shinto was used as an expression of nationalism, so it was abolished as the official state religion by the Occupation after World War II. Shinto is the religion practised by the imperial family.

Showa - Showa Era, Reign of Emperor Hirohito of Japan (Emperor Showa) meaning "period of enlightened peace," which lasted from 25 December 1926 (death of Emperor Taisho) to 7 January 1989 (death of Hirohito). At the end of the second world war, as part of the Constitution imposed by the Allied Powers, the Emperor renounced his divinity and became a figurehead.

Sibilla, Princess of Luxembourg (1968-)- Born Sibilla Sandra Weiller Torlonia. Great granddaughter of Alfonso XIII and Queen Ena of Spain, by way of their daughter, Beatrix, and is thusly related to quite a lot of the European royals in her own right. Her paternal grandmother was Miss Europe in 1930. She is married to a distant cousin, Prince Guillaume of Luxembourg, in 1994. 4 Children

Silvia - Born Silvia Renate Sommerlath in Heidelberg, Germany on December 23, 1943. She is the daughter of Walther Sommerlath, a president of the Brazilian subsidiary of the Swedish steel-parts manufacturer Uddeholm, and his wife Alice Soares de Toledo. After World War II, the Sommerlath family moved to São Paulo until 1957, when they returned to Germany. Silvia has worked at the Argentinian Consulate in Munich, was an educational host during the 1972 Summer Olympics in Munich, and served as the Deputy Head of Protocol for the 1976 Winter Games in Innsbruck. Silvia also speaks six languages: Swedish, German, French, Spanish, English and Portuguese. It was at the 1972 Olympics in Munich that Silvia met her future husband. Silvia and Carl Gustaf were married on June 19, 1976 at Stockholm Cathedral by the Archbishop of Uppsala. They have three children, Victoria, Carl Philip and Madeleine
Old 11-30-2006, 08:28 PM
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HE Doña Simoneta Luisa Gomez-Acebo y de Borbón. - She is the oldest child and only daughter of Infanta Pilar of Spain, Duchess of Badajoz and her husband, Don Luis Gomez-Acebo y de Estrada, Vizconde de la Torre. She was born on October 28, 1968. In 1990 she married Jose Miguel Fernandez y Sastron and they have three children.

Skaugum – Located in Asker, just outside Oslo, Skaugum is the residence of the Crown Prince and Crown Princess. It was given as a wedding gift to Crown Prince Olav and Crown Princess Märtha by Minister Wedel-Jarlsberg in 1929.

Slottet – The Norwegian Palace in Oslo. Built by King Karl Johan in XX. Main residence for the King and Queen.

Soestdijk Palace; is one of the four official palaces of the Dutch royal family and home to Quen Julianna and Prince Bernhard lived for over six decades. Although named after the village of Soestdijk , the palace is just north of the border in the municipality of Baarn in the province of Utrecht.

Queen Sofia of Spain - Born Princess Sophia of Greece and Denmark, she's the eldest child of the King Paul I of the Hellenes and his wife, Queen Frederika, a former princess of Hanover. Queen Sofia is a member of the Schleswig-Holstein-Sonderburg-Glücksburg dynasty. Princess Sofia spent her childhood in Egypt and South Africa during her family's exile from Greece during World War II. They returned to Greece in 1946. She finished her education at the prestigious Schloss Salem boarding school in Southern Germany, and then studied pediatrics, music, and archeology in Athens. The Queen is fluent in Spanish, Greek, German, French, and English. She is married to King Juan Carlos of Spain and they have three children.

Solliden - The summer home of the Swedish royal family. On the island of Öland in the Baltic Sea

Solstråleøen – An island in Tysnes Municipality in Hordaland county. The Island was acquired by an Englishman, Mr. John Musgrove. In 1906 the island was given as a gift to, then, Crown Prince Olav by Musgrove’s daughter, Ada. In 1991, after King Olav’s death, his heirs gave the island to Tysnes Municipality to be used as an outdoors area for the citizens of the municipality.

Sonja, Queen of Norway – Née Sonja Haraldsen. Born 1937. Married, then, Crown Prince Harald of Norway in 1968 after a nine-year-long courtship. Became Queen of Norway in 1991. Have two children, Crown Prince Haakon of Norway and Princess Märtha Louise of Norway

Sophie, The Countess of Wessex – Wife of Prince Edward, Earl of Wessex and mother of Lady Louise Mountbatten-Windsor. Until recently The Countess of Wessex worked in public relations.

St. Gudele & St. Michels Cathedral- Site of Belgian Royal weddings and funerals

St. James Palace – One of London’s oldest and most historic palaces, it is also the London residence of the Princess Royal and Princess Alexandra, The Honourable Lady Ogilvy.

St. Olav, Order of - Instituted by Oscar I of Sweden & Norway in 1847. It is awarded for services to Norway and humanity. It is, by present statutes, automatically awarded to Princes and Princesses in line to the Norwegian throne, upon reaching majority.

Stadhouder: a pre-eighteenth century official appointed by the legal ruling Monarch to represent him. In the Netherlands, this developed into a rare type of (de facto) hereditary Head of State of the crowned republic

Princess Stéphanie (Stéphanie Marie Elisabeth Grimaldi, born 1 February) is the youngest child of Grace Kelly and Rainier III of Monaco. She was married to Daniel Ducruet (1995-1996) and Adans Lopez Peres (2003-2004). She has three children: Louis, Pauline and Camille.

Stefano Casiraghi (September 8, 1960 – October 3, 1990) was a sportsman and Italian businessman. He was a son of Fernanda and Giancarlo Casiraghi and the second husband of Princess Caroline of Monaco.

Stiftsgården – The royal residence in Trondheim, Norway.

Stornoway House: Canadian home-in-exile of two future Dutch Queens (Juliana and Beatrix) during their WWII. It is the official residence of the Leader of the Opposition

Style. One way of designating and distinguishing the hierarchy or ranking of members of royal and princely Houses. The qualifications include HIM (His or Her Imperial Majesty) HM (Majesty), HIH (Imperial Highness), HI&RH (Imperial and Royal), HRH (Royal), HGDH (Grand Ducal), HH (Highness), HSH (Serene), and HIllH (Illustrious Highness, for members of certain Holy Roman Empire families of Comital rank.).

Stuyvenberg- Current home of Queen Fabiola of Belgium

Sverre Magnus of Norway, Prince – born 2005. Youngest child of Crown Prince Haakon and Crown Princess Mette-Marit of Norway. Does not have an HRH in front of his title.
Old 11-30-2006, 08:29 PM
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Taishō – Emperor Taishō of Japan was born 31 August 1879, the son of Emperor Meiji and Yanagiwara Naruko, a lady-in-waiting. He was given the name Yoshihito. He contacted meningitis shortly after birth, which left him in poor physical and mental health. He married 15-year-old Princess Kujo Sadako 10 May 1900 and they had four children:
1) The future Emperor Hirohito, born 29 April 1901, died 7 January 1989.
2) Prince Chichibu (Yasuhito), born 26 May 1902, died 4 January 1953 .
3) Prince Takamatsu (Nobuhito), born 1 March 1905, died 3 February 1987.
4) Prince Mikasa (Takahito), born 2 December 1915.
He became the 123rd Emperor of Japan 30 July 1912. It was reported that, during the 1913 opening of the Diet, Emperor Taishō rolled his prepared speech into a telescope and stared at members of the assembly through it. Crown Prince Hirohito was named regent in 1921 and Emperor Yoshihito Taishō undertook no further public duties. He died of a heart attack 25 December 1926.

Takamatsu - Prince Takamatsu (Nobuhito) was a younger brother of Emperor Showa (Hirohito) of Japan. He was born on 3 Januray 1905. After being educated at the Gakushuin School, he joined the Japanese Navy. He married Kikuko Tokugawa, a granddaughter of the last of the Tokugawa shoguns, on 4 February 1930. Thay had no children. After World War II he became involved in cultural and philanthropic activites. Prince Takamatsu died on 3 February 1987.

Talal I Bin Abdullah – was King of Jordan until he was forced to abdicate due to health reasons in 1951 (he suffered from schizophrenia). Talah had ascended the Jordanian throne after the assassination of his father King Abdullah I, of which his eldest son Hussen (late King of Jordan) was also a near victim. Married to Queen Zein, he was also the father of Prince Hassan, Princess Basma, Princess Muhammad and King Hussein

Tennō - Emperor, but literally translated from Japanese it means, “heavenly sovereign.”

Tessy de Nassau (1985-)-Born Tessy Antony. Married Prince Louis of Luxembourg. Children: Gabriel Michel Louis Ronny de Nassau

The Order of the Golden Lion of Nassau: honour conferred on persons who have rendered exceptional service to society. This order is mastered jointly by the Queen of the Netherlands and the Grand Duke of Luxembourg

The Order of Thistle – The Most Ancient and Most Noble Order of the Thistle is an order of chivalry associated with Scotland. The Order consists of the Sovereign and sixteen Knights and Ladies (who must be Scottish-born) and ‘extra’ knights (members of the Royal Family and Foreign Monarchs). The Sovereign alone grants membership of the Order. Current Knights and Ladies include the Queen, The Duke of Edinburgh, The Prince of Wales and The Princess Royal.

Tiara. A jewelled head ornament commonly associated with Queens and princesses. Queen Elizabeth has the largest collection, most of which have been consigned to the capacious vaults beneath Buckingham Palace and haven’t seen the light of day for decades.

Titles: 42 titles are held by the Dutch sovereign

Togu Palace - The Crown Prince couple’s residence in Tokyo, Japan.

Tokugawa shogunate - the period from 1603 to 1867, also known as the Edo period, when the shoguns from the Tokugawa family ruled Japan as a closed feudal society with no international contact. The center of government was based in Tokyo (known at that time as Edo). During this period, the emperors were figureheads living in their palace in Kyoto, the former capital city.

Tom Parker Bowles – The son of The Duchess of Cornwall and Andrew Parker Bowles, stepson and Godson of The Prince of Wales. He is the author of two books, “E is for Eating – And Alphabet of Greed” and “The Year of Eating Dangerously”. Tom is married to Sara Buys, a fashion features editor at Harpers & Queen.

Toshi - Princess Toshi. Princess Aiko’s royal title meaning “a person who loves others.”

House of Trastámara - It was a dynasty of kings in the Iberian Peninsula, which governed in Castile from 1369 to 1504, in Aragón from 1412 to 1516, in Navarre from 1425 to 1479, and in Naples from 1442 to 1501. The house took the name of the Count (or Duke) of Trastámara, a title used by Henry II of Castile, before he became king in 1369.

Trend - Danish royal family's private property. A hunting cabin, given as a gift to, then, Crown Prince Frederik and Crown Princess Ingrid of Denmark. It is entailed into a fund, that ensures that their descendants will have it as a place for holidays and recreations.

Trooping the Colour – A military ceremony performed by regiments of the British Army and Commonwealth. Trooping the Colour has become closely identified with the Queen’s Official Birthday and is also known as Queen’s Birthday Parade. The Queen and Duke of Edinburgh drive in Queen Victoria’s phaeton. The Sovereign’s Escort consists of the Mounded Bands and the Household Cavalry. The Royal Procession includes the other Royal Colonels: The Prince of Wales (Welsh Guards), The Princess Royal (Blues and Royals) and the Duke of Kent (Scots Guards). The Royal Family then enjoys the spectacle from the Balcony.

Tulips: gifts of thanks given to Canada from Queen Juliana for hospitality to her family during WWII

Tullgarn Palace - A royal summer palace by the Häggnäsviken Bay in the Trosa archipelago, south of Stockhom. Tullgarn was built in the 1720s. The palace was acquired by the crown in 1772 and became a royal residence. This palace is primarily associated with King Gustaf V and Queen Victoria. They spent their summers here at the end of the nineteenth century and the beginning of the twentieth century.
Old 11-30-2006, 08:31 PM
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Uda - Emperor Uda of Japan (5 May 867 - 19 July 931) was the seventh son of Emperor Kōkō by Princess Madarako. His personal name was Sadami. He became the 59th Emperor of Japan on 7 November 887. On 3 July 897, he abdicated in favour of his eldest son, Prince Atsuhito. After his abdication, Emperor Uda chose Ninna-ji Temple as his residence, a temple he had founded.

Ulriksdal Palace - This palace is situated on the banks of Lake Edsviken in the National City Park in Solna, north of Stockholm. In 1669 Ulriksdal was bought by Queen Hedvig Eleonora. In 1684 Hedvig Eleonora changed the name from Jakobsdal to Ulriksdal after her grandson Prince Ulrik, who was to be the future owner of this palace. Sadly her grandson died and Hedvig Eleonora kept the palace until her death. When she died, the property was transferred to the crown. Since 1986 Ulriksdal Palace has been open to the public.

Ulster, Earl of. The son of the present Duke of Gloucester, who will one day inherit the title and take the dukedom out of the Royal Family

United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland – Sovereign state with Constitutional Monarchy. The United Kingdom is a Commonwealth Realm, sharing the same person (Queen Elizabeth) with the fifteen other Realms as Monarch and Head of State, forming a personal union with each.

United Kingdom of the Netherlands: Kingdom created in 1815 at the Congress of Vienna and ruled by William I that included the Netherlands, former Austrian Netherlands (now Belgium) and Luxembourg

United World College of the Atlantic: college in Wales where Prince Willem-Alexander attended prior to university studies

Urdangarín - The last name of Infanta Cristina's husband, Iñaki Urdangarín Liebaert. Cristina and Iñaki's four children bear the Urdangarín name.

Utakai Hajime - The Japanese ceremony of the New Year's poetry reading at the Imperial Palace, where poems written by members of the public, professional poets, and the Emperor and his family are read.

Utrecht: birthplace of the next Dutch monarch, Prince Willem-Alexander
Old 11-30-2006, 08:31 PM
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van Lippe-Biesterfeld: Family name of Prince Bernhard, Queen Juliana and their four daughters

van Vollenhoven: Family name of Princess Margriet and Peter Van van Vollenhoven. They and their four sons and families are popular members of the Dutch Royal Family

Prince of Viana It was the official title of the Corwn Prince of Navarra, created by Carlos III to his grandson, Carlos, that was son of his daughter Blanca and Juan, Prince of Aragón. Viana is the last stop in Navarra of the "Camino de Santiago". Prince Felipe of Spain is the 21st Prince of Viana.

Queen Victoria – The longest reigning British Monarch. Queen Victoria was the Queen of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland and the first Empress of India. Her reign was marked by a great expansion of the British Empire. The Victorian Era was marked by economic, technological change and Industrial Revolution. Queen Victoria was the last Monarch of the House of Hanover.

Victoria - Her Royal Highness Princess Victoria, Crown Princess of Sweden, Duchess of Västergötland was born on July 14, 1977. She is the eldest child of King Carl XVI Gustaf and Queen Silvia. For a short time Victoria's younger brother Carl Philip was Crown Prince of Sweden. The Swedish government passed an Act of Succession that created equal primogeniture. She officially became her father's heir on January 1, 1980. Victoria was invested as heir to the Swedish throne in a ceremony at the Hall of State of the Royal Palace of Stockholm on July 14, 1995 delivering her first speech to the Riksdag. She has studied University at Université Catholique de l'Ouest, in Angers, France and for two years at Yale University in New Haven, Connecticut, USA. In her preperation to become Queen, Victoria has worked as a trainee at the United Nations in New York and at the Swedish Embassy in Washington, DC. Victoria is currently dating Daniel Westling, a gym owner.

Queen Victoria Eugenie (Ena) of Battenberg - Despite technically being a German princess, she was born at Balmoral, in 1887, as her mother was the youngest daughter of Queen Victoria. She married King Alfonso XIII of Spain in 1906. The Spanish royal family was exiled in 1931. She died in Lausanne, Switzerland, in 1969. The current King of Spain, Juan Carlos is her grandson. Princess Sibilla of Luxembourg is her great granddaughter.

HE Victoria Federica de Marichalar y de Borbón
She is the daughter of Infanta Elena and Jaime de Marichalar. She was born on September 9th, 2000 in Madrid. She was named after her great-great-grandmother Queen Victoria Eugenie of Spain and her great-grandmother, Queen Frederika of Greece.
Old 11-30-2006, 08:32 PM
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Waka - Japanese poetry. This is the poetry style used at the Utakai Hajime (see above)

Wasa (or Vasa) - The Ruling House of Sweden from 1521 to 1654 which also provided three Kings to Poland. In 1751 the Vasas regained the Swedish throne through female descent as the House of Holstein-Gottorp ("Younger Vasa"), but the dynasty’s days were numbered when King Gustaf IV Adolf was deposed in 1809 by a military coup following the loss of Finland in a disastrous war.

The King and his family were exiled and a law was passed in Sweden threatening death or banishment for anyone discovered to be in contact with them. The new Bernadotte monarch, Carl XIV, was paranoid and insecure over some European Courts’ recognition of ex-Crown Prince Gustaf, son of the deposed King, as "Prince of Vasa". Gustaf had an only daughter Carola who became the last Queen of Saxony and was childless. His sister Sophie married the Grand Duke of Baden; their son Friedrich married the only daughter of the German Kaiser Wilhelm I, and had a daughter Viktoria.

Following the death of the ex-Crown Prince in 1877 and resultant extinction of the Vasa dynasty in the male line, the Bernadottes relaxed and King Oscar II and Queen Sophia looked to Germany for a bride for their eldest son. They chose Viktoria of Baden, granddaughter of the Kaiser and great-granddaughter of Gustaf IV Adolf. Thus, an elegant twist occurred in 1928, almost 120 years after the ousting of the Vasa King, when Viktoria, now Queen to King Gustaf V, became the senior Vasa claimant to the Swedish throne. In their son, later King Gustaf VI Adolf, the two rival Houses of Sweden were united.

Wassenaar: small town in the western Netherlands home to the Prince and Princess of Orange and their growing family

Westminster Abbey – The Collegiate Church of St Peter, Westminster (commonly known as Westminster Abbey) is a mainly Gothic Church, which is a traditional place of coronation and burial site for English Monarchs.

The Palace of Westminster – The House of Parliament or the Palace of Westminster is the place both Houses of the Parliament meet to conduct their business.

Wettin. The Saxon family who divided into a multiplicity of branches. The most dynastically successful was Saxe-Coburg and Gotha, whose collection of thrones included Saxe-Coburg itself, Great Britain, Portugal, Belgium and Bulgaria. By rights, Queen Elizabeth II will be the last of the Saxe-Coburg dynasty of Great Britain.

Wilhelmus van Nassouwe : the Dutch National Anthem

Prince William of Wales – Elder son of The Prince of Wales and late Diana, Princess of Wales. Prince William is currently training as an army officer at the Royal Military Academy Sandhurst and is due to enter the Blues and Royals regiment of the Household Cavalry.

King William III (William III of Orange) – William of Orange (Prince of the Netherlands) became King of England, Scotland and Ireland after the Glorious revolution, during which his uncle and father-in-law was deposed. He reigned jointly with his wife Queen Mary II (daughter of James II). He continued reigning after Mary’s death until his death and was succeeded by Mary’s sister Anne (Queen Anne I)

King William I (William the Conqueror) – William of Normandy (Duke of Normandy) claimed the English throne after the death of King Edward the Confessor on the ground that Edward had name him his heir. He defeated Harold Godwinson (who was elected King by the Witenagemot) in the Battle of Hastings and become King. He was succeeded in England by his younger son William Rufus and by his elder son Robert Curthose in Normandy.

Williams and Wilhelmina: 19th century monarchs the Netherlands. William III was the last King and there will likely be more than 125 years between his reign and the next King, the Prince of Orange who is expected to reign as William IV.

Duke of Windsor – Title, received by King Edward VIII after his abdication. King Edward abdicated in order to marry twice divorcee Wallis Simpson (The Duchess of Windsor). Edward VIII is the only British Monarch to have voluntarily relinquished the Throne.

Duchess of Windsor – The wife of Prince Edward, Duke of Windsor. The intention of King Edward VIII to marry her caused a constitutional crisis, which led to his abdication. Wallis Simpson was twice divorcee before meeting Prince Edward. Following her marriage, she was formally known as Her Grace The Duchess of Windsor.

Windsor Castle – The largest inhabited castle in the world and one of the principal official residences of the British Monarch. The castle’s history and the history of the British Monarchy are inextricably linked. During the First World War, when the members of the Royal Family felt there is a need in the dynastic name from the German “House of Saxe Coburg-Gotha”, they took their new name from the castle, becoming the “House of Windsor”.

“Why Kings and Queens don’t Wear Crowns” – Märtha Louise of Norway’s children’s book, where she narrates a story of her grandfather’s arrival to the country in 1905.
Old 11-30-2006, 08:32 PM
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Xena. The Warrior Princess from a mediaeval time and place looking suspiciously like New Zealand

Xenophobia – The condition of anti-German sentiment in 1917, which gave rise to the creation of the House of Windsor. German Shepherd dogs were renamed Alsatians, and dachshunds were kicked in the street.
Old 11-30-2006, 08:32 PM
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Yayoi culture - (c. 250 BC–c. AD 250) prehistoric culture of Japan, subsequent to the Jomon culture. Named after the district in Tokyo where its artifacts were first found in 1884, the culture arose on the southern Japanese island of Kyushu and spread northeastward toward the Kanto Plain. The Yayoi people mastered bronze and iron casting. Due to continental influence, the first powerful clans, or chiefdoms, appeared in northern Kyushu. These chiefdoms remained strong, but by the 3rd century A.D., the real power came from the Kansai District. The early Japanese nation developed from the Kansai Yayoi.

Yellow Palace, the – Home of the Danish court administration. Formerly home of Christian IX and family.

York (Dukedom of) – The Royal Dukedom usually (but not always) granted to the second son of the Sovereign.

Yoshi - The childhood name of Prince Hitachi (Masahito), the younger brother of Emperor Akihito of Japan.

Yugoslavia. A former Kingdom in the Balkans notable for the fact that in the Serbian Karageorgevics it had a Royal Family that was a native dynasty, as opposed to German or Danish imports.
Old 12-04-2006, 04:55 AM
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Zahran Palace - The word Zahran originates from the Arabic which means a blooming flower. Zahran Palace was built during the 1950’s. It was the home of Her Majesty the late Queen Zein al-Sharaf, the mother of His Majesty the late King Hussein

Zara Phillips – The daughter of The Princess Royal and Mark Phillips. Zara is a keen Equestrian. She is the current European and World Champion in eventing. Zara is also tipped to be included in the team that will represent England in the Beijing Olympics.

Zaria: newest member of the Dutch royal family born June 2006

Palacio de la Zarzuela - During the 17th century, King Felipe IV ordered a small country palace or hunting lodge to be built in a place called La Zarzuela, in the El Pardo woods close to Madrid. Designed by the Royal architects, Gomez de Mora and Carbonell, who represented the sober, early baroque style in Madrid, it comprised a rectangular, slate-roofed building with two lateral arcades. The main feature was the Italianate garden, with fountains at different levels on three terraces, an orchard and a tree nursery. The palace was to give its name to the Spanish zarzuela, a genre of light theatrical works including both spoken dialogue and song. The earliest works of this type, based on libretti by Calderon de la Barca, were performed between 1657 and 1660. Carlos IV carried out alterations to the building to adapt it to late 18th century taste, and adorned it with tapestries, porcelain and lamps from the Royal factories as well as furniture and his much-loved clocks, of which he created a magnificent collection.

Zein al-Sharaf– was the consort of King Talal and mother of the late King Hussein, Prince Muhammad, Prince El Hassan and Princess Basma. A true pillar of modern Jordan, Queen Zein al-Sharaf is a symbol to all Arab women of the balance between Islamic tradition and a modern outlook

Zein Bint Al Hussein – the daughter of the late King Hussein and Princess Muna al Hussein of Jordan. She is also the fraternal twin of Princess Aisha Bint Al Hussein of Jordan. She is also named after her paternal grandmother, Queen Zein

Zog. The first and last reigning King of twentieth-century Albania

Zorreguieta: Family name of the Princess of Orange. Her father, Jorge, was not able to attend the wedding of his daughter because of questions about his role within the Argentine government led by former dictator Jorge Videla. While Videla was responsible for many atrocities against civilians, Zorreguieta was determined to be uninvolved with the deaths and has been welcome at subsequent family events.
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