The Rogozen Treasure
), called the find of the century, was discovered by chance in 1985 by a tractor driver digging a well in his garden in the Bulgarian
village of Rogozen
. It consists of 165 receptacles, including 108 phiales
, 55 jugs
and 3 goblets
. The objects are silver with golden gilt on some of them with total weight of more than 20 kg. The treasure is an invaluable source of information for the life of the Thracians
, due to the variety of motifs in the richly decorated objects. It is dated back to the 5th-4th centuries BC.
Rogozen Treasure - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Originally Posted by Warren
and more so the Wiki history
of Northern Epirus, a disputed region along the Albanian-Greek border which was formally incorporated into Albania in 1921. There is no mention of any legitimate or illegitimate monarchical institution.
The First Bulgarian Empire
: Първo Българско царство, Parvo balgarsko tsarstvo
) was a medieval
state founded by the Bulgars
in c. 680
in the north-eastern Balkans
and disintegrated in AD 1018 after its annexation to the Byzantine Empire
. At the height of its power it spread between Budapest
and the Black Sea
and from the Dnieper
river in modern Ukraine to the Adriatic
. It was succeeded by the Second Bulgarian Empire
, established in 1185. The official name of the country since its very foundation was Bulgaria
The Empire played a major role in European politics and was one of the strongest military
powers of its time. In 717–718 the coalition of Byzantines and Bulgarians decisively defeated the Arabs
in the siege of Constantinople
thus saving Eastern Europe
from the threat of an Arab invasion and Muslim
conquest of Europe, and later destroyed the Avar
Khanate expanding its territory to the Pannonian Plain
and the Tatra Mountains
. Bulgaria served as an effective shield against the constant invasions of nomadic
peoples from the east in the so called second wave of the Great Migration
were stopped in north-eastern Bulgaria and after a decisive victory over the Magyars
in 896 they were forced to retreate to and permanently settle down in Pannonia.
In the late 9th century, the Bulgarian empire reached its apogee, including most of the Balkans
in its territory. After the annihilation of the Byzantine army in the battle of Anchialus
in 917, the Bulgarians laid siege to Constantinople in 923 and 924. The Byzantines eventually recovered, and in 1014 under Basil II
, inflicted a crushing defeat on the Bulgarians at the Battle of Kleidion
By 1018, the last Bulgarian strongholds had surrendered, and the First Bulgarian Empire had ceased to exist.
brought new construction and battle techniques to Europe. The first Bulgarian cities were made of large monolith stones unlike the Roman brick-build fortresses. With an area of 27 km² the capital Pliska
was among the largest towns in Europe. The Inner town had a sewerage
and floor heating long before cities such as Paris
. After the adoption of Christianity
in 864 Bulgaria became the cultural center of Slavic Europe. Its leading cultural position was further consolidated with the invention of the Cyrillic alphabet
, with some credit to the Bulgarian scholar Clement of Ohrid
. According to some historians the schools of Preslav
were the second universities in Europe after the University of Constantinople
Bulgarian History The territory of the present-day Bulgaria has been inhabited since the New Stone Age and the New Copper Age and continues to reveal exceptional archeological findings.
Bulgaria is one of the oldest European States with 20-century-old history and traditions. Modern Bulgaria is situated in Southeastern Europe, in the Balkan Peninsula – a busy crossroad of ancient cultures.
For centuries, the roads passing through the territory of the country have been connecting Europe with Asia and Africa . Four common European transport corridors, connecting West and North Europe with the eastern and southern part of the continent, cross their roads here.
Most archaeological discoveries have been made near Kazanluk, Karlovo, Nova Zagora, Veliko Turnovo, Vidin, Sofia, Teteven, Troyan, Kurdjali and in the Rhodope Mountains.
The world-famous culture of the Tracians developed on the territory of today’s Bulgaria during pre-historic and ancient times. The oldest gold treasure in the world - the Vulchitrun gold treasure (13-12 century BC), is of Thracian origin.The Thracian heritage influenced significantly the Bulgarian culture and is part of the foundations of the European civilization.
The first Thracian state unions emerged in the 11th century BC and flourished in the 7th-6th centuries BC. In the 1st century BC their lands were conquered by Rome, and after the 5-th century AD they were incorporated in the Byzantine Empire. The Thracians were later assimilated by the Slavs who settled in the Balkan Peninsula in the 6-th century AD. The most famous people born in ancient Trhace were Orpheus – the greatest singer of all time - and Spartacus – a gladiator and leader of the biggest slave uprising in Antiquity. According to the archeological and historical data, on the territory of the present-day Bulgaria the Thracians planted their vines and produced the honey-sweet black wine, described in Homer’s Illiad.
In the 8th - 6th century B.C. settled on the present day Bulgarian Black Sea cost and built fortified port cities such as Odessos (Varna), Mesambria (Nessebur), Apolonia (Sozopol).
Bulgaria is also known for its picturesque nature and rich cultural heritage. According to the statistics, the country ranks third in Europe only after Greece and Italy for the number of its valuable archeological monuments. Fake????