Empress Go-Sakuramachi (Go-Sakuramachi-tennō, 23 September 1740 – 24 December 1813) was the 117th monarch of Japan, according to the traditional order of succession. She was named after her father Emperor Sakuramachi, the word go- (後) before her name translates in this context as "later" or "second one". Her reign spanned the years from 1762 through to her abdication in 1771. The only significant event during her reign was an unsuccessful outside plot, that intended to displace the shogunate with restored Imperial powers.
Go-Sakuramachi, and her brother Emperor Momozono were the last lineal descendants of Emperor Nakamikado. She had one nephew who became Emperor Go-Momozono upon her abdication in 1771. Her nephew's reign did not last long, as he died eight years later after a serious illness with no heir to the throne. A possible succession crisis was averted when Momozono hastily adopted an heir on his deathbed upon the insistence of his aunt. In her later years, Go-Sakuramachi became a "guardian" to the adopted heir (Emperor Kōkaku) until her death in 1813. In the history of Japan, Go-Sakuramachi was the last of eight women to take on the role of empress regnant.