Hashemite Dynasty of the Hejaz, Jordan and Iraq
A new thread for the historically-minded. :)
The Jordanian monarchy was set up in 1921, with help from the British. The sons of Sherif Hussein ibn Ali, were set up as kings of Iraq and Jordan. In Jordan, Abdullah I of Jordan was made the first king of the new Hashemite dynasty. The dynasty originates in the Hejaz and is actually alien to Jordan.
Kings of Jordan:
King Abdullah I (1921 - July 20, 1951)
King Talal (July 20, 1951 - August 11, 1952)
King Hussein (August 11, 1952 - February 7, 1999)
King Abdullah II (February 7, 1999 - present)
Hashemite (Arabic هاشمي) traditionally refers to those belonging to the Banu Hashim, or "clan of Hashem", a clan within the larger Quraish tribe. It also refers to an Arab dynasty whose original strength stemmed from the network of tribal alliances and blood loyalties in the Hejaz region of Arabia, along the Red Sea.
The Hashemites trace their ancestry from Hashim ibn Abd al-Manaf (died c.510 CE), the great-grandfather of Muhammad. The early history of the Hashemites saw them in a continuous struggle against the Umayyads for control over who would be the caliph or successor to Muhammad. The Umayyads were of the same tribe as the Hashemites, but a different clan. This rivalry eventually would lead to the split between the Sunni and Shia. After the overthrow of the Umayyads, the Abbasids would present themselves as representatives of the Hashemites, as they claimed descent from Abbas ibn Abd al-Muttalib, an uncle of Muhammad.
From the 10th century onwards, the Sharif (religious leader) of Mecca and its Emir was by traditional agreement a Hashemite. Before World War I, Hussein ibn Ali of the Hashemite Dhawu-'Awn clan ruled the Hejaz on behalf of the Ottoman sultan. For some time it had been the practice of the Sublime Porte to appoint the Emir of Mecca from among a select group of candidates. In 1908, Hussein bin Ali was appointed Emir of Mecca. He found himself increasingly at odds with the Young Turks in control at Istanbul, while he strove to secure his family's position as hereditary Emirs. Between 1917 and 1924, after the collapse of Ottoman power, he ruled an independent Hejaz, of which he proclaimed himself king, with the tacit support of the British Foreign Office. His supporters are sometimes referred to as "Sharifians" or the "Sharifian party". His chief rival in the Arabian peninsula was the king of the highlanders on the highland of Najd named Ibn Saud, who annexed the Hejaz in 1925 and set his own son, Faysal bin Abdelaziz Al Saud, as governor. The region was later incorporated into Saudi Arabia.
Hussein bin Ali had five sons: Ali, who briefly succeeded to the throne of Hejaz before its loss to the Saud family; Abdullah, who later became the king of Transjordan, and whose descendants have ruled that kingdom, now known as the Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan, ever since; Faisal, who became King of Iraq; Prince Zeid, who became a claimant to the throne of Iraq when his brother's grandson was overthrown in a coup in 1958; and Hassan, who died at a young age.
Let me give the story of the early years of Hashemite royalty in the 20th century a bit more flesh than wikipedia:
At the beginning of World War I the policy of the Ottoman Empire was dominated by the “Young Turks”, a movement, which propagated a rather extreme Turkish ethnic nationalism that antagonized other peoples living under Ottoman rule. When the Young Turk government allied itself with the Germans and went to war against the British-French allied forces in October 1914, and after it had repressed brutally an Arab uprising in Damascus that same year, the British Government promised (in an exchange of letters with the then Hashemite Grand Sherif and Emir of Mecca, Hussein bin Ali) the creation of a great independent Arab Kingdom, that should be a confederation of three states to be created (Hijaz, Greater Syria and Mesopotamia-Iraq), if the Arab people of the region would revolt against Ottoman rule. It was very important for the British (with all their Muslim auxiliary troops) that the guardian of the Holy Places of Islam was on their side instead of preaching jihad against them and their allies that the Padishah-Caliph in Istanbul Mehmet V (reduced by the Young Turks to a sheer symbolic role) asked him to do.
Of course, the Grand Sherif saw himself and his sons as the future rulers of the promised Arab states. The Arab revolt began with the proclamation of the independent state of Hijaz and Hussein its king. Hussein's sons, Faisal and Abdullah led Arab armies north (helped by British agents like T.E. Lawrence). Faisal entered Damascus in 1918 (that marked the end of the Turkish presence in that part of the Middle East). A Syrian National Council was convened and elected and proclaimed Faisal King of (Greater) Syria in 1920 (Greater Syria = today Syria + Lebanon, the territories of today Israel and Palestine and parts of today Jordan).
But in the meantime Great Britain and France had concluded secret agreements known later as the Sykes-Picot agreements, that contradicted the former promises, laying down the partition of the region among European powers. The San Remo conference confirmed in March 1919 the Sykes-Picot agreements assigning to France and Britain a mandate over the Middle East. In 1920 the French who had come to take over their part of the mandate (the northern part of the former Turkish vilayet of Damascus or Greater Syria) forced Faisal out of Damascus. He was seeking refuge in Baghdad conquered meanwhile by British forces, and the British offered him the throne of a newly created kingdom of Iraq in 1921 as some sort of compensation (Mesopotamia was part of their mandate).
His brother Abdullah arrived at the end of 1920 in Maan (today in Jordan, then still part of his father’s kingdom of Hijaz) with a force of armed men at his disposal. His intention was to drive the French out of Syria and succeed to the throne, which they had stripped from Faisal. When he moved in March 1921 to Amman (which was part of the British mandate on the southern part of Greater Syria) and established an administration there, the British were just not in a very good position to risk a military confrontation. Thus they took a pragmatic decision, recognized his fait accompli and made him Emir of Transjordan, on condition that he let the French in Damascus alone. When his elder brother Ali lost the Hijaz kingdom to Abdul Aziz ibn Abdul Rahman al Saud (until then ruler of the Nejd with Riyadh as center, and later founder of Saudi Arabia) in 1925, Emir Abdullah secured the province of Maan (with Aqaba) for his new emirate.
Tomorrow is 12th Anniversary for the Death of Queen Zein Al Sharaf
Jordan remembers Queen Zein Al Sharaf
http://www.petra.gov.jo/nepras/2006/Apr/25/9275I.htm AMMAN (JT) — Today, Jordan commemorates the life of Her Majesty Queen Zein Al Sharaf, the late Queen Mother, who passed away 12 years ago on this date. Queen Zein was born on Aug. 2, 1916, the daughter of Sharif Jamil bin Nasser, Governor of Huran, and nephew of Sharif Hussein bin Ali of Mecca and Wijdan Hanim, daughter of Shakir Pasha, Governor of Cyprus.
Wednesday, April 26, 2006From: http://www.jordantimes.com/wed/homenews/homenews6.htm
this is just fascinating, thanks so much for the information. i'm reading QN's book and she mentions Zeid Hussein and i knew this site would be the best place to find out who he was, i learned so much. we can only wonder if the situation would be better if they had kept their promises to the Grand Sharif.
There used to be a really excellent family tree for the Jordanian (& Iraqi) royals on the web but I lost the link some time ago. It was in far more depth than the one that appears on Queen Noors & King Abdullahs websites. Does anyone have a link to it.......?
As a matter of fact I do....I posted it a few days ago in this very subforum, but in the Links for those interested in royal genealogy. Here is the link to the post that has the link to the site. It was on the late King Hussein of Jordan's website.
Hashemite Family Trees
Just so they don't get lost...
The Family Tree of HM King Hussein: http://www.kinghussein.gov.jo/rfamily_hashemites.html
The Hashemite Royal Family (in detail): http://www.kinghussein.gov.jo/rfamily_immediate.html
Hashemite Dynasty of the Hejaz, Jordan and Iraq
Cousins of the jordanian royal family .... royals of Iraq
HM king Faisal I of Iraq and Syria ...
HM king Ghazi of Iraq..
HM king King Faisal II...
Crown Prince Abd al-Ilāh of Iraq
Let us start with Faisal I of Iraq and Syria ..
Born : 20 May 1883 Taif ( now in saudi Arabia )
full name : Faisal bin Al Hussein Bin Ali El-Hashemi
( 11 March 1920 _ 25 July !920 ) king of Syria
(23 August 1921 _ 8 September !933) king of Iraq
His fathrer was Sharif Hussein bin ali of Mecca & his mother was princess Abdiyah bint abdullah .his brother was king Abdullah I of jordan
Faisal was married to Huzaima bint Nasser (her twin sister was Queen MUsbah of Jordan ... Abdullah I of jordan wife ) and had one son and three daughters :
Princess Azza bint Faisal
Princess Rajiha bint Faisal
Princess Raifia bint Faisal
King Ghazi of iraq
Jordanian Princes (only males):
grand-sons of King Abdullah I:
(King Hussein bin Talal, died in 1999)
Mohammed bin Talal
Hassan bin Talal
Ali bin Nayef (Naif)
Asem bin Nayef
Abdullah bin Hussein (King Abdullah II) (4 kids; sons: Hussein, Hashem)
Feisal bin Hussein (4 kids; son: Omar)
Ali bin Hussein (2 kids; son: Abdullah)
Hamzah bin Hussein (1 daughter)
Hashem bin Hussein (2 daughters)
Talal bin Mohammed (3 kids; sons: Hussein, Mohammed)
Ghazi bin Mohammed (3 kids; son: Abdullah)
Rashid bin Hassan
Mohammed al-Abbas bin Ali (3 kids; son: Hamzah al-Abbas)
Ja’afar bin Ali
Nayef bin Asem
Additionally there is H.H. Prince Hussein Mirza (eldest grand-son of the late King Hussein, the eldest son of this king’s first daughter Alia, named Prince by his grand-father)
And another Hashemite lineage in Jordan, the descendants of the younger half-brother of King Abdullah I (Zeid):
Ra’ad bin Zeid
and his 4 sons:
Zeid bin Ra’ad (Jordan’s Ambassador to the USA) (2 kids; son: Ra’ad)
Mir’ed bin Ra’ad (3 kids; sons: Rakan, Ja’afar)
Firas bin Ra’ad (2 daughters)
Feisal bin Ra’ad (2 daughters)
So, to get it straight (numbers indicate generations, only males listed because they have succession rights and because there are 19 males and 46 females):
King Abdullah I:
1.King TalalDid Prince Nayef have a son named Ali?2.King Hussein1.Prince Nayef3.King Abdullah II2.Prince Muhammad4.Prince Hussein3.Prince Faisal
and he has two sons:
Mohammed al-Abbas bin Ali (3 kids; son: Hamzah al-Abbas)
Ja’afar bin Ali
2. Prince Ali
3. Prince Mohammed al-Abbas
4. Prince Hamzah al-Abbas
3. Prince Ja’afar
Talking about it a book on the Hashemite Dynasty was recently published in France.
"La saga des Hachémites : La tragédie du Moyen-Orient, 1909-1999 "
by Rémi Kauffer
La saga des Hachémites : La tragédie du Moyen-Orient, 1909-1999: Kauffer-R: Amazon.fr: Livres
The 1958 coup which overthrew the monarchy in Iraq was the beginning of an unmitigated disaster for Iraq and the world. The "nationalists" (really a group of muderous and power hungry army officers) succeded in turning Iraq into a slaughterhouse before Sadam Hussein appeared on the scene. Faisal II showed every sign at the time of his death at the age of 21 of becoming an able and highly skilled politician and ruler. How much better had the monarchy survived. As for the current republic, who knows?? I am just curious, is there any of the Iraqi royal family who survived 1958 who would be in line to the throne of that country? I was under the impression the whole family, men, women and children were brutally murdered. If ever there were a group of people innocent, apart from the Crown Prince, who was widely hated I understand, it was that royal familty.
Prince Zeid died in 1970, he was suceeded in this position by his only son Ra'ad who was born in 1936 as a Iraqi national.
But unlike his father he left exile in London and Paris for Jordan where he lives now with his family:
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