30th Anniversary of King Juan Carlos' Enthronement; November 25, 1975 - 2005
Palacio de las Cortes de Madrid, November 22nd, 1975
thank you for the pictures
next year it will be 30 years ago wonder if they will do a event of it
A karateca for Don Juan Carlos
In 1966, the United States approved that a military man of the confidence of the Prince was assigned to him like sport instructor The OPERATION, approved by the Military intelligence, allowed the future monarch to have direct thread with the North Americans http://web.lavanguardia.es/img/es/t.gif
EDUARDO MARTÍN OF POZUELO - 28/08/2005
In 1966, then prince Juan Carlos solicitd of the United States that a North American colonel, by those dates instructional of kárate of its brother-in-law, king Constantino of Greece, outside destined to Madrid so that outside its trainer in that sport. The subject, naturally considered secret and that reached the highest spheres of the government of EE. UU., seems to lock up a masterful play of the future King of Spain to have direct thread with the White House whenever it considered it necessary and without having to pass through so many filters or controls of the government of Franc. This is the history of the real karateca ,el lieutenant colonel Bell, Vista through documents declassified by EE. UU.
The 14 of June of 1966 the expert North American diplomat in Latin and military questions destined in Spain Frank V. Ortiz wrote to the "Honorable William W. Walker, advisory minister of the embassy of the United States in Madrid", to announce to him that he had received the visit of a woman intelligence agent that Carlos had spoken to him of a subject referring to prince Juan and an instructor of kárate military man. In addition, Ortiz warned Walker that the subject could create problems motivated by the information desire that woke up - between the Americans the idea to place an American agent next to the heir of Corona.
"Wanted Bill - Ortiz said -, it visited one so young lady yesterday to me Hansen of the Intelligence services of the Armed Forces. It informed me into which call is an instructor of kárate Bell available to instruct to prince Juan Carlos. I recommended that the subject communicated to the embassy through the military channel for its approval. Unfortunately, she seemed to judge that it would be necessary that such colonel Liepczyk, that now he is in Athens, accompanied to the instructor by kárate ´para to establish friendship with Juan Carlos´. I insisted energetically on which Juan own Carlos found his ´amigos´ in the embassy and that did not think outside that necessary that colonel Liepczyk entered to comprise integral of the program of kárate (colonel Liepczyk plays squash and will see Juan Carlos in east Corfú summer in company of king Constantino, of which the colonel considers friend very). I had the impression that one would become source of problems like political intriguer. Surely you will hear more on it in the successive thing. This letter will serve to you like first warning so that you are sobrewarning ".
Indeed, from that moment the case of the colonel Bell and the instruction of kárate of the Prince became a reason for interchange of correspondence between different departments from the North American Administration, since the one of Defense affected so much to the Department of State like a, since the indirect protagonist of this peculiar anecdote were military man; this way, all thought and all had something to say, especially when, since we have indicated, the agencies of Information and Intelligence walked romping by in the middle. The case is that Bell passed by the embassy of Madrid and could participate in the conversations.
Another letter, this one of the mentioned William W. Walker, Charge d´affaires ad interim in Madrid to George W. Landau, of the Department of State in Washington of 30 of September of 1966, summarizes the mysteries of the case of the real karateca .
"Loved George, in relation to your letter of the 16 of September about the lieutenant colonel Bell, indeed we maintained long conversations with him to its pass by Madrid. Its stay obeyed to its own initiative, that we took advantage of to allow him that it put to us in antecedents on the project to try to clarify his future paper in this subject. Ever since you spoke with him, I am sure that you know the terms general of the question. Colonel Bell has worked like instructor of kárate of king Constantino during several summers from 1962 in Corfú and Athens, and during these periods also Carlos instructed to prince Juan, who then was visiting the king ".
According to Walker, it was Don Juan Carlos who expressed to the ambassador his interest in continuing his formation of kárate and asked if the United States could provide an instructor to him. "Ours first efforts to obtain it, more ago of a year, were not successful", indicated the diplomat, but soon, always according to the signer, "Juan Carlos it reiterated the request of an instructor to the lieutenant colonel Bell during his sessions in Corfu '".
The idea to place to Bell next to the prince was taking body so that a colonel to the control of Bell (colonel Glover Johns) gave to understand to Walker that the department of the Armed Forces approved the destiny to Madrid of the lieutenant colonel Bell in quality of assistant military attache'. For it, the military would adopt "measures pertinent to create position corresponding in organizational chart of aggregation in whose frame (Bell) she would perform his functions, that we understand will exert indeed of immediate way", wrote Walker.
Thought the embassy of EE. UU. about Madrid that to Don Juan Carlos came to him well to practice Eastern sports and that had to help him? Not exactly, and reason why trasluce of the North American documentation the Prince did not think either only about sport questions. In the same Walker letter it clarified transfondo of the subject, that is not other that the future of Spain. The legation considered "that he would be useful and advisable to maintain a contact with prince Juan Carlos through the presence of the lieutenant colonel Bell in quality of aggregate" and added here that "naturally the contact would be more useful if the political evolution took place in the line of Juan Carlos", although also valued that "he would be almost equally advisable in case that the mentioned evolution produejra in the line of Don Juan, and much less useful if there is no evolution in the present or if the evolution is in the line of the regency or other routes. We do not see any risk or disadvantage of importance in following ahead with the destiny of colonel Bell, provided the project correctly is explained and controlled, as thus we think that it can and it must be ".
The 5 of December of 1966, the letter of Walker had answer from Washington: "the assistant secretaryship of the Intelligence services of the Armed Forces has notified us whom the project has been approved and that the own department is quick to assign to the lieutenant colonel Bell like military attache' of the embassy in Madrid".
Thank you Rchainho, an interesting article
And Don Juan Carlos accepted to be the successor
In March of 1968 the Prince explained the interioridades of the succession to the ambassador of EE. UU. that returned to Washington
DON JUAN FELT sad and pensativo and soon it agreed in which, if there were no alternative, his son had to reject the succession http://web.lavanguardia.es/img/es/t.gif
EDUARDO MARTÍN OF POZUELO - 29/08/2005
As he could not be of another form, the Spanish personage who more interest woke up in the governments of the United States from beginnings of the Sixties was Don Juan Carlos. In fact, there is conversation or no detail about the present monarch who does not appear in some filed secret document in EE. UU., like the memorandum of conversation of 4 of April of 1968. The case is that immediately before leaving his position in Spain, Duke ambassador was received by the Prince who did not let pass the opportunity to transmit to EE. UU. his vision of the complex transition that began to guess. It is obvious that the Prince knew that everything what said to Duke would arrive shortly at the White House, as it happened.
The 28 of March of 1968, Don Juan Carlos received solo in the Zarzuela to Angier Biddle Duke, ambassador of the United States in Spain that was going to be replaced by Robert F. Wagner. Duke arrived at the palace on the six from afternoon and the dialogue extended during fifty minutes.
The encounter, according to explained Duke to Washington, passed as it follows: "After an interchange of personal observations, I mentioned my other visits of goodbye as ambassador and commented that it had maintained a conversation of half an hour with the Head of the State. Prince Juan Carlos repaired in this last observation, happening to indicate that their conversations with Franc always used to be of the same duration. He said that Frank he had dealed with to him paternonal form, advising to him always of very friendly and good natured way, although without expressing themselves in fact of conclusive form. Consequently, he added to Juan Carlos, at no moment got to know accurately in what situation was he from the political point of view. On the one hand, Franc indicated to him that it behaved like a loyal son but, on the other hand, and more recent, Frank it had insisted to him on the circumstance that Juan Carlos was now thirty years old, was independent person totally about his own decisions and in case of seting out a determined objective, had indeed to make an effort to reach it ".
According to Duke, Juan Carlos told him that he had responded to Franc "that, if alternative occurred him on the matter, was clear that first he was its father (in the successory line) and who, therefore, would not follow the advice of Franc to compete by the same position".
The Prince explained to Duke next that, however, "would not perhaps be precise to confront election or alternative some" since it had said to him to Franc - Juan said Carlos-who "the solution of the successory problem was into the hands of the Head of the State before its death since in opposite case the monarchy never would return to Spain. It had urged to Franc to fulfill this promise while he lived ".
Don Juan Carlos added that Frank, in answer to the previous thing, it had asked to him if, in case of being he the chosen one, would accept the successor position. "Juan Carlos said to Duke that had responded to him affirmatively that if Frank, the Regency Council, Cortes, etc, wanted to him and any other alternative did not exist, he would accept" and stressed the ambassador "who felt that of such circumstances his to have he would consist of accepting the call and that could not reject it".
Don Juan Carlos explained that when his father, Don Juan, Felipe was in Spain "for the baptism of his son, there were counted his conversations to him with Franc and that had said to him to its father who if personal election were offered to him, was a question, but that, if in fact he were designated by means of the anticipated constitutional process, did not see more alternative than the one to fulfill his to have. Its father - Don Juan said Carlos- had felt at the beginning of some shocked way, soon sad and pensativo and, finally, it declared to be in agreement in which if another alternative did not mediate, Don Juan Carlos would not have to reject the succession. Its father - Don Juan reiterated Carlos-agreed in which if it rejected the call, probably Spain would not resort to the father and the monarchy never would return. Nevertheless, Don Juan, even being in agreement on the question, had affirmed that personally it thought that Frank almost surely it would not designate indeed to Don Juan Carlos like successor. On the matter, the Prince explained
"that his father thought that Frank some would not announce election before its death".
The heir asked to him Duke how he saw the succession. "I responded - he related Duke-that he thought that if Frank he unexpectedly died without to have adopted measures on the succession one would open to a phase of commotion and social and political sense of expectancy in whose context that was in possession of the authentic means and influences would probably incline to give fulfillment the aimed thing; that is to say, to call to Don Juan to the throne ". Although Juan Carlos did not discard that the option pointed by the ambassador could finish being reality, the then Prince remembered Duke, always according to the declassified documents, that his father was exiliado and who it supposed an objective difficulty to catch the political realities of Spain.
Then Duke asked to him if it did not think that the "Armed Forces, worried about safeguard of the law and the order, would press please in a fast, clear and conclusive solution" and if it also did not think that, being based on the same impulse, the same Armed Forces would return to the pointed solution, the legal solution.
Don Juan Carlos thought that it was possible, but added that it was not absolutely convinced that the Armed Forces in block went to advance in such direction. "Doubtlessly - say-some of the most veteran leaders would tend to advance by this route, but - it added-the Armed Forces grew. Without explaining this observation, Don Juan Carlos continued to indicate that unfortunately such circumstance was the reason that for Franc importance was from the Maxima of designating him now ", although, however, it was not had it jeopardize. "it had not said yes - it explained the future King-but either it had not said not". But the Prince judged that Frank he needed to solve the question, to go to Cortes and to announce to him to him like successor to the throne.
Don Juan Carlos said to him to Duke that the succession model had to happen to name a government president, in this White Carrero case, and autumn to announce to him like successor to the Headquarters of the State, but lamented the resistance of Franc to give its conformity to a plan in accordance with a calendar. According to he commented to him to Duke, the Prince thought that if Frank died without naming his successor him, the monarchy would not have anything to do although his father gave returns him to the idea of a referendum to choose successor, who "evidently would not work".
When finishing Don Juan Carlos almost said to him to the ambassador who four military commands of high graduation had gone to speak with him expressing itself in terms so extremely critical of Franc and the regime that had been forced to request to them that they kept silence on the matter. The Prince said to him that the military were very displeasures by the inactivity and lack of dynamism of the government, and anxious before the future.
"It comes to see without warning me the minister"
In August of 1969, Juan Carlos summoned the ambassador of EE. UU. to explain retail since the succession had taken placeDON JUAN CARLOS explained Hill ambassador who leaves from the pain that felt its father had to the terrible performance of Areilza http://web.lavanguardia.es/img/es/t.gif
EDUARDO MARTÍN OF POZUELO - 30/08/2005
I have returned to be impressed by the interest and intelligence of Juan Carlos, as well as by its total conscience on the political limitations that its present situation represents. Certain sample naivete, but I attribute to its youth and lack to it of practical political experience. Juan Carlos can survive or not the tensions of posfranquista Spain, but in any case I am sure that he tries, by its own effort and resources, to modernize the Spanish policy and is to hope that, at its moment, to govern Spain ".
This is the conclusion at which Robert C. Hill arrived, ambassador of EE. UU. in Madrid of the era Nixon who in August of 1969 was mentioned by prince Juan Carlos, who without wasting time, in 45 minutes, explained to the North American representative its plans of future once named successive. Hill wrote immediately to Washington as, it is of supposing, it wished Don Juan Carlos who happened.
"invitation hers, I have visited today Prince Juan Carlos in the Palace of the Zarzuela", begins the report of Hill in which he says to have found the Prince "sincere, eager to speak about questions related to its appointment like Prince of Spain, and the plans for the future immediate". Hill showed Don Juan Carlos a model of the Apolo XI Eagle and and another one of a F-100 from president Nixon and the Prince said to him that it would go directly by letter to the president.
After the rigor salutings they entered matter immediately. Don Juan Carlos related that many monarchists had said that Don Juan was its election of preference, to which Don Juan Carlos to him respondio ': "Era also mine".
The Prince related then the chronology that Hill gathered accurately with these words: Don Juan Carlos "had solicitd to be received by Franc in hearing in April but not yet it had been received when it went to see his parents to Estoril in June. In Estoril he said to him to his father who Madrid boiled of rumors that Frank it projected to name him him, Juan Carlos, heir to the throne; rumors reinforced by certain ministers of the government who ask the Prince for their plans for the summer. The Prince showed his father who both, in their opinion, would know more or less at the same time of the intentions of Franc ".
On this point Don Juan Carlos it clarified to Hill that thought that Frank to him it had not put in brete informing to him before him and forcing to him thus, about certain way, to in front of keep a secret its father. Soon the Prince explained that when her mother visited Madrid at the end of June not yet she had no indication on the subject and praised Doña Maria of the Mercedes and spoke of his influence in the relations with his father.
The 14 of July, according to Don Juan Carlos in version gathered by Hill, Don Juan telephoned to him. The Prince informed to his father who not yet had had the news of Franc but that the rumors increased. The morning of the 15 of July the Brown called to Don Juan Carlos for a hearing that same afternoon. In the Frank hearing it communicated to him that it would name Prince of Spain and successor the 22 of July. The 16 of Julio the letter of Franc informing to him into the decision was given to Don Juan.
Don Juan Carlos explained to Hill that his father was hurt very, but as pragmatic person would accept the situation to her due time. The Prince of Spain attributed part of the problem of his father to the omission of the count of Motrico in maintaining to Don Juan to the day on the rumors and events in Madrid. Also it explained to him that Don Juan thought that his son knew of the intentions of Franc from the beginning and at any moment, end that Don Juan Carlos denied.
"It is evident - it wrote Hill- that to Juan Carlos dislikes Motrico to him and thinks that it advised bad to his father. The Prince counted on Motrico that left the Spanish embassy in Paris five years ago explaining to which they had promised a high governmental position to him (perhaps the one of president) in years 60. Only when the appointment did not take place, Motrico, bitter with the regime, contacted with Don Juan in Estoril offering itself to work for him. The Prince does not disguise his feelings in the sense that Don Juan had been better advisee to have rejected the offer of Motrico (Jose Maria de Areilza)".
The Prince said to him to Hill that felt that it had to watch towards the future and not the past, that knew that "the monarchy is not popular ,y of which the task corresponds to him of building a modern monarchy and that indeed it works, with the popular support". "I adhered energetically to the necessity of the popular support from my own experience in policy in EE. UU. and added respectfully that she thought that Juan Carlos would have to dedicate itself intensely to win the affection and support of Spanish youth and the working-class", Hill wrote. Don Juan Carlos prepared in fact its speech before Cortes - the first speech in an important forum - watching the future, to the past and did not consider the ovación to Princess Sofía when leaving the building of Cortes like an indication of the support towards him, ilustrativa than the ovación registered immediately after its speech when it shared the estrado one with Franc.
The Prince considered frankly that the image of Spain abroad had been centered too much time in the person of the Generalissimo and announced that he and the princess had predicted to visit the main capitals of the world to project the image of the new Spain. As far as its immediate plans "they consist of traveling to Corunna, where Frank it spends its vacations, the next week to remain there until the 9 of August". Don Juan Carlos revealed the ambassador to him who did not know what would do in the Corunna and that not yet had requested to him that seated in the Cabinet.
As far as the relation with EE. UU. Don Juan Carlos one was deluded and once again it played by free. "it said to Me that it called to him when it wanted to deal with important questions, without requesting permission to Outer Subjects. If it asks (to me it said) will be limited to say to him that they do not know anything on the matter and if they disapprove it say simply to me (to my ') that it does not debate such subjects with you in the next occasion ". And, the Prince requested to Hill to be including in any press conference given by members of the Administration on the next trip of Nixon.
PREPARING THE SUCCESSION
The American advice to the future King
IÑAKI ELLAKURÍA - 30/08/2005
The embassy of EE. UU. in Madrid sent to the Secretariat of North American State in August of 1969 a secret report with information on the conversations between the North American ambassador in Madrid, Robert C. Hill, and prince Juan Carlos. The White House wanted to know what Spain was going away to find after the death of the dictator.
Hill advised to the future King on how it had to act facing happening in the headquarters of State to the generalissimo Asi' explained it in the report: "I added respectfully that it thought that prince Juan Carlos would have to dedicate itself intensely to win the affection and support of Spanish youth and the working-class".
Its words it is come off that to the White House it interested to him to take care of to Don Juan Carlos and to inform to him into the future performances with respect to Spain de Washington: "I debated my plans for next the two months with the Prince - Hill-y wrote I mentioned that it would be in Washington for discussions at political level about the hispanonorteamericanas joint bases at the beginning of September".
Again the subject arose from the military pacts. Hill explained like had spoken with the Prince on the subject, "to which I said to him that it is a specially delicate period as for the bases and that it trusted that any declaration of high civil employees on the subject would consider this consideration. The Prince understood the question and he was in agreement with this point of view ".
Does someone has photos from foreign royals who attended the ceremony?
And the King's parents and sisters?
It wasn't a coronation because they never put the crown on his head.
I think it was more of an installation. Perhaps there's a better term.
Does anyone know why Juan Carlos wasn't crowned? Is that an old custom or something that was a result of recent history (the Civil War, Franco era)?
Normally, how many days is the coronation od the kings in Spain? I know that after Franco's death he was coronated king.
it was the result of the particulary circunstances that spain was living in that moment.That is why JC wasn´t crowned
No, in Spain the Kings are not crowned, they take an oath in presence of the crown and the authorities. Not only Juan Carlos, but all their predecessors had done so.
No foreign monarchs attended the ceremony, from what I know. The Kings parents watched the ceremony on the TV from Estoril.
What Marcus says is right. There is no coronation ceremony as in England, here in Spain. The monarch to be gives an oath and that's it, just as king JC did.
Apart from this ceremony, there was a mass called "Misa del Espiritu Santo", if I'm not mistaken, which took place after the "oath ceremony". To this mass, several foreign authorities and monarchs came, such as King Constantine II and Queen Anne-Marie of Greece, Prince Rainier and Princess Grace of Monaco and some others... this was a sign of the foreign support King JC was going to get, in contrast to the "alienation" Franco's dictatorship had had.
The King's parents didn't attend to this ceremony, but I think Infanta Pilar was there, but I'm not sure.
Between November 20th, 1975 (date of the death of Franco) and the religious act of the church of San Jerónimo, on November 27th, Don Juan Carlos takes the first steps towards the attainment of the concord among Spaniards.
On November, 22nd, 1975, Don Juan Carlos de Borbón became King Juan Carlos I.
Words of Cardinal Tarancón (during the mass of the Holy Spirit, at Juan Carlos I coronation as king of Spain - November 1976).
About the speech of Cardinal Tarrancón at the church of San Jerónimo la Real, on November 27th, 1975.
About the transition of 1975-82.
About the transition to democracy.
The King, in his green uniform of Capitan-General (post to which he had been raised the previous day), and wearing the Order of the Golden Fleece and the ribbon of the one of Charles III, and Queen, in her outstanding dark-pink dress, also wearing the ribbon of the Order of Charles III, entered through the back of the building and appeared in the “stage”, as Queen Sofia called it later, through the back, welcomed by the standing hemicycle applauding. After the King’s swearing over the Holy Bible, the President of the Cortes proclaimed Juan Carlos de Borbón y Borbón, “who will reign with the name of Juan Carlos I”. A “Viva el Rey! Viva España!”, followed by the National Anthem, preceded the first speech of King Juan Carlos to the nation.
After the funeral of the dictator and the end of the mourning, the Enthronement Mass, or Mass of the Holy Spirit, was held on the 27th November. The mood was now different. Franco was really over, the time was of celebration. Some world leaders and royalty gathered to pay tribute to the new King, as the “Daily Express” could reconsider its previous considerations. The King and Queen left from the Zarzuela, their residence, and arrived to the Church of San Jerónimo el Real already escorted by the impressive cavalry. Inside the Church took their places the King and Queen of the Hellenes, Prince Rainier and Princess Grace of Monaco, the President of France and the President of the Federal Republic of Germany, the President of Ireland, the Grand-Master of the Order of Malta, the Prince Philip, Duke of Edinburgh, the Prince of Liège, the Prince Sidi Mohamed of Morocco, the Prince Bertil of Sweden, the Hereditary Grand-Duke of Luxembourg, the Vice-President of the United States of America, Nelson Rockefeller among representatives of over 80 countries and around 700 guests.
On the end of the ceremony, the sovereigns left once more to the cheers of the thousands of people gathered in Madrid for the occasion, and were conducted in an open Rolls-Royce to the Royal Palace, where they appeared several times on the balcony. A banquet offered to the foreign guests and a military parade closed the ceremonies.
Does anyone know what the head dress Queen Sofia is wearing is called or what the significance of it is? I have seen it many times before and I am just wondering.
Women wear it at special occasions, like a wedding and also sometimes at funerals.
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