December 2008 Newsletter: Royal Orders
As we say goodbye to 2008 and hello to 2009 this month's newsletter will focus on Royal Orders. We are focusing on the British, Danish, Portuguese, Brazilian and Japanese Royal Orders. A very special thanks goes out to Elsa M. and Regina for their information on the Portuguese and Brazilian Royal Orders.
Lady Jennifer, kimebear, LadyLeana, Mandy and Zonk
Since the November newsletter, there have been some role changes within the moderation team at The Royal Forums:
The list of current moderators, supermoderators and administrators can be found here.
Please don’t hesitate to contact us if there are any questions and/or concerns.
Questions about The Royal Forums?
We have a thread in the Support and Feedback forum that contains all sorts of information about TRF and also contains a copy of the Member FAQs for easy reference.
Picture of the Month
Don't forget to vote for November's Picture of the Month. You can find the poll here.
The Royal Articles
If you haven't had the opportunity, to check out The Royal Articles.
Since we are unable to use professional photos to illustrate the articles, the editors are very interested in hearing from any members who have taken photos of royals and would be willing to have their photos used in the articles. Also, anyone who would like to try their hand at writing an article should contact one of the editors. The editors are Elspeth, Mandy, Marengo, and TheTruth.
The Royal Book Club
As a reminder owing to the small number of members who have been participating in the book club discussions, December's book discussions has been suspended.
November 2nd - Queen Sofia of SpainNovember 2nd - David Armstrong Jones, Viscount Linley
November 5th - Fawzia Shirin
November 5th - Prince Kubrat, Prince of Panagiurishte
November 6th - Infante Henrique, Duke of Coimbra
November 8th - Lady Louise Mountbatten-Windsor
November 11th - Hereditary Grand Duke Guillaume of Luxembourg
November 12th - Alexander Ogilvy
November 14th - The Prince of Wales
November 15th - Princess Elene of Romania
November 15th - Abdel of Jordan
November 15th - Peter Phillips
November 16th - Princess Sana of Jordan
November 18th - Lady Davina Lewis
November 19th - Princess Theodora of Liechtenstein
November 19th - Prince Umberto of Bulgaria
November 19th - Princess Sofia of Bulgaria
November 20th - Crown Prince Otto von Habsburg
November 20th - Alexandra Princess zu Sayn-Wittgenstein-Berleburg
November 20th - Maria Teresa Sartorius y de Liechtenstein
November 24th - Princess Isabelle of Liechtenstein
November 25th - Infante Dinis, Duke of Porto
November 26th - Louis Robert Paul Ducruet
November 27th - Princess Désirée of Hohenzollern
November 28th - Emma Francisca of Orange-Nassau, van Vollenhoven
November 28th - Prince Hitachi of Japan
November 28th - Princess Lillian of Sweden
November 30th - Prince Akishino of Japan
November 4 - http://www.theroyalforums.com/forums...6-a-11296.html
November 4 - http://www.theroyalforums.com/forums...926-a-267.html
November 6 - http://www.theroyalforums.com/forums...04-a-3993.html
November 6 - http://www.theroyalforums.com/forums...04-a-3966.html
November 14 - http://www.theroyalforums.com/forums...73-a-4328.html
November 15 - http://www.theroyalforums.com/forums...05-a-5979.html
November 18 - http://www.theroyalforums.com/forums...995-a-7973.htm
November 20 - http://www.theroyalforums.com/forums...47-a-3577.html
November 26 - http://www.theroyalforums.com/forums...04-a-4186.html
November 7th - Queen Ingrid of Denmark
November 28th - Queen Wilhemina of the Netherlands
November 28th - Princess Syblla of Sweden
Visit to Japan, Brunei, and Indonesia: 27 October - 4 November 2008
Philippe and Mathilde's Official Visit to Indonesia; 21-28 Nov. 2008
State Visit to Tanzania November 3-6 2008
Crown Prince Couple Visit to Thailand 24-26 November 2008
Joachim & Marie - Visit to Russia, 17-21 November 2008
Spanish State Visit to Japan: 8 - 14 November 2008
State Visit from Finland to Luxembourg, November 24 to 26 2008
National Day 2008 - Monaco
Haakon's Visit to Turkey, November 2008
1st - Princess Aiko of Japan (2001)2nd - Princess Lea of Belgium (1951)
2nd - Prince Kardam, Prince of Turnovo (1962)
2nd - Prince Mikasa of Japan (1915)
3rd - Prince Sverre Magnus of Norway (2005)
3rd - Duke of Anhalt (1941)3rd - Infante Miguel, Duke of Viseu (1946)
5th - King Rama IX of Thailand (1927)
5th - Prince Konstantin-Assen, Prince of Vidin (1967)
6th - Prince Nikolaus of Liechetenstein (2000)
6th - Pablo Nolás Urdangarín y Bórbon (2000)
7th - Princess Bhajara Kittiyabha of Thailand (1978)
7th - Princess Catharina Amalia of the Netherlands (2003)
9th- Crown Princess Masako of Japan (1963)
9th - Prince Joachim of Belgium (1991)
12th - Princess Purnika of Nepal (2000)
13th - Prince Nicolas and Prince Aymeric of Belgium (2005)
14th - Princess Olimpia of Bulgaria (1995)
16th - Archduke Lorenz of Habsburg-Este, Prince of Belgium (1955)
17th - James Mountbatten-Windsor, Viscount Severn (2007)20th - Infanta Elena of Spain, Duchess of Lugo (1963)
20th - Princess Akiko of Mikasa (1981)
21st - Estella Taylor (2004)
22nd - Queen Silvia of Sweden (1943)
22nd - The Margravine of Meißen (1940)
23rd - Grand Duchess Maria Vladimirovna of Russia (1953)
23rd - Emperor Akihito of Japan (1933)
23rd - Prince Ali of Jordan (1975)
25th - Prince Bernhard of Orange-Nassau, van Vollenhoven (1969)
25th - Queen Alia of Jordan (1948)
25th - Princess Alexandra of Kent (1936)
26th - Cassius Taylor (1996)
27th - Princess Antoinette, Baroness of Massy (1920)
28th - Princess Vittoria Cristina Adelaide Chiara Maria of Savoy (2003)
29th - Princess Kako of Japan (1994)
30th - Crown Prince Paras of Nepal (1971)
31st- Carlos Morales Quintana (1970)
Dec 6- Archduchess Marie-Christine of Austria and Count Rodolphe of Limburg-Stirum (2008)
Dec 10 - Archduke Konrad of Austria and Ashmita Goswami: December 2005
Dec 12 - HRH The Princess Royal of Great Britain and Timothy Laurence
Dec 15 - King Baudouin and Fabiola of the Belgians 1960
Dec 19 - HIH Prince Charles Napoleon & Princess Beatrice of Borbon-Two Sicilies (1978)
Dec 21 - Mohammed Reza and Farah Pahlavi (1959)
Dec 31 - Princess Caroline of Monaco and Stefano Casiraghi / December 31st, 1983
1st - Prince Bernhard of the Netherlands died in 2004
7th - Prince Shahryar Shafiq died in 1979
21st - Count Lennart Bernadotte died in 2004
25th - Emperor Taisho of Japan died in 1926
British Royal Orders
Order of the Garter
The Most Noble Order of the Garter is the oldest of the British royal orders, and is England's pre-eminent Order of Chivalry. It was founded by Edward III in 1348 as a fellowship of knights recalling King Arthur and his Knights of the Round Table. The Sovereign and the Prince of Wales are members, along with up to 24 knights who are chosen by the Sovereign and are known as Knights Companion. There are also supernumerary members, who include members of the British royal family and foreign monarchs. Since 1987, women have been eligible for membership of the 24 Companions and are known as Ladies Companion. For some years in the 18th to early 20th centuries, membership was controlled by the Prime Minister, but since 1947 it has been solely the province of the Sovereign. Knights may be stripped of their membership if they have committed serious crimes such as treason.
There are several stories about the origin of the Order, the most popular being that Edward III picked up a garter that had fallen from the leg of the Countess of Salisbury or of Joan of Kent, and fastened it to his own leg, saying "Honi soit qui mal y pense [evil to him who thinks evil of it]," which has become the motto of the Order. Another is that the Garter refers to the straps which fasten armour.
The original insignia of the Garter include a garter, worn below the left knee with knee breeches by men and worn on the upper arm by women, as well as a badge depicting St George and the Dragon. The collar (a solid-gold chain with a design of knots and roses, worn around the neck), the diamond-encrusted Garter Star, and the familiar broad blue riband worn over the left shoulder are later additions to the insignia. The vestments include a navy-blue velvet mantle, lined with white taffeta, with the heraldic shield of St George's Cross shown on the left shoulder, and a black velvet hat with an ostrich plume. The coats of arms and heraldic banners of the Knights are displayed in St George's Chapel. On the death of a Knight, the insignia are returned to the Sovereign.
The patron saint of the Order is St George, the Patron Saint of England, and new Knights are announced on St George's Day (23 April). The Garter Ceremony takes place at St George's Chapel Windsor in June every year, where a procession of Knights moves from the Castle to the Chapel on foot for the Garter Service and Installation of any new Knights. This ceremony has been a regular fixture on the royal calendar since 1948, when it was reinstituted by George VI after a gap of nearly 150 years.
TRF threads here and here.
Order of the Thistle
The Most Ancient and Most Noble Order of the Thistle is Scotland's oldest and most senior royal order. Its history goes back many hundreds of years, but it was instituted formally by James VII (James II of England) in 1687. When he abdicated in 1688 the Order fell into disuse until it was revived by Queen Anne in 1703. The Order originally included the Sovereign and 12 members, known as Knights-Brethren, who had to be born in Scotland; this limit was raised to 16 by George IV in 1827. The members were exclusively male until 1987, when Elizabeth II expanded eligibility to include women. There are now also some foreign monarchs among the extra knights. As with the Order of the Garter, a Knight may be expelled for treason or other high crime.
The motto of the Order is "Nemo me impune lacessit [No one harms me with impunity]," and the chapel of the Order is the Thistle Chapel at St Giles Cathedral in Edinburgh. The patron saint of the Order is St Andrew, the patron saint of Scotland. The annual service of the Order takes place in July during the Sovereign's visit to Scotland.
The insignia of the Order include a gold collar with a design of enamelled thistles and rue, with a pendant badge (the St Andrew); a star in the form of St Andrew's cross interspersed with four rays; and a green riband worn over the right shoulder. The vestments include a dark green velvet mantle, lined with white taffeta, with the Thistle star shown on the left shoulder, and a black velvet hat with white plumes.
Order of St Patrick
The Most Illustrious Order of St Patrick was the British Order of Chivalry associated with Ireland. Since the partition of Ireland in 1922, the Order has been dormant, with no new Knights being created. The last surviving Knight, Henry Duke of Gloucester, died in 1974, and the Order lapsed.
The Order was created by George III in 1783, with 15 Knights as well as the Sovereign. In 1821 this number was raised to 21, and in 1833 it was raised again to 22. The Knights were always peers or royals. The patron saint of the Order was St Patrick, the patron saint of Ireland. The motto of the Order was "Quis Separabit? [Who shall separate?]," and the chapel of the Order was in St Patrick's Cathedral in Dublin until 1871; from 1881 the Great Hall of Dublin Castle became the venue to display the heraldic banners and coats of arms of the Knights.
The insignia of the Order include a gold collar with a design of enamelled Tudor roses, harps, and knots, with a pendant badge in the form of a harp surmounted by a crown; a badge showing a shamrock with three crowns; an eight-pointed star with the badge design in the centre; and a sky-blue riband. The vestments include a sky-blue mantle lined with white silk, with the star of the Order shown on the left shoulder, and a black velvet hat with red, white, and blue plumes.
Order of the Bath
The Most Honourable Order of the Bath is a British and Commonwealth order of chivalry; it was founded by George I in 1725. The use of "Bath" in the title refers back to the ritual washing undergone by medieval knights as part of a spiritual purification in preparation for conferment of their knighthoods. The Order was originally designed as a military order, but in 1815 it was divided into military and civil divisions although it is still used primarily for honouring members of the military.
Unlike the senior orders, this Order has a membership of three classes: Knights/Dames Grand Cross, Knights/Dames Commander, and Companions. There is a limit of 120, 355, and 1,925 members of these classes, respectively. Women have been eligible for membership since 1971.
The chapel of the Order is the Henry VII Chapel at Westminster Abbey, where installations are held every four years and have taken place since 1910. The motto is "Tria Juncta in Uno [Three joined in one]"
The insignia of the Order depend on the class of membership. They include a gold collar (for Knights and Dames Grand Cross only) with a design of crowns and floral emblems; a star which differs between classes and also between civilian and military divisions but which usually includes the symbol of three gold crowns (the motto is written on the red border that surrounds the crowns); a badge depicting the same three gold crowns as are found on the star (the design of the badge also varies between civilian and military divisions, and the size varies among the three classes); and a crimson riband worn over the right shoulder. The vestments include a crimson satin mantle lined with white taffeta, with the star of the Order shown on the left shoulder, and a black velvet hat with upright plumes; only the Knights and Dames Grand Cross are entitled to wear the vestments.
Order of the Star of India/Order of the Indian Empire
The Most Exalted Order of the Star of India is a British order that was founded by Queen Victoria in 1861 to honour Indian rulers as well as British administrators and officers serving in India. In 1878 a junior order was created, the Most Eminent Order of the Indian Empire, which was intended to be less exclusive and had many more members. There were three classes of members, Knights Grand Commander (not Knights Grand Cross since this order was not exclusively Christian), Knights Commander, and Companions. Female rulers were eligible for membership as Knights; there were no Dames in the Order. Membership also expanded to include other rulers in the Middle East and Asia.
The motto of the Order of the Star of India was "Heaven's Light Our Guide." The motto of the Order of the Indian Empire was "Imperatricis auspiciis [Under the auspices of the Empress]."
The insignia of the Order of the Star of India included a gold collar (for Knights Grand Commander only) with a design of roses, lotus flowers, palm branches, and a crown; a star (gold for Knights Grand Commander and silver for Knights Commander) in the form of a sunburst surrounding a five-pointed star; a badge depicting Queen Victoria and the motto of the Order; and a blue and white riband worn over the right shoulder. The vestments included a blue satin mantle lined with white silk, with the star of the Order shown on the left shoulder. The insignia of the Order of the Indian Empire included a gold collar (for Knights Grand Commander only) with a design of elephants, roses, and peacocks; a star (gold and silver ten-point star for Knights Grand Commander and plain silver for Knights Commander) with the rays surrounding a portrait of Queen Victoria and the motto of the Order; a badge in the form of a five-petalled red flower surrounding a portrait of Queen Victoria and the motto of the Order and surmounted with a crown; and a dark blue riband. The vestments included a dark blue satin mantle lined with white silk, with the star of the Order shown on the left shoulder.
Both orders have been in abeyance since 1947, when India became independent.
Order of St Michael and St George
The Most Distinguished Order of Saint Michael and Saint George is a British and Commonwealth order of chivalry that acknowledges outstanding service in the foreign and Commonwealth fields. It was established in 1818 by the Prince Regent during the reign of George III as an order restricted to those who served with distinction in the Ionian Islands. When the Islands became part of Greece in the middle of the 19th century the Order was expanded to include Commonwealth and foreign affairs.
The Order has a membership of three classes like those in the Order of the Bath: Knights/Dames Grand Cross, Knights/Dames Commander, and Companions, with a membership limit of 125, 375, and 1750, respectively (members of the British royal family and foreigners are not included in these limits).
The Chapel of the Order was originally in Corfu but since 1906 has been located in St Paul's Cathedral, where installation services are held every four years. The chapel contains the banners and coats of arms of the knights.The patron saints of the order are The motto is "Auspicium melioris aevi [Token of a better age]."
The insignia of the Order depend on the class of membership. They include a gold collar (for Knights and Dames Grand Cross only) with a design of crowned lions, winged lions, and Maltese crosses; a star in the form of two Maltese crosses with a central depiction of St Michael trampling Satan, worn by Knights/Dames Grand Cross and Knights/Dames Commander; a white-enamelled badge (worn by all members) in the form of a seven-armed Maltese cross surrounding a central depiction of St Michael trampling Satan (obverse) and St George and the dragon (reverse); and a blue and red riband worn over the right shoulder. The vestments include a blue satin mantle lined with crimson silk, with the star of the Order shown on the left shoulder.
Order of Merit
The Order of Merit is a British and Commonwealth order in the gift of the Sovereign. It honours achievement in the arts and sciences; there is also a military division, but no military appointments have been made for many years. It was established in 1902 by Edward VII, a monarch more interested in intellectual and artistic achievement than most 19th- and 20th-century monarchs. There are up to 24 members (both male and female), as well as honourary foreign members.
The badge is a red cross surmounted by a crown; in the centre is the motto of the order, "For Merit," surrounded by a laurel wreath. The chapel of the Order is the Chapel Royal, St James's Palace.
Order of the Companions of Honour
The Order of the Companions of Honour is a British and Commonwealth order established in 1917 by George V. It honours outstanding achievement of national importance, including artistic and scientific, and thus can be seen as an extension of the Order of Merit. There are up to 65 members (both male and female), as well as honourary foreign members.
The badge is an oval gold medallion showing an oak tree, with a blue border carrying the motto of the Order, "In Action Faithful and In Honour Clear." The badge is surmounted by a crown.
Royal Victorian Order
The Royal Victorian Order is a British and Commonwealth order in the personal gift of the Sovereign and is awarded to those who have personally rendered service to the monarch. There are five grades of member: Knights/Dames Grand Cross, Knights/Dames Commander, Commander, Lieutenant, and Member. There is no limit on the number of members that may exist at any given time. Membership was extended to females in 1936.
The motto of the Order is "Victoria." The Chapel of the Order is the Queen's Chapel of the Savoy, London. The service of the Order is held every four years, in St George's Chapel, Windsor.
The insignia of the Order include a gold collar (for Knights/Dames Grand Cross only) with a design of roses and Queen Victoria's name; a star (for Knights/Dames Grand Cross and Knights/Dames Commander) that is a different shape for the two grades, with a centrepiece depicting Queen Victoria's royal and imperial cypher; a badge consisting of a white-enamelled Maltese Cross with a centrepiece again showing Queen Victoria's cypher; and a blue riband with red and white trim, worn over the right shoulder. The vestments of the Order include a blue and red mantle with the star of the Order shown on the left shoulder.
Order of the British Empire
The Most Excellent Order of the British Empire is the most junior of all the British orders. It was created by George V in 1917 as a way to honour ordinary people for their service during the First World War. Since then, the Order has expanded in scope to also recognise excellence in the arts, sciences, and culture as well as dedicated involvement in charitable and welfare organisations. Membership is contingent on recommendation to the Sovereign by the government of the day. There are five grades of member: Knights/Dames Grand Cross, Knights/Dames Commander, Commander, Officer, and Member. Women were admitted to membership from the start.
The motto of the Order is "For God and the Empire." The Chapel of the Order is located in the Crypt of St Paul's Cathedral; services are held in the Cathedral itself every four years.
The insignia of the Order include a collar (for Knights/Dames Grand Cross only) with a design of medallions showing the Royal Arms and the royal and imperial cypher of George V; a star (for Knights/Dames Grand Cross and Knights/Dames Commander only), eight-pointed for Knights/Dames Grand Cross and four-pointed for Knights/Dames Commander, with a centrepiece showing portraits of George V and Queen Mary and the motto of the Order; a badge in the form of a cross with the same centrepiece as in the star; and a rose pink riband with grey trim, worn over the right shoulder. The vestments of the Order include a rose-pink satin mantle lined with grey silk, with the star of the Order shown on the left shoulder.
Royal Family Orders
The Royal Family Order is given to female members of the royal family as a personal gift from the Sovereign with no involvement from the government of the day. The Order was originated by George IV, who presented members of the royal family with miniature portraits of himself. All sovereigns since then have presented their own Orders to female royals. The Order is a portrait framed in diamonds and mounted on a ribbon. The colour of the ribbon traditionally changes from reign to reign; the ribbon of Elizabeth II's Family Order is chartreuse yellow. On formal occasions the recipients of the Royal Family Orders of the present or previous monarchs will wear the Orders on their left shoulder, with the most recent at the top.
Threads here and here.
The Danish Orders of Chivalry
The Order of the Elephant (Elefantordenen)
The Order of the Elephant dates back to around 1462 when King Christian I had the Order confirmed by the Pope. King Christian V established the statutes of the Order in December 1693. The statutes were amended in 1958 to allow women to become members. The monarch is the head of the Order, which is bestowed upon members of the Danish Royal Family, Heads of State, and distinguished individuals. Its motto is ‘Magnanimi Pretium’. The Order of the Elephant has only one class: Knight of the Elephant (Ridder af Elefantordenen).
The insignia of the Order of the Elephant consist of the badge, the collar, the star, and the sash. The badge is a 2-inch-tall elephant of white-enamelled gold. The elephant bears a watch tower on its back; a black Moor holding a golden spear on its neck; a diamond cross on its left side; and the monogram of the bestowing monarch on its right side. The collar is a gold chain consisting of alternating elephants and towers. Each elephant is inscribed with a D, which stands for Dacia, mediaeval Latin for Denmark. The star is an eight-pointed silver star having at its centre a red medallion with a cross, surrounded by a silver laurel wreath. The sash is of light-blue silk worn on the left shoulder with the elephant resting against the right hip.
Upon the death of the holder, the insignia of the Order must be returned.
The Order of Dannebrog (Dannebrogordenen)
The Order of Dannebrog was first established by King Valdemar II after the Battle of Reval in 1219. In October 1671 King Christian V restored the Order, which consisted of 50 noble Knights and the Master of the Order (the King and his sons). King Frederick VI reformed the Order in 1808 as an order of merit for all Danish people, be it for military or civil services. The Order of Dannebrog is divided in into four classes: the Grand Commander; Grand Cross; Commander 1st Degree and Commander; and Knight 1st Degree and Knight. In October 1951, women were allowed to receive the Order by royal decree.
The monarch sits as the head the Order. All individuals having the Order bestowed upon them receive a white-and-red-enameled Dannebrog cross, which is the insignia of the Order. In addition to the Dannebrog cross, the badge (insignia) possesses a gold background except when it is awarded to a Knight; the badge then is finished with a silver background. In addition to the badge of the Order, the cross can also be found hanging in the crowned monogram of the bestowing monarch.
On its front, the cross is adorned with the crowned monogram of the bestowing monarch, the crowned monogram of Christian V and the motto of the Order: 'Gud og Kongen' (God and the King). On the back, the cross bears the crowned monograms of Valdemar II and Frederik VI, and the years 1219, 1671 and 1808. A royal crown is placed in each of the angles of the cross.
The four classes of the Order possess the following characteristics:
It is mandatory that the insignia of the Order be surrendered upon the death of the holder.
Portuguese Royal Orders
Order of Our Lady of Conception of Vila Viçosa
Created by King D. João VI, during the Court's displacement to Rio de Janeiro, this order was instituted on February 6th 1818 (the date of his acclamation), in recognition to the efficient protection of the Kingdom's patron saint (Our Lady of the Conception).
This order distinguished those who proved their loyalty to the Portuguese Royal House, in the war against the Napoleon's occupying forces.
The Order was to be given as a military decoration for those who had served the King and prooved to be faithful to Our Lady and the Pope.
Initially, it was limited to 12 Grand Crosses, 40 commendations and 100 knights. The Grade of Grand Cross was normally given to the members of royal families and the title of Commander to the members of the nobility who held high positions within the Court.
In 1910, the Republica abolished this Order, but King D. Manuel II continued using the order's insignia in the exile. Recently. D. Duarte Pio, Duke of Bragança, re-established it as an honorific dynastic order of the Portuguese Royal Family, and has distinguished several Portuguese personalities (among them the players and staff of the National Football Team).
The insignia of the Order is constituted by a blue band with a white stripe and a medallion in form of a star surmounted by the royal crown, with a circle in the middle, where one can read the following inscription:
"VM [Virgin Mary] / Patroness of the Kingdom". The emblem was designed by the renowned Court Painter Jean Baptise Debret, in 1818.
Royal Order of Saint Michael of the Wing
The Military Wing of Saint Michael of the Order of Saint James was founded in 1171, by King D. Afonso I, to honor a group of knights from the Kingdom of León, who assisted him in retaking Santarém from the Moors, in 1147.
The order fell into disuse after 1733 and it was not included among the orders that were nationalized by the Portuguese Republic. However, in 1986, D. Duarte Pio declared himself as the Grand Master of the Order and, in 2001, he promulgated the statutes to govern it.
Membership in the order may be bestowed upon individuals of any citizenship, religion, or sex for recognized outstanding contributions to Portuguese Royal Charities or for the spread of devotion to Saint Michael, traditionally venerated as Angel of Portugal and Angel of Peace.
Order of Queen Saint Isabel
This order was created by D. João VI, on November 4th 1801, in recognition to the devotion of Queen Saint Isabel. The King invested his wife, D.ª Carlota Joaquina, as the Grand Mistress and ever since, it has been an order exclusively for dames, distinguishing catholic noble women.
In 1910, the Republica abolished it, but the wife of the last king (D.ª Augusta Vitória) and the Duchess of Bragança continued using the order’s insignia of Grand Mistress.
The insignia of the order is made up of a pink band with a white stripe in the middle and a crowned medallion decorated with a frame of golden roses. In the middle of it there is an enamel portrait of Queen Saint Isabel of Portugal, giving goods to a poor man (an allusion to the famous Miracle of the Queen Saint), and the following Latin motto: "Pauperum Solatio". The emblem was designed by Jean Baptiste Debret in 1818, when the Portuguese Court was still in Brazil.
The thread on Portuguese Royal Orders can be found here.
Brazilian Royal Orders
The Order of the Rose
Founded by Emperor Dom Pedro I. on October 17, 1829, on the occasion of his second marriage to Amalie Princess of Leuchtenberg. One theory on how the Order of the Rose was founded was due to Pedro saying: "...beautiful as a rose", while looking at Amalie. The other theory was the fact that Amalie liked the Rose's very much and he surprised her giving her a diamond set grand cross badge upon her arrival in Brazil.
The Order of the Southern Cross
Originally known as the Imperial Order of the Southern Cross, it was founded on December 1, 1822 by Emperor Dom Peter I of Brazil (IV of Portugal), on the day of his Coronation as Brazil's first Emperor. The order was suppressed after the proclamation of the Republic in Brazil by decree on February 24, 1891. On December 5, 1932, the Order was re-established by President Getúlio Vargas and is now only conferred as an act of foreign relations on the part of the Brazilian Government.
Order of Pedro I
An order of merit, The Imperial Order of Dom Pedro I was instituted by Emperor Dom Pedro I of Brazil on April 16, 1826.
The order stopped being used on March 22, 1890 by the Brazilian Government.
Order of Christ
An order of merit, The Imperial Order of Our Lord Jesus Christ was instituted by Emperor Dom Pedro I of Brazil on December 7, 1822.
The order stopped being used on March 22, 1890 by the Brazilian Government.
The thread on Brazilian Royal Orders can be found here.
Order of the Chrysanthemum
The Supreme Order of the Chrysanthemum (daikun'i kikkashō), Japan's highest order of chivalry, was instituted by Emperor Meiji in 1876, with the Grand Cordon (sash) of the Order. The Collar of the Order was introduced in 1888. The collar is only awarded posthumously to Japanese individuals other than the Emperor, who holds it automatically (although it may be awarded to living foreign heads of state), so the Grand Cordon is the highest honour that a living Japanese citizen can receive. Apart from female foreign heads of state, the order is restricted to men.
The insignia of the Order include a gold collar consisting of medallions containing the Kanji symbols for "Meiji" alternating with chrysanthemums, a badge depicting the Sun's rays surrounding a cabochon garnet (symbolising the rising Sun, the Japanese national emblem) as well as four golden chrysanthemums, and a sash of red silk edged with black.
Order of the Paulownia Flowers
This order is the highest class of the Order of the Rising Sun (see below).
Order of the Rising Sun
The Order of the Rising Sun was established by Emperor Meiji in 1875 and is thus the oldest (although not the most senior) of the Japanese Royal Orders. It is awarded for distinguished civil or military service and was originally exclusively for male recipients; however, since 2003 it has also been awarded to women. Like other Japanese orders, it can be awarded posthumously. Since 1981 it has been awarded to foreign recipients as well as Japanese. There are eight classes, the first of which has two divisions, one with paulownia flowers (see above) and one without, and includes the Grand Cordon.
The insignia of the Order include a badge with an enamelled red circle (symbolising the rising Sun) surrounded by an eight-pointed star and surmounted by paulownia leaves for the first six classes and paulownia leaves without the star for the seventh and eighth classes, a star (awarded in the first and second classes only) of the same design as the badge but without the paulownia design, and a white sash with broad red edges.
Order of the Precious Crown
The Order of the Precious Crown was created in 1888 by Emperor Meiji and was originally intended as an order exclusively for females, in the same way that the Order of the Rising Sun was reserved for males. Since the expansion of the Order of the Rising Sun in 2003 to include females, the Order of the Precious Crown is no longer conferred on Japanese women but is nowadays reserved for female foreign heads of state. Like other Japanese orders, it may be conferred posthumously. There were originally five classes; this was later expanded to eight. The first class is reserved for female royals.
The insignia of the Order include a badge depicting the precious crown worn by ancient empresses surrounded by four groups of flowers and suspended from a small badge depicting either a paulownia, peony, butterfly, wisteria, apricot, or ripples (depending on the class of the Order), a star (restricted to the first class only) showing an image of a phoenix surrounded by a five-pointed star, and a sash of gold silk with red edges.
Order of the Sacred Treasure
The Order of the Sacred Treasure was established by Emperor Meiji in 1888 and is awarded for distinguished service although of a lesser variety than that recognised by the Order of the Rising Sun. It is the lowest of the civilian Japanese orders. Like several other Japanese orders, it was set up to be awarded in eight classes, it may be awarded posthumously, and it was originally awarded only to men (although women have been eligible since 1919). In the 2003 reforms, the seventh and eighth classes were abolished.
The insignia incorporate depictions of the Japanese sacred treasure (a mirror, a jewel, and a sword). They include a badge whose centre depicts the sacred mirror surrounded by a wreath of red dots (portraying the sacred jewel) and rays in the form of a Maltese cross, a star (restricted to the first two classes) of a similar design to the badge but with an eight-pointed star made from two Maltese crosses, and a sash (restricted to the first class only) of light-blue silk with gold silk edges.
Order of Culture
The Order of Culture was established in 1937 by Emperor Showa to recognise outstanding contributions in the areas of culture and the arts. There is one class only, and the Order may be awarded to both men and women; individuals who have been designated Persons of Cultural Merit are eligible for the Order. The Order is presented by the Emperor on Culture Day (3 November).
The insignia include a badge depicting a white-enamelled orange blossom with a red centre containing a representation of jade beads; the badge is suspended from a purple ribbon by a smaller badge depicting a wreath of orange leaves and fruit.
Order of the Golden Kite
The Order of the Golden Kite, a military order, was created by Emperor Meiji in 1889. It had seven classes; the bottom three were for enlisted soldiers and the top four were for officers. Like the Order of the Chrysanthemum, it can be awarded posthumously. Until 1940 the award came with an income, whose size depended on the class of the Order.
The insignia of the Order include a badge depicting samurai weapons surrounded by red-enamelled rays and suspended on a ribbon of blue-green silk with a white edge, and a star (for members of the first and second classes) with a design similar to the badge but with yellow rays as well as red.
This order was abolished in 1947 by General MacArthur.
Imperial Order of Meiji
The Imperial Order of Meiji was established by Emperor Meiji and was awarded in at least two classes to both Japanese and foreign recipients. The badge was similar in design to that of the Order of the Rising Sun. This order is no longer conferred.
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