George I (1660-1727) and Sophia Dorothea of Celle (1666-1726)
George I (George Louis; 28 May 1660 – 11 June 1727) was King of Great Britain and Ireland, from 1 August 1714 until his death. He was also a Prince-Elector of the Holy Roman Empire.
Born in Germany, he eventually inherited control of a large swathe of Lower Saxony, and his domains expanded during his lifetime as the result of a succession of European wars. At the age of 54, he ascended the British throne as the first monarch of the House of Hanover. Though many aspirants to the throne bore a closer relationship to his predecessor, Queen Anne, his mother, Sophia, had been designated heir by the Act of Settlement 1701 because of her Protestant faith. Sophia predeceased Anne by a matter of weeks, leaving the Protestant succession to George. The Jacobites attempted to depose George and replace him with Anne's Catholic half-brother, James, but their attempts failed.
During George's reign in Britain, the powers of the monarchy diminished and the modern system of Cabinet government led by a Prime Minister underwent development. Towards the end of his reign, actual power was held by Sir Robert Walpole. George died on a trip to his native Hanover, where he was buried.
George I of Great Britain - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
The same year, George married his first cousin, Sophia Dorothea, thereby securing additional incomes that would have been outside Salic laws requiring male inheritance. The marriage of state was arranged primarily as it ensured a healthy annual income, and assisted the eventual unification of Hanover and Celle. Sophia was at first against the marriage, looking down on Sophia Dorothea's mother (who was not of royal birth) and concerned by Sophia Dorothea's legitimated status, but was eventually won over by the advantages inherent in the marriage.
In 1683, George and his brother, Frederick Augustus, served in the Great Turkish War at the Battle of Vienna, and Sophia Dorothea bore George a son, George Augustus. The following year, Frederick Augustus was informed of the adoption of primogeniture, meaning he would no longer receive part of his father's territory as he had expected. It led to a breach between father and son, and between the brothers, that lasted until Frederick Augustus's death in battle in 1690. With the imminent formation of a single Hanoverian state, and the Hanoverians continuing contributions to the Empire's wars, Ernest Augustus was made an Elector of the Holy Roman Empire in 1692. George's prospects were now better than ever, as the sole heir to his father's Electorate and his uncle's duchy.
Sophia Dorothea had a second child, a daughter named after her, in 1687 but there were no other pregnancies. The couple became estranged—George preferred the society of his mistress, Melusine von der Schulenburg, by whom he had two daughters in 1692 and 1693, respectively; and Sophia Dorothea, meanwhile, had her own romance with the Swedish Count Philip Christoph von Königsmarck. Threatened with the scandal of an elopement, the Hanoverian court, including George's brothers and Sophia, urged the lovers to desist, but to no avail. According to diplomatic sources from Hanover's enemies, in July 1694, the count was killed, possibly with the connivance of George, and his body thrown into the river Leine weighted with stones. The murder was claimed to have been committed by four of Ernest Augustus's courtiers, one of whom (Don Nicolň Montalbano) was paid the enormous sum of 150,000 thalers, which was about one hundred times the annual salary of the highest-paid minister. Sources in Hanover itself, including Sophia, denied any knowledge of Königsmarck's whereabouts.
George's marriage to Sophia Dorothea was dissolved, not on the grounds that either of them had committed adultery, but on the grounds that Sophia Dorothea had abandoned her husband. With the concurrence of her father, George had Sophia Dorothea imprisoned in the Castle of Ahlden in her native Celle. She was denied access to her children and father, forbidden to remarry and only allowed to walk unaccompanied within the castle courtyard. She was however endowed with an income, establishment and servants, and was allowed to ride in a carriage outside her castle, albeit under supervision.
Very Interesting couple werent the Hanovers known to be very cold toward their Heirs and their wives especially in the case of George I
Well, that theory could only be applied to George I and George IV. King George III was very kind to his wife, Charlotte of Mecklenburg-Strelitz. In fact, no historian ever wrote that he cheated on her. King George II respected his wife, Caroline of Ansbach, and he was much influenced by her. King William IV isn't known to have been cold towards his wife, Adelaide of Saxe-Meiningen, either. Not to mention how "cold" Queen Victoria was to her husband ;)
I think the being cold to their heirs thing was true of George I, II, and III though. George IV only had Charlotte has heir and though not particularly fond of her I don't think, he wasn't fighting with her either. But George I, II, and III weren't that nice to their heirs ( in the case of George II, that was Frederick, Prince of Wales, father of George III).
When he was a young man he visited London, and there was a rumour he was going to marry Princess Anne (later Queen Anne). I wonder if he had would she have had children that would have survived?
That would have been an interesting scenario - the troubles with the Jacobites would have been non-existant
There still might have been troubles with Jocobites because Anne was King James II's daughter, not son, and the Jacobites likely would still have felt that the claim of the descendents of James II's son, ( since males take place over females in sucession to the British throne), were superior to those of his daughter Anne and her descendents, and in addition, George I, although he did have a claim to to the English throne was a distant cousin, and his claim was not technically better than that of James II's male descendents. Children of George and Anne would not technically have had a better claim to the throne than the male descendents of James II in the eyes of the Jacobites.
Didn't Sophia Dorothea have a lover that George had banished or killed? I vaguely remember reading something about it, but maybe I'm thinking of someone else.
There may have been some problems from the Jacobites but they would have had less support than they had as it would still have been James II's descendents on the throne. The Jacobites didn't cause a huge lot of trouble in the years from 1688 to 1714 when James' daughters were on the throne so it is conceivable that they might not have caused all that much trouble.
Had either Mary or Anne had a child, regardless of who the father was, there is a good chance that the Jacobites would have been ok (except the rabid Roman Catholics who wanted a RC monarch). The Scots wouldn't have been so upset as shown by the way they didn't really do a lot (yes there was opposition to Mary and Anne but not all that extensive) until 1714.
Although the Old Pretender was a minor through out most of this period his father had been kicked out and no one really kicked up a fuss over that.
how someone can shut off his children from their mother (and vice versa) is beyond me. was the need for revenge so great that he had to make his whole family suffer like that? did his children ever try to break in to the prison to see their mother?
Sophia never wanted to marry George either, but was forced to do so by her parents, who saw the match as an advantage for their daughter whose legitimacy was questionable.
Their relationship was cold and unemotional from the beginning and both were very unhappy. After Sophia's "affair" was exposed, George divorced her and had her imprisoned, even though he had had affairs of his own for some time. No one really knows if Sophia actually consummated her relationship with Christoph von Königsmarck - that was the presumption at the time.
Most believe her children did not see her again after she was locked away.. and George II hated his father because of it. It was said that George I was furious with his daughter, the Queen of Prussia, when her court wore black mourning after Sophia Dorothea died.
George I only survived his ex-wife by four weeks.
There is a new book that was just published about George I's mistress Melusine von der Schulenburg "The Maypole."
The King’s Mistress by Claudia Gold (Book Review) | Carolyn Harris: Royal Historian
Is there a definitive list of people who had a better claim to the British Throne than George I when he succeeded in 1714? I've worked out a list of my own and have come up with 58 names ahead of him.
However, if we assume the Act was never enforced, then the Line of Succession* to Queen Anne (including those otherwise excluded by the aforementioned Act) in 1714 would include the following people: **
1. James, Prince of Wales (The Old Pretender)
2. Anne Marie of Orleans (daughter of Henrietta of England, daughter of Charles I)
3. Victor Amadeus, Prince of Piedmont (son of Anne Marie of Orleans)
4. Charles Emmanuel III of Savoy (second son of Anne Marie of Orleans)
5. Prince Emanuele Philibert of Savoy (third son of Anne Marie of Orleans)
6. Elizabeth Charlotte of the Palatinate (daughter of Charles I Louis, Elector Palatine and granddaughter of Elizabeth Stuart - James I's elder daughter)
7. Philippe Charles of Orleans (the son of Elizabeth Charlotte of the Palatinate)
8. Louis d'Orléans (son of Philippe Charles of Orleans)
9. Marie Louise Elisabeth of Orleans (daughter of Philippe Charles of Orleans)
10. Louise Adelaide of Orleans (daughter of Philippe Charles of Orleans)
11. Charlotte Aglae of Orleans (daughter of Philippe Charles of Orleans)
12. Louise Elisabeth of Orleans (daughter of Philippe Charles of Orleans)
13. Elisabeth Charlotte of Orleans (daughter of Elizabeth Charlotte of the Palatinate)
14. Leopold Clement, Hereditary Prince of Lorraine (son of Elisabeth Charlotte of Orleans)
15. Francis I, Holy Roman Emperor (son of Elisabeth Charlotte of Orleans)
16. Charles Alexander of Lorraine (son of Elisabeth Charlotte of Orleans)
17. Elisabeth Therese of Lorraine (daughter of Elisabeth Charlotte of Orleans)
18. Anne Charlotte of Lorraine (daughter of Elisabeth Charlotte of Orleans)
19. Lady Frederica Schomberg (daughter of Caroline von der Pfalz, daughter of Karl I Ludwig von der Pfalz, son of Elizabeth Stuart - James I's daughter)
20. Lady Caroline Darcy (daughter of Lady Frederica Schomberg)
21. Lady Maria Schomberg (daughter of Caroline Elisabeth)
22. Louise von der Pfalz (daughter of Karl I Ludwig von der Pfalz, son of Elizabeth Stuart - James I's daughter)
23. Ludwig Otto of Salm (son of Luise Marie von Simmern, daughter of Edward, Count Palatine of Simmern, son of Elizabeth Stuart - James I's daughter)
24. Dorothea Franziska , Princess of Salm (daughter of Ludwig Otto of Salm)
25. Louise of Salm (daughter of Luise Marie von Simmern, daughter of Edward, Count Palatine of Simmern, son of Elizabeth Stuart - James I's daughter)
26. A son ofLouise of Salm
27. A daughter of Louise of Salm
28. Louise Apollonia (daughter of Luise Marie von Simmern)
29. Eleanor Christina (daughter of Luise Marie von Simmern)
30. Anne Henriette, Princess of Conde (daughter of Edward, Count Palatine of Simmern, son of Elizabeth Stuart - James I's daughter)
31. Louis Henri, Duke of Bourbon (son of Louis, Prince of Conde, the son of Anne Henriette, Princess of Conde)
32. Charles, Count of Charolais (son of Louis, Prince of Conde)
33. Louis, Count of Clermont (son of Louis, Prince of Conde)
34. Marie Anne de Bourbon, Mademoiselle de Conde (daughter of Louis, Prince of Conde)
35. Louise Elisabeth de Bourbon, Mademoiselle de Bourbon (daughter of Louis, Prince of Conde)
36. Louise Anne de Bourbon (daughter of Louis, Prince of Conde)
37. Marie Anne de Bourbon (daughter of Louis, Prince of Conde)
38. Henriette Louise de Bourbon (daughter of Louis, Prince of Conde)
39. Elisabeth Alexandrine de Bourbon (daughter of Louis, Prince of Conde)
40. Marie Therese de Bourbon (daughter of Anne Henriette, Princess of Conde)
41. Louis Armand de Bourbon (son of Marie Therese de Bourbon)
42. Marie Anne de Bourbon (daughter of Marie Therese de Bourbon)
43. Louise Adelaide de Bourbon (daughter of Marie Therese de Bourbon)
44. Louise Benedicte de Bourbon (daughter of Anne Henriette, Princess of Conde)
45. Louis Auguste de Bourbon, Prince of Dombes (son of Louise Benedicte de Bourbon)
46. Louis Charles de Bourbon, Count of Eu (son of Louise Benedicte de Bourbon)
47. Louise Francoise de Bourbon, Mademoiselle du Maine (daughter of Louise Benedicte de Bourbon)
48. Marie Anne de Bourbon (daughter of Anne Henriette, Princess of Conde)
49. Benedicta Henrietta (daughter of Edward, Count Palatine of Simmern)
50. Francesco d'Este (son of Duchess Charlotte of Brunswick-Luneburg, daughter of Benedicta Henrietta)
51. Gian Federico d'Este (son of Duchess Charlotte of Brunswick-Luneburg)
52. Benedetta Maria d'Este (daughter of Duchess Charlotte of Brunswick-Luneburg)
53. Amalia Giuseppina d'Este (daughter of Duchess Charlotte of Brunswick-Luneburg)
54. Enrichetta d'Este (daughter of Duchess Charlotte of Brunswick-Luneburg)
55. Henriette Maria of Brunswick-Luneburg (daughter of Edward, Count Palatine of Simmern)
56. Wilhelmine Amalia of Brunswick-Luneburg (daughter of Edward, Count Palatine of Simmern)
57. Maria Josepha of Austria (daughter of Wilhelmine Amalia of Brunswick-Luneburg)
58. Maria Amalia of Austria (daughter of Wilhelmine Amalia of Brunswick-Luneburg)
59. George I of Great Britain
* A Line of Succession based on male primogeniture, no ban on Catholics, or unequal marriages (which didn't exist in Britain anyway).
** All people are named by the titles and styles they were best known under, and not necessarily those they occupied at the time.
I remember watching one of the history shows that Prince Edward did and he said some figure in the high 50s but I can't remember what it was had a better blood claim than George I but they were all barred due to being RC or married to an RC.
Of course The Act of Settlement changed the succession from pure blood lines to put the religious criteria and descent from Sophia of Hannover.
that is a really horrible story from beginning to end. The fact that there were over 50 people ahead of George I, who were Catholics, shows why there is a move to allow Catholics to marry heirs now. But it still not considered OK for a Catholic to rule. I wonder if it matters any more. There does not seem to be fighting between Protestants and Catholics at this time, as there was earlier in history. Anyway, it's a sorry tale how they had to bring in the Hanovers to settle a religious dispute. That was interesting that PRince Edward did a show on it.
would have inherited Francis I Stephan's claim, so they all would be in line of succession. Of course you only included those already living at the beginning of the 1700s but I find the "Habsburg"-Fact so very, very interesting!
I indeed included only those alive in 1714, at the time of Queen Anne's death.
I was actually more intrigued by the number of French Royals who would have occupy, under normal circumstances, quite high positions in the Line of Succession. I wonder if the Act of Union hadn't been signed (creating Great Britain as a single country), would there be a possibility of Personal Union of Crowns with France. And if yes, what would the consequences be? Although given the history between the two countries, such union would have been very unlikely.
Your list tallies with mine in terms of names and numbers, but I've got some of them in a different order. Nevertheless 58 ahead of George of Hanover would appear to be the correct number. Amazing when you think about it, all because of religion.
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