King Carlos III and Queen Maria Amalia
Carlos III Sebastiano, King of Spain, Napels and Sicily, Duke of Parma (Madrid, 20 January 1716 - Madrid, 14 December 1788); married by proxy in Dresden on 9 May 1738 and in person in Gaeta on 19 June 1738 Princess Maria Amalia of Saxony (Dresden, 24 November 1724 - Buen Retiro, 27 September 1760)
Reign: 1759 - 1788
Predecessor: King Fernando VI of Spain
Succeeded by: King Carlos IV of Spain
Children: Princess Maria Isabel, Princess Maria Josefa, Princess Maria Isabel and Princess Maria Josefa of Spain, Empress Maria Luisa of Austria, Prince Felipe of Spain, Duke of Calabria; King Carlos IV of Spain; Princess Maria Teresa and Princess Maria Ana of Spain, King Fernando IV of the Two Sicilies; Prince Gabriel, Prince Antonio and Prince Francisco of Spain
Parents Carlos: King Felipe V of Spain and Princess Elisabeth of Parma
Parents Maria Amalia: King Augustus III of Poland, Elector of Saxony and Archduchess Maria Josepha of Austria
Siblings Carlos: King Luis I of Spain, Prince Felipe Luis and Prince Felipe Pedro of Spain, King Fernando VI of Spain, Prince Francisco of Spain, Queen Maria Ana of Portugal, Duke Filippo of Parma, Crownprincess Maria Teresa of France, Prince Luis of Spain, Archbisshop of Toledo and Primate of Spain, Count of Chinchon and Queen Maria Anonietta of Sardinia
Siblings Maria Amalia: Prince Friedrich-August, Prince Joseph, Elector Friedrich-Christian and Princess Maria Margaretha of Saxony; Electress Maria Amalia of Bavaria, Prince Franz Xavier of Saxony, Crownprincess Maria Josepha of France, Pricne Karl Christian of Saxony, Duke of Courland; Princess Maria Christina and Princess Maria Elisabeth of Saxony; Prince Albrecht Casimir of Saxony, Duke of Teschen; Prince Clemens of Saxony, Archbisshop of Trier; Princess Maria Alegonda of Saxony
Charles III (January 20, 1716 – December 14, 1788) was King of Spain 1759–88 (as Carlos III de Borbón), King of Naples and Sicily 1735–59 (as Carlo VII and Carlo V), and Duke of Parma 1732–35 (as Carlo I). He was a proponent of enlightened absolutism.
Charles was the first son of the second marriage of Philip V with Elizabeth Farnese of Parma.
At the age of sixteen he was sent to rule as Duke of Parma by right of his mother; there, he came under more enlightened influence than he could have found in Spain.
On December 1, 1734 following Montemar's victory over the Austrians at Bitonto, he made himself master of Naples and Sicily by arms. Charles had, however, no military tastes, seldom wore uniforms, and could, only with difficulty, be persuaded to witness a review. The peremptory action of the British admiral commanding in the Mediterranean at the approach of the War of the Austrian Succession, who forced him to promise to observe neutrality under a threat to bombard Naples, made a deep impression on his mind. It gave him a feeling of hostility towards the Kingdom of Great Britain which, in after-times, influenced his policy. In 1735, he resigned Parma to Emperor Charles VI in exchange for recognition as King of Naples and Sicily. As King of Naples and Sicily, Charles began there the work of internal reform which he afterwards continued in Spain. Foreign ministers who dealt with him agreed that he had no great natural ability, but he was honestly desirous to do his duty as king, and he showed good judgment in his choice of ministers. The chief minister in Naples, Tanucci, had a considerable influence over him. It was during his rule that the Roman cities of Herculaneum (1738) and Pompeii (1748) were re-discovered. The king encouraged the excavations and was informed about the findings even after moving to Spain.
On August 10, 1759, his half-brother Ferdinand VI of Spain died and Charles succeeded him. On October 6, 1759 he abdicated the thrones of Naples and Sicily in favour of his third son, Ferdinand.
As king of Spain, his foreign policy was marked by the alliance with France (the Family Compacts) and the conflict with Britain over the control of the American possessions. His support for France in the close of the Seven Years' War led to the loss of Florida to the British, although this was partly compensated by the acquisition of the French Louisiana. The rivalry with Britain also led him to support the American revolutionaries in their War of Independence despite his misgivings about the example it would set for the Spanish Colonies. During the war, Spain recovered Menorca and Florida, but failed to capture Gibraltar.
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Maria Amalia Christina (November 24, 1724 – September 27, 1760) was a princess of Saxony and as wife of Charles III of Spain, Queen Consort of Spain and Naples. .
She was born in Dresden, the daughter of Augustus III of Poland and Maria Josepha, herself daughter of Joseph I, Holy Roman Emperor.
In 1738 at the age of 14, Maria Amalia married Charles of Bourbon, then King of the Two Sicilies.
Despite the fact that this was an arranged marriage, the couple was very close.
Amalia was a very cultivated women, introducing the production of porcelain to Naples, and playing an important role in the construction of the Caserta Palace.
In 1759, Ferdinand VI of Spain, the elder brother of Charles, died without issue, which made the couple King and Queen of Spain. They moved in the same year to Madrid.
In September 1760, Maria Amalia died from tuberculosis.
Charles III commented : "In 22 years of marriage, this is the first time Amalia displeases me". He never married again.
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Royal Anniversary : 20th of January, 1716 -Birth of future Charles III of Spain.
Queen Maria Amalia had much influence on the construction of the royal palaces of Caserta, Portici, and Capodimonte.
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