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Marengo 09-17-2007 06:56 AM

Jean Baptiste Bernadotte/Carl XIV Johan (1763 - 1844)
 
Jean Baptiste Bernadotte, Marshal of the French Imperial Army, cr. Prince of Ponte Corvo 5 June 1806 (renounced 1810), was selected as Crown Prince of Sweden on 21 August 1810, and was adopted by King Carl XIII; he succeeded as Carl XIV Johan, King of Sweden and Norway 5 Feb 1818 (Pau, 26 January 1763 - Stockholm, 8 March 1844); married at Sceaux on 17 August 1798, Eugénie Bernhardine Désirée Clary (Marseilles, 9 November 1777 - Stockholm, 17 December 1860)

Dynasty: Bernadotte

Reign: 1818 - 1844

Predecessor: King Carl XIII Johan of Sweden and Norway

Successor: King Oscar I of Sweden and Norway

Wife: Eugénie Bernhardine Désirée Clary

Son: King Oscar I of Sweden and Norway

Parents: Jean Henri Bernadotte and Jeanne de Saint Vincent

norwegianne 10-12-2007 06:30 PM

Jean Baptiste Bernadotte/Carl XIII Johan - WIP
 
From the town of Pau in the south of France comes the French marschal of Napoleon who would end up King of Sweden. (It is also birthplace of Henry IV of France, as well as the ancestral place of Prince Henrik of Denmark).

Jean Baptiste Bernadotte was born prematurely in Pau on 26 January 1763. Given the premature birth, it was thought that he would not survive, so he was christened the next morning. He was named for John the Baptist. His parents were Henri and Jeanne Bernadotte. His father was an attorney in the area, and at the age of 14 Jean Baptiste was apprenticed as a clerk to follow in his father's and older brother's footsteps. The early death of his father, however, would put a stop to such ambitions. Instead he joined the military and the regiment Royal-la-Marine.

Jean Baptiste's career in the military spanned a long period, and he was among other things, stationed briefly at Corsica and in Italy. During his time in the military he had a daughter he acknowledged as his, outside of marriage, but she didn't live long after birth.

He reached the rank of Corporal in summer 1785, and Sergeant a short while later the same year. He was nicknamed Sergeant Belle-Jambe, for his stylish clothes and "airs". In early 1789 he was promoted to Adjutant-Major and in 1792 Lieutenant.

1792 also saw the beginning of the French revolutionary wars, and the chance for rapid promotions (and the opposite) in the wars against Austria and Prussia. In 1793 men in his command voted that he be promoted to captain, and a short while later lieutenant-colonel. His divisions worked the German campaign. In 1797 he was put under the command of Napoleon Bonaparte in the Italian campaign and later that year the war against Austria ended. Bernadotte and Bonaparte would regard each other with suspicion and distrust after this command in Italy.

In January 1798 Jean Baptiste Bernadotte was named the French ambassador to the Imperial Court in Vienna. Later the same year he left Vienna after an incident involving provoking Austrian riots by flying the French flag at the embassy in a city that hadn't quite got over the French-Austrian war the year before. Bernadotte continued his career in the military, steadily advancing in responsibility and rank.

Jean Baptiste Bernadotte married Desirée Clary, the daughter of a silk merchant, on 17 August 1798. The bride's sister was married to Joseph Bonaparte, and there had been talk of Desirée marrying Napoleon himself a few years earlier. The couple first settled in Sceaux-l'Unité but later moved to a small house in Paris. In July the following year, Desirée gave birth to the couple's only child - Oscar. Later they sold the house in Paris and acquired an estate La Grange la Prévoté, which Palmer claims was "Bernadotte's favourite home for the next ten years."

In 1801 it was announced that Jean Baptiste Bernadotte would be France's Minister to the United States, but before he and his family made the voyage the news of the Louisiana purchase was made public, and the important position Bernadotte had been promised in USA was less important and desirable, combined with the fact that France and Britain was once more at war.

After Napoleon's ascension to the Imperial title, Bernadotte was one of the 14 active new Marschals of the Empire. One of the benefits he received, in addition to a large pay, was a house in 28, Rue d'Anjou - a home his wife would see as hers for the next 18 years, while her husband was off at war, and eventually would become the heir to the Swedish and Norwegian thrones.

As Bernadotte's sister-in-law became the Queen of Naples, he was also promoted by Napoleon, as to be able to have a distinguished rank at the court. In 1806 he was created Prince and Duke of Ponte Corvo.

Marengo 10-14-2008 06:27 AM

And from this wikipedia article, part 1:

Quote:

Charles XIV John (Swedish: Karl XIV Johan), born Jean-Baptiste Bernadotte, later renamed Jean-Baptiste Jules Bernadotte (26 January 1763 – 8 March 1844) was King of Sweden and the King of Norway (where he was known in Norwegian as Karl III Johan) from 1818 until his death. He was also the first Sovereign Prince of Pontecorvo, Italy.
French by birth, Bernadotte served a long career in the French Army. He was appointed as a Marshal of France by Napoleon I, though the two had a turbulent relationship. His service to France ended in 1810, when he was elected the heir to the Swedish throne - because the Swedish royal family was dying out with King Charles XIII, with both of his children having died in infancy.

He was born in Pau, France, as the son of Jean Henri Bernadotte (Pau, Béarn, 14 October 1711 – Pau, Béarn, 31 March 1780), procurator at Pau, and wife (married at Boëil-Bezing, 20 February 1754) Jeanne de Saint-Vincent (Pau, Béarn, 1 April 1728 – Pau, Béarn, 8 January 1809). His Christian names were Jean-Baptiste (he added Jules later, from Julius Caesar, in the classicizing spirit of the French Revolution). The family name was originally de Pouey, but was changed to Bernadotte (surname of a female ancestor) at the beginning of the 17th century.
He had a brother named Jean Bernadotte (Pau, Béarn, 1754 – Pau, Béarn, 8 August 1813) who was made 1st Baron Bernadotte and married Marie Anne Charlotte de Saint-Paul. Their paternal grandparents were Jean Bernadotte (Pau, 29 September 1683 – Pau, 3 October 1760) and wife (married at Pau, 1 May 1707) Marie du Pucheu dite de La Place (Pau, 6 February 1686 – Pau, 5 October 1773), daughter of Jacques du Pucheu de La Place and wife Françoise de Labasseur. Their maternal grandparents were Jean de Saint-Vincent (Boëil-Bezing, c. 1690 – Boëil-Bezing, 21 May 1762) and wife (married at Assat, 30 May 1719) Marie d'Abbadie de Sireix (Sireix, 25 March 1694 – Boëil-Bezing, 16 October 1752), daughter of Doumengé Habas d'Arrens and wife Marie d'Abbadie, Lay Abbess of Sireix. Finally, they were the great-grandsons of Jean Bernadotte (Pau, 7 November 1649 – Pau, 14 July 1689) and wife (married at Pau, 18 June 1674) Marie de la Barrère-Bertandot; he was the son of Pierre Bernadotte and wife Margalide Barraquer and paternal grandson of Joandou du Poey, born in 1590, and wife Germaine de Bernadotte

Bernadotte joined the army as a private in the Régiment de Royal-Marine on 3 September 1780, and first served in the newly-conquered territory of Corsica. Following the outbreak of the French Revolution, his eminent military qualities brought him speedy promotion. He was promoted to colonel in 1792 and by 1794 was a brigadier attached to the army of the Sambre et Meuse. After Jourdan's victory at Battle of France and, from June 1804 to September 1805, served as governor of Hanover. During the campaign of 1805, Bernadotte with an army corps from Hanover co-operated in the great movement which resulted in the shutting up of Mack in Ulm. As a reward for his services at Austerlitz (2 December 1805) he became Prince of Ponte Corvo (5 June 1806), but during the campaign against Prussia, in the same year, was severely reproached by Napoleon for not participating with his army corps in the battles of Jena and Auerstädt, though close at hand. In 1808, as governor of the Hanseatic towns, he was to have directed the expedition against Sweden, via the Danish islands, but the plan came to naught because of the want of transports and the defection of the Spanish contingent. In the war against Austria, Bernadotte led the Saxon contingent at the Battle of Wagram (6 July 1809), on which occasion, on his own initiative, he issued an Order of the Day attributing the victory principally to the valour of his Saxons, which order Napoleon at once disavowed. It was during the middle of that battle that Marshal Bernadotte was stripped of his command after retreating contrary to Napoleon's orders.

Marengo 10-14-2008 06:28 AM

And from this wikipedia article, part 2:

Quote:

Bernadotte, considerably piqued, thereupon returned to Paris, where the council of ministers entrusted him with the defence of the Netherlands against the British expedition in Walcheren. In 1810, he was about to enter upon his new post as governor of Rome when he was unexpectedly elected the heir to King Charles XIII of Sweden, partly because a large part of the Swedish Army, in view of future complications with Russia, were in favour of electing a soldier, and partly because Bernadotte was also very popular in Sweden, owing to the kindness he had shown to the Swedish prisoners during the recent war with Denmark. The matter was decided by one of the Swedish courtiers, Baron Karl Otto Mörner, who, entirely on his own initiative, offered the succession to the Swedish crown to Bernadotte. Bernadotte communicated Mörner's offer to Napoleon, who treated the whole affair as an absurdity. Bernadotte thereupon informed Mörner that he would not refuse the honor if he were duly elected. Although the Swedish government, amazed at Mörner's effrontery, at once placed him under arrest on his return to Sweden, the candidature of Bernadotte gradually gained favor there, and, on 21 August 1810, he was elected the Crown Prince and made the Generalissimus of the Swedish Armed Forces.

On 2 November Bernadotte made his solemn entry into Stockholm, and on 5 November he received the homage of the Riksdag of the Estates, and he was adopted by King Charles XIII under the name of "Charles John" (Karl Johan). The new Crown Prince was very soon the most popular and most powerful man in Sweden. The infirmity of the old King and the dissensions in the Privy Council of Sweden placed the government, and especially the control of foreign affairs, entirely in his hands. The keynote of his whole policy was the acquisition of Norway and Bernadotte proved anything but a puppet of France. In 1813, he allied Sweden with Napoleon's enemies, Great Britain and Prussia, of the Sixth Coalition, in order to secure this. After the defeats at Lützen (2 May 1813) and Bautzen (21 May 1813), it was the Swedish Crown Prince who put fresh fighting spirit into the Allies; and at the conference of Trachenberg he drew up the general plan for the campaign which began after the expiration of the Truce of Plaswitz. Charles John, as the Commander-in-Chief of the Northern Army, successfully defended the approaches to Berlin against Oudinot in August and against Ney in September at the Battles of Grossbeeren and Dennewitz; but after the Battle of Leipzig he went his own way, determined at all hazards to cripple Denmark and to secure Norway.

As the union King, Charles XIV John, who succeeded to that title in 1818 following the death of Charles XIII, was initially popular in both countries. Upon his accession he converted from Roman Catholicism to the Lutheranism of the Swedish court. He would never learn to speak Swedish or Norwegian, though this did not pose a serious obstacle to his rule, since French was widely spoken by all of the aristocracy of the time.
Charles XIV John's reign witnessed the completion of the southern Göta Canal, begun 22 years earlier, to link Lake Vänern to the sea at Söderköping 180 miles to the east. Though his ultra-conservative views were unpopular, particularly from 1823 onwards, his dynasty never faced serious danger. Swedes and Norwegians alike were proud of a monarch with a good European reputation. Though the Riksdag of the Estates of 1840 meditated compelling him to supposedly abdicate, he survived that controversy, and his silver jubilee was celebrated with great enthusiasm in 1843.
Charles XIV John died at Stockholm on 8 March 1844. His reign was one of uninterrupted peace, during which his kingdoms experienced great material development. He was succeeded by his son, Oscar I of Sweden and Norway. Oscar's mother was Désirée Clary, Napoleon Bonaparte's first fiancée. Her sister, Julie Clary, was married to Napoleon's brother, Joseph Bonaparte. Désirée chose Napoleon to be prince Oscar's godfather.
The main street of Oslo, Karl Johans gate is named for him, while the Fortress of Karlsborg (Karlsborgs fästning) located in Karlsborg Municipality (Karlsborgs kommun) in Västra Götaland, was named by him after Charles XIII, his adoptive father.
During the French Revolution, Bernadotte belonged for a time to the Jacobin Club, a radical political organization. According to a popular myth, after his death a tattoo was supposedly found on his body that read Mort aux rois! ("Death to kings!"), presumably a legacy of his Jacobin days. However, no evidence has been found to confirm this.

Marengo 10-14-2008 06:42 AM

Some images:

http://i225.photobucket.com/albums/d...den-carl14.jpg http://i225.photobucket.com/albums/d..._of_Sweden.jpg http://i225.photobucket.com/albums/d...nbaptiste2.jpg http://i225.photobucket.com/albums/d...2/kronprin.gif

Marengo 10-14-2008 06:42 AM

His coronation:

http://i225.photobucket.com/albums/d...ing_1818_s.jpg

von Othfors 04-15-2011 01:47 PM

King Gustaf III (reigned Sweden 1771-1792) represent a completely different era and was killed eighteen years before Bernadotte was elected crown prince of Sweden. However, Gustaf's wife, Sophia Magdalena, lived on until 1813, so she must have met Bernadotte.

Has anyone seen evidence of what she thought about him?

Jorgensen 10-17-2012 01:42 PM

Daughter of Jean Baptiste Bernadotte
 
Does anyone know the history Of Jean Baptiste Bernadotte's illegitimate daughter who was sent to Norway with her mother?

Artemisia 02-06-2013 12:59 PM

Yesterday was the 195th anniversary of Jean Baptiste Bernadotte's accession to the Thrones of Sweden and Norway.

February 5, 1818: Jean Baptiste Bernadotte Becomes King of Sweden and Norway
Quote:

On February 5, 1818 Jean Baptiste Bernadotte became King of Sweden and Norway as Charles XIV and II. Among all of Napoleon’s family members and generals, the dynasty he established is the only one that still reign. The future Swedish Monarch was born on January 26, 1763 in Pau, France. His parents were Jean Henri Bernadotte and Jeanne de Saint-Vincent. To distinguish from an elder brother (also called Jean), the boy was known as Jean Baptiste. He came from a family of lawyers and was expected to continue the tradition; however, Jean Baptiste rebelled and joined the Army.
...

Joan McNeal 11-24-2013 09:16 AM

Hi,
Have you been able to find out any more information on the possible illegitimate daughter of Jean Baptiste Bernadotte? I have been led to believe her name was Kasie (Casia) Anderson. She married one of the royal gardeners, Olavus Anderson) and eventually settled in Crystal Lake, IL. Dates are her birth in March 1813 and death October 18, 1902. The problem is, there is no confirmation by any documents to prove this. If you have been given any leads, I would greatly appreciate hearing about it.
Thanks.

CyrilVladisla 04-11-2014 08:23 PM

I knew that King Charles XIII was childless. I knew that the Riksdag, the Swedish Parliament, elected Prince Christian August of Augustenborg, from Denmark, as heir to the throne.
I knew that after Prince Christian August died, the Ricksdag elected Jean-Baptiste Bernadotte.
Recently I read that the Riksdag decided to chose a king whom the Emperor Napoleon I of France would approve.
What an excellent choice: Marshal Bernadotte of France!


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