10-16-2007, 10:45 PM
November 2007 Newsletter- Brazilian Royals
Brazil is a country located in South America. Its has the distinction of being the fifth-largest country by geographical area, the fifth most populous country, and the fourth most populous democracy in the world. But did you also know that Brazil has a royal history?
As a result of the Napoleonic occupation of Portugal, the Portuguese royal family, the Braganzas, went into exile in Brazil, the most important of the Portuguese colonies. What followed was a period when Brazil enjoyed self-government under the Braganza dynasty, with no reference to the authorities at Lisbon. This nurtured a distaste for the idea of returning to status quo ante upon the overthrow of Napoleon's influence over Portugal. Therefore, Brazil came to be independent of Portugal, albeit under the rule of a member of the Portuguese royal family. Like a number of deposed monarchies...the Braganzas fell victim to military coup in 1889 and has been a democracy since the Brazilian Constitution of 1891.
A royal family in a country that has been a republic for at least 100 years...a military coup….pretenders to the throne. You could be easily forgiven, if you were thinking of the monarchies of Russia, France, or Spain rather than Brazil.
A special thanks to Anna_R, who "volunteered" to write about the Brazilian Royals. THANK YOU THANK YOU for sharing your country's rich history with us. And that's what so great about the Royal Forums.....the depth of knowledge that is shared between its members.
It’s been a busy October at the Royal Forums. We've had some baby arrivals, pregnancy announcements, christenings, numerous state visits and an engagement thrown in for good fun. Here's hoping that November is more of the same.
We hope you have a safe and happy November!
norwegianne, Avalon and Zonk
10-16-2007, 10:49 PM
November 2007 - Brazilian Royals
Congratulations are in order to Marengo and Empress! They are now Super Moderators at The Royal Forums. Both are great team players, excellent leaders and willing and able to assist whenever the need arises....both promotions are well deserved.
Current moderators, supermoderators and administrators can be found here. Please don't hesitate to contact us if you need to.
Don't forget about our new venture - if you are interested in writing an article about something royalty-connected, please contact Mandy (editor in chief), Avalon, Elspeth, Ennyllorac, Marengo, or ysbel.
We have some very interesting articles nearly ready for publication. The topics include a discussion about marriages between royals and commoners, a biography of Queen Hortense of Holland (stepdaughter of Napoleon and Josephine), an article about French princesses who have married into the English royal family, an essay about the relative merits of monarchy and republicanism, an article about collecting Princess Diana memorabilia, and an affectionate look back at Princess Margaret. Articles in the works, which should be available to read a bit later on after we've done some more work on them, include a description of the search for a husband for Princess Juliana (later Queen of the Netherlands), a look at royal death throughout history, a retrospective on Princess Diana and an essay about how she influenced later royal marriages, an essay about two French queens with a rather scandalous history, and an article about the American ancestry of Princess Grace of Monaco, among quite a few others. We hope to add articles at intervals, as long as we have members willing to write them for us.
Many thanks to our members who've volunteered to write some of these articles, including BeatrixFan, CasiraghiTrio, Duke of Marmalade, iloveroyals, Iowabelle, TheTruth, Avalon, Marengo, and ysbel. We hope that once the site is up and running, we'll be hearing from other members with ideas for articles they'd like to write.
In the next few days we'll be adding a new subforum to the Community Information forum where new articles will be announced and existing articles can be discussed. A link to the site containing the articles will be provided in that subforum. Stay tuned!
We are on constant lookout for new Moderators and Picture of the Month Committee Members.
If you are interested in becoming a Moderator, please send any of the Administrators (Warren, Mandy, norwegianne, Elspeth, Ennyllorac or Avalon) the information we ask in this thread
If you want to become a Committee Member for any of the Picture of the Month Teams, contact one of the Picture of the Month Coordinators (Empress or Lady Jennifer), Picture of the Month Supervisor (Mandy) or the PoM Representative of the Committee you are interested to join.
Please take a look at the results of our Informal photo poll April-September 2007. Be sure to check http://www.theroyalforums.com/forums/f86 for future polls.
10-16-2007, 10:49 PM
October 1 - Birthday of Crown Prince Himani of Nepal
October 1 - Birthday of Prince Nicholaos of Greece
October 4 - Birthday of Prince Emmanuel of Belgium
October 5 - Birthday of Archduchess Walburga of Austria
October 5 - Birthday of Princess Noor of Jordan
October 7 - Birthday of Queen Saleha of Brunei
October 8 - Birthday of Laure Clementine Napoleon
October 9 - Birthday of Prince Edward, The Duke of Kent
October 11 - Birthday of Prince Faisal of Jordan
October 11 - Birthday of Grand Duchess Joséphine-Charlotte of Luxembourg
October 11 - Birthday of Princess Luisa Maria of Belgium, Archduchess of Austria-Este
October 11 - Birthday of Prince Constantijn of the Netherlands
October 12 - Birthday of Prince Boris of Bulgaria
October 13 - Birthday of Jaime (Jacques) de Bourbon-Parma, Count of Bardi
October 13 - Birthday of Archduchess Gabriella of Austria
October 13 - Birthday of Margarita de Bourbon-Parma, Countess of Colorno
October 14 - Birthday of Empress Farah Pahlavi
October 15 - Birthday of HRH Prince Christian of Denmark
October 15 - Birthday of Sarah, Duchess of York
October 16 - Birthday of Princess Kritika of Nepal
October 17 - Birthday of Princess Marie Caroline of Liechtenstein
October 18 - Birthday of Princess Aimée of Orange-Nassau, van Vollenhoven
October 19 - Birthday of Prince Charles Napoleon and Princess Catherine Napoleon
October 19 - Birthday of Prince Laurent of Belgium
October 20 - Birthday of Empress Michiko of Japan
October 21 - Birthday of Shaikh Salman bin Hamad bin Isa Al Khalifa
October 23 - Birthday of Princess Mako of Japan
October 24 - Birthday of Prince Nikolaus Ferdinand Maria Josef Raphael of Liechtenstein
October 24 - Birthday of Princess Caroline Napoleon
October 25 - Birthday of Princess Yoko of Mikasa
October 25 - Birthday of King Michael of Romania
October 25 - Birthday of Princess Elisabeth of Belgium
October 26 - Birthday of Lucas van Lippe-Biesterfeld van Vollenhoven
October 26 - Birthday of Ashraf Pahlavi
October 26 - Birthday of late Mohammad Reza Pahlavi
October 27 - Birthday of Princess Shahnaz Pahlavi
October 27 - Birthday of Princess Anita of Orange-Nassau, van Vollenhoven
October 28 - Birthday of Hereditary Princess Sophie Elisabeth Marie Gabrielle of Liechenstein
October 28 - Birthday of Prince Omar of Jordan
October 29 - Birthday of Tessy de Nassau
October 29 - Birthday of Prince Konstantinos-Alexios
October 29 - Birthday of Prince Richard zu Sayn-Wittgenstein-Berleburg
October 31 - Birthday of Princess Nora of Liechtenstein
October 31 - Birthday of Princess Margaretha Mrs Ambler
October 31 - Birthday of Count Carl Johan Bernadotte of Wisborg
October 31 - Birthday of Crown prince Reza Pahlavi
October 31 - Birthday of HRH Infanta Leonor of Spain
October 3, 1990 - Death Anniversary of Stefano Casiraghi
October 6, 2003 - Death of Prince Claus of the Netherlands
October 26, 2001 - Death Anniversary of Queen Soraya Esfandiary
October 4 - http://www.theroyalforums.com/forums...1997-a-45.html
October 5- http://www.theroyalforums.com/forums...02-a-9367.html
October 6 - http://www.theroyalforums.com/forums...06-a-9941.html
October 8 - http://www.theroyalforums.com/forums...993-a-759.html
October 12 - Wedding Anniversary of Infanta Margarita and Don Carlos Zurita
October 18 - Wedding Anniversary of Archduke Paul Georg von Habsburg & Erika von Oldenburg
October 22 - http://www.theroyalforums.com/forums...05-a-7366.html
October 23 - http://www.theroyalforums.com/forums...98-a-9329.html
October 26 - http://www.theroyalforums.com/forums...02-a-8799.html
October 27 - http://www.theroyalforums.com/forums...7-a-14613.html
October 31 - http://www.theroyalforums.com/forums...98-a-9186.html
State Visit to Germany
Queen Silvia in Estonia
State Visit from Germany
Princess Astrid's visit to USA
Queen Sofía visits El Salvador
WA and Maxima´s Official Visit to Bhutan
Danish Crown Prince Couple Official Visit to Romania
Princess Astrid: Official Visit to Tanzania for “Roll back Malaria"
Notable EventsPrincess Mathilde is pregnant
Baptism of Princess Ariane: October 20th 2007
Opening Of Parliament – October 2,2007
Opening of Parliament (Stortinget) 2/10-07
The King's Gala Dinner for Stortinget - 2007
- Celebrate the Enthronement Ceremony Anniversary of Grand-Duke Henri of Luxembourg.
10-16-2007, 10:50 PM
This November it’ll be 200 years since the Portuguese court fled Portugal heading to the Brazilian colony. It was the dawn of November 27th, 1807. The court, in despair, was at the Bethlem Harbour trying to embark. Daughters with no parents, wives without their husbands and people from the high nobility were aboard, with only the clothes in their bodies and little to no money.
Why did they left? Who were those people? What was the legacy they left behind in the 81 years that Brazil was ruled by a monarch actually present in the country? How do their Brazilian descendants live nowadays?
First, some information about Brazil:
- Brazil is the largest country in South America. It occupies almost half of the South American continent. It has the fifth-largest population in the world, as well as the fifth-largest territory. The official language is Portuguese, making it the only country that speaks the language in the whole Latin America.
- Brazil was discovered by Pedro Alvares Cabral on April 22nd, 1500. The original goal of Cabral and his fleet when they left Lisbon was to discover and occupy new lands for the Crown and then go to India. The fleet was composed by two caravels and thirteen carracks, with 1,200 to 1,500 men. The main carracks were called Anunciada, São Pedro, Espírito Santo, El-Rei, Santa Cruz, Fror de la Mar, Victoria and Trindade. A change in the wind made the fleet derive from its route, to open sea. On April 21st, at the main carrack, they saw floating vegetation. Later they saw marine birds, which was a sign that there was land close by. At dawn on the following day, April 22nd the shout of "Land ahead" was heard, when a mount was seen. Cabral gave that mount the name of "Monte Pascoal". The land at first was called "Ilha de Santa Cruz", and the Portuguese erected a symbol of the Portuguese ownership of the land. Some time later, the land's name would be change to "Terra de Vera Cruz" and, at last, "Brasil".
- Until 1530 the high profits made through commercial relations with Indochina were the main reason that Portugal had this little interest in its newfound territory. The lack of interest caused several "invasions" by different countries, and the Portuguese Crown created a system that effectively occupied the Brazilian territory without having to pay the costs. The system was called Hereditary Captaincies and the country was divided in pieces of land that were given to Portuguese noblemen that were made responsible for the occupation of the land and reported to the king. The system, however, proved itself a failure and only two of the lots were successfully occupied.
The war of France against Great Britain was the main reason for the Portuguese court to leave Portugal. Napoleon had declared the Continental System, forbidding his allies to trade with the British. Portugal openly refused to join the Continental System, and Napoleon attempted to invade the country and expel the British from Portuguese soil.
At the beginning of November, 1807, the French Army, headed by Junot crossed the border between Portugal and Spain. Due to the cold and the hunger, they took some time to rest at the city of Abrantes. Only on November 26th, Dom João was formally warned about the presence of the French men in Abrantes, a city that was close to Lisbon.
On the dawn of the 27th, Dom João and the members of the royal family left Lisbon. The fleet - that had 8 carracks, 3 frigates, 2 brigs, a schooner, a ship with provisions and other 20 ships from the Portuguese Navy - was not enough to accommodate the 15,000 people that were trying to escape.
Dom João and Dom Pedro Carlos, Infante of Spain, went on board of the Príncipe Real (Royal Prince), Dona Carlota, the infantas and Infante Dom Miguel went on the Rainha de Portugal (Queen of Portugal).
- In the first two centuries of the colonial period, Brazil’s vast natural resources and untapped land attracted other European powers that tried to establish colonies in several parts of Brazilian territory, going against the papal bull and the Treaty of Tordesillas, which had divided the New World into two parts between Portugal and Spain. French tried to settle in Rio de Janeiro (1555-1567) and in São Luís (1612-1614). The Dutch invasion lasted longer and brought more trouble to Portugal. They began by plundering the coast: first in Bahia (1604), and then setting more permanently on the Northeast (1630-1654), controlling a long part of the coast, but didn’t invade the interior. After several years of open warfare, the Dutch formally withdrew in 1661. There are almost no French or Dutch cultural and ethnic influences that remained of these attempts.
Dom Pedro, Prince of Brazil, waits for his grandmother, Dona Maria I, the Mad, that refuses to embark, because she wants to be with the people and resist. Finally both of them go on board, bringing half of the Portuguese treasure.
Their trip would be hard; they’d be crossing the Atlantic Ocean, heading to their biggest colony that was in South America.
The court arrived to Salvador, Bahia on January 22nd, 1808, but they didn’t disembark until the 24th. Four days later, D. João determined that the Brazilian harbors would be opened to the "friend nations", among which it was England, who had been of great help in the court's escape. They then followed to Rio de Janeiro. On March 7th, 1808, the court arrived to its final destiny. Rio's population back then was of 60,000 people, of which 40,000 were black slaves. The city was excited to receive the King, who had decided to make Rio the "headquarters" of the court in Brazil. The government was getting ready to receive and accommodate the visitors.
One of the first acts bestowed by Dom João was to prevent that the people had more than one property, ordering that the other properties were given to the immigrants. This act was valid up until 1818.
10-16-2007, 10:50 PM
D. João VI (João Maria José Francisco Xavier de Paula Luís António Domingos Rafael) was born on May 13th, 1767. He was the fourth son - second surviving - of Queen Maria I and D. Pedro III of Portugal. João wasn't destined to be king, but with the death of his older brother his fate changed. It's reported that when he was told that he was to become the king of Portugal, he cried. In 1799 he assumed the place of Prince Regent, due to the mental illness of his mother, the widowed Queen Mary I.
D. João was married to Dona Carlota Joaquina, Infanta of Spain, who was the daughter of Carlos IV and Maria Louisa of Parma. She hated Brazil and couldn’t wait to go back to Europe. D. João and Carlota Joaquina had 9 children, among them there was na Emperor, a King and 2 Queens:
- Infanta Maria Teresa Francisca de Assis Antónia Carlota Joana Josefa Xavier de Paula Micaela Rafaela Isabel Gonzaga of Braganza, princess of Beira (1793-1874). Her first husband was Pedro Carlos of Spain and Portugal and her second husband was Infante Carlos of Spain, the widower of her younger sister.
- Infante Antônio Francisco de Assis de Bragança e Bourbon (1795-1801), 4th prince of Beira
- Infanta Maria Isabel Francisca d'Assis Antónia Carlota Joanna Josefa Xavier de Paula Michaela Raphaela Isabel Gonzaga de Bragança e Bourbon (1797-1818), married her uncle, Ferdinand VII of Spain
- Pedro de Alcântara Francisco Antônio João Carlos Xavier de Paula Miguel Rafael Joaquim José Gonzaga Pascoal Cipriano Serafim de Bragança e Bourbon, Pedro I of Brazil and Pedro IV of Portugal (1798-1834), prince of Beira, then Duke of Braganza and Prince of Brazil himself
- Infanta Maria Francisca de Assis da Maternidade Xavier de Paula de Alcântara Antónia Joaquina Gonzaga Carlota Mónica Senhorinha Soter e Caia of Braganza (1800-1834), married her uncle Infante Carlos of Spain
- Infanta Isabel Maria da Conceição Joana Gualberta Ana Francisca de Assis de Paula de Alcântara Antónia Rafaela Micaela Gabriela Joaquina Gonzaga de Bragança e Bourbon (1801-1876), was regent of Portugal. Never married
- Infante Miguel Maria do Patrocínio João Carlos Francisco de Assis Xavier de Paula Pedro de Alcântara António Rafael Gabriel Joaquim José Gonzaga Evaristo de Bragança, later Miguel I (1802-1866) married Princess Adelaide of Löwenstein-Wertheim-Rosenberg and is known as the grandfather of Europe.
- Infanta Maria de Assunção, died unmarried (1805-1834)
- Infanta Ana de Jesus Maria Luís Gonzaga Joaquina Micaela Rafaela Francisca Xavier de Paula de Bragança (1806-1857), married Joseph Barreto, Duke of Loulé
From 1816, after the death of his mother, João was the 27th King of Portugal, 1st of the United Kingdom of Portugal, Brazil and Algarves, Duke of Bragança, Barcelos and Guimarães, Marquess of Viçosa, Count of Arraiolos. In spite of his reported weakness, he meant to Brazil the vision of the future and the adaptability to the world after the French Revolution. He was the one that decided to go to Brazil and also he was the one to make Brazil - up until then a colony - a kingdom, as part of The United Kingdom of Portugal, Brazil and Algarves.
His decision to open the harbors was primordial to the start of Brazilian's economic emancipation. In 1808 he also opens the Banco do Brasil (Bank of Brazil) in order to control the currency. D. João was also responsible for the great success of the Brazilian coffee export, since he requested some moults of the plant would come from Africa and personally handed them to the subjects that were closest to the court.
Still in Bahia, before the departure to Rio de Janeiro, the first Medical School was created (School of Obgyn and Obstetrics). He also facilitated the creation of a glass factory and authorized the creation of the first insurance company in Brazil.
While the court was in Brazil, the years of 1817 and 1818 were particularly good, especially with the arrival of Princess Leopoldina, daughter of Francis II, Holy Roman Emperor, and Maria Teresa of the Two Sicilies. She came to get married to D. Pedro, and with the anniversary of D. João’s coronation. There were several parties and parades around town that mesmerized the people with its luxury.
The main highlights of D. João’s term as Brazilian Emperor were:
- The lift on the ban of manufacturing facilities, which let Brazil manufacture on its own gold, silver, silk, cotton, linen and woven
- The creation of the National Press that still exists nowadays and is responsible for printing all the official documents of the Brazilian government
- The foundation of a Gunpowder Factory
- The foundation of the Bank of Brazil
- The creation of Rio de Janeiro's Botanical Garden, that still stands as one of the most famous tourist attractions of the city and counts with 380,000 samples of plants, a living inventory of 8,200 registered species, 6,100 kinds of fruits, 6,400 kinds of wood, 150 kinds of medical plants and a library with more than 66,000 volumes.
- The first Brazilian newspaper, the Gazeta do Rio de Janeiro (Rio de Janeiro Gazette)
In 1821, due to the pressures building up in Lisbon, D. João went back to Lisbon with his wife and seven of his eight surviving children. Only Pedro was left behind, as regent.
- The creation of the Royal Military Academy (that nowadays is called Agulhas Negras Military Academy)
Dom João died in 1826 in Lisbon. His death was rather mysterious and many claimed that he was poisoned, the main suspect being his wife, Carlota.
10-16-2007, 10:50 PM
Pedro I, (Pedro de Alcântara Francisco Antônio João Carlos Xavier de Paula Miguel Rafael Joaquim José Gonzaga Pascoal Cipriano Serafim de Bragança e Bourbon) was born on October 12, 1798. He was the fourth son, third surviving of (then) Prince Regent John of Portugal, Algarves and Brazil and Infanta Carlota Joaquina of Spain. His older brother passed away at 6 years old, leaving him with two older sisters, that making him the heir to the throne.
Pedro's upbringing was rather unusual. He and his brother Miguel often fooled their tutors in order to run away and spend time with commoner children. This led Pedro to mingle greatly with the people and to be extremely regarded and loved by them. He had a great talent for horseback riding, enjoyed the military life and had rather good musical talents.
Pedro was reportedly D. João’s favorite son. At the age of 19 he married Archduchess Maria Leopoldina Josepha Caroline of Austria. Dona Leopoldina was extremely cultured, fluent in six languages (English, French, Spanish, Italian, Hungarian and Czech) and had a keen interest for botanic. She was a key participant in the process of the Brazilian independence – she was extremely loved by the Brazilian people because she listened to their claims and tried to do something about them. She mingled with all the classes and considered herself a Brazilian.
Their marriage, however, wasn’t a success, mainly because D. Pedro maintained a very open extra-marital affair with the Marchioness of Santos, Domitila de Castro Canto e Melo, whith whom he had 5 children.
Leopoldina and Pedro had 7 children. Leopoldina died in the birth of the 7th child:
- Maria II of Portugal (1819–1853)
- Miguel, Prince of Brazil (1820, stillborn)
- Joao Carlos de Bragança, Prince of Brazil (1821–1822)
- Januária de Bragança, Princess Imperial of Brazil (1822–1901)
- Paula de Bragança, Princess of Brazil (1823–1833)
- Francisca de Bragança, Princess of Brazil (1824–1898)
- Pedro II of Brazil (1825–1891)
After D. João went back to Portugal, the court offered the idea of transforming Brazil in a colony again. Due to that, D. João signed a decree revoking the title of "Prince Regent" that he had left his son with, declaring it null. A judicial order demanded Peter's immediate return to Portugal, and a fleet was sent to Brazil to take him back.
But the people was against the orders and delivered a petition for the prince with thousands of signatures, asking him to stay. Due to that, Pedro declared on January 9th, 1822: "If it's for the well being of everyone and the happiness of the nation, I'm ready! Tell the people that I'll stay". He also declared that no order from Portugal was to be taken without his consent.
From then, the road to the Brazilian independence was paved, and it finally happened when, on September 7th, 1922 Pedro was going from Santos to São Paulo he received the news that his father had downgraded him from Prince Regent to a mere Delegate of the Portuguese court. There, by the Ipiranga River, he shouted: "Independence or Death" then creating the Empire of Brazil.
Pedro’s term was a turbulent one, because he refused to let go of his absolutist powers and wanted the power to dissolve the congress as he pleased. The problem was that he had promised a constitution to Brazil pending for his liberal ideas, but in practice that wasn’t what happened when the constitution brought was one that gave him absolutist powers, which enraged a great part of his allies.
The recognition of the independence was also hard to be recognized, other countries were hesitant to recognize it since Portugal hadn’t yet and they were avoiding diplomatic issues. The first country to do so was the United States. Only three years after the declaration, convinced by Britain, who was aware of the power of the Brazilian market, Portugal accepted the independence of Brazil.
In March 1826, King D. João died, leaving Pedro as his successor. His indecision about Portugal and Brazil offered more material to his detractors in their campaign against him. Pedro’s sister, Isabel, was regent in Portugal and designated him as King of Portugal as Pedro VI. Two months later he abdicated in favor of his daughter Maria, who was only seven. He named his brother Miguel regent as long as he married Maria when she reached the appropriate age. The plan backfired because Miguel assumed the power as an absolutist king and refused to go through with the agreement settled with his brother.
In December that same year, Empress Leopoldina died shortly after the birth of her 7th child, bringing great grief to the people, as they adored her. Some even blamed D. Pedro, accusing him of physical abuse against his wife during her pregnancy.
It was not until 1829 that D. Pedro was able to find a new wife. His reputation as a womanizer was very famous and almost all of the brides pretended by the government refused the proposal. They finally found a new wife for him, Dona Amélia Augusta Eugênia Napoleona de Leuchtenberg–Beauharnais. She was daughter of Eugène de Beauharnais, the only male child of Empress Josephine and her first husband Alexandre de Beauharnais and of Princess Augusta Amélia, daughter of Maximilian I, King of Bavaria. D. Pedro was so impressed by her beauty that, in honor of their wedding, he created the Imperial Order of the Rose.
The condition for Amélia to accept the proposal was that Pedro would end his affair with the Marchioness of Santos, to which he obliged. Pedro and Amélia had one daughter:
- Dona Maria Amélia de Bragança (1831 – 1853)
Although Pedro's private life seemed to be going to a good path, the same couldn't be said of his political life. Everything seemed to be going wrong, he was being accused of bad management of the finances, which led to the rise of the debt, the growth of the inflation and the dramatic dropping of the exchange rate. There was also a considerable growth in the cost of living in the cities. The production of tobacco, leather, cocao, cotton, and even coffee declined. The xenophobic feelings against the Portuguese reached their highest level, because the Portuguese were still in control of the majority of the retail market. Even the urban elite, who had always been absolutists, started to drop the support for the emperor and became liberals. The army also distanced itself from the emperor.
Pedro fought hard to diminish the hostility of the Chamber of Deputies bringing on a new ministry, but that didn't work and the cabinet quickly was dissolved. There were violent demonstrations, including fights of Brazilians against Portugueses, that showed how unpopular the Emperor had become. Finally, unable to bear the growing rage of the people, on April 7th, 1831 the day after a huge protest in Rio de Janeiro, Pedro abdicated in favor of his son, Pedro de Alcântara, then five years old, and returned to Portugal.
He died three years later, from tuberculosis.
10-16-2007, 10:50 PM
Pedro II (Pedro de Alcântara João Carlos Leopoldo Salvador Bibiano Francisco Xavier de Paula Leocádio Miguel Gabriel Rafael Gonzaga de Bragança e Habsburgo), was born on December 2, 1825. Pedro was the youngest child, only surviving male, of Emperor Pedro I and Empress Leopoldina. He was Brazil's only native-born monarch.
When he was five, upon his father abdication, he became the emperor of Brazil. His father went back to Portugal to reclaim the throne and left him behind to be raised by tutors. In comparison to that of his father, his education was rather rigid, with a special focus on humanistic and religious visions.
Ten years later, at the age of 15, he was crowned emperor.
Two years after that Dom Pedro II was married to Princess Teresa of the Two Sicilies (1822–1889). She was the youngest daughter of King Francis I of the Two Sicilies (1777–1830) and Maria Isabella of Spain. They had four children:
de Bourbon e Bragança (1845–1847), Prince of Grão Pará and Prince Imperial of Brazil.
de Bourbon e Bragança, Princess Imperial of Brazil (1846 – 1921)
de Bourbon e Bragança (1847–1871)
de Bourbon e Bragança (1848–1850), Prince of Grão Pará and Prince Imperial of Brazil.
Pedro's reign lasted 49 years and it was quite sucessful. His slogan was Union and Industry and his term saw the beginning of the industrialization of the country.
His government also gave the country the first paved roads, the first steam-engine railway, a submarine telegraphy cable, and the introduction of the telephone.
He went to the United States to attended the Philadelphia Exposition of 1876. There, Alexander Graham Bell showed him his new telephone. Pedro II was probably the first Brazilian to use the invention. He reportedly recited the line from Hamlet, "To be or not to be" into it, and exclaimed, "This thing speaks!".
Pedro II took steps to end slavery, learned Guarani, the most widely spoken indigenous language in Brazil at the time.
Thomas Skidmore compared Pedro II to Queen Victoria of the United Kingdom, because they shared similar reasons for their popularity. Pedro was highly regarded by the Brazilian people in all social levels. His ruling ways was seen as principled, rational and moderate.
Pedro II normally respected the wishes of the electorate, but when he showed his favoritism for the Conservative party in 1868, his reputation was stained. That added to the long and costly Paraguayan War also represented a blow to his popularity.
After the Paraguayan War, which had not been started by Brazil, parts of the population started to face the monarchy as an obstacle to the modernization and economic growth.
Finally, on November 15, 1889 the monarchy was overthrown by a military coup d'etat.
Pedro and his family went into exile in Portugal. He died on December 5, 1891 in Paris, France.
The most famous of Pedro's children was Princess Isabel
. As the Emperor and Empress didn't have any surviving sons, she was declared her father's heir, thus her title was Princess Imperial of Brazil.
While her father was away from the country she would fill in for him as regent. It was on one of those times that she signed the law that would made her famous and warranted her the nickname of The Redeemer.
On June 30th, 1887 Isabel was acting as regent for the third time. She then took advantage of an incident and fired the whole ministry, that was against the abolition. The road was open for the total abolition.
On Sunday, May 13th, 1888, the final voting for the total abolition was taking place. Isabel was so sure of the victory that she came down from Petropolis to wait for the results at the Imperial Palace. And then, with a golden feather, specially designed for the occasion, Isabel signed the final abolition of slavery edict (the "Lei Áurea", Golden Law, effectively banning slavery), and because of that she was nicknamed the Redeemer. On September 28th, the Pope Leo XIII awarded her with the "Golden Rose".
With a very innovative thought for her time, Isabel was a partisan of modern ideas, like the female vote and the agrarian reformation. Recently discovered documents showed that the princess thought about compensating the ex-slaves with Mauá Bank's resources.
11-01-2007, 07:59 PM
Prince Pedro Henrique
of Orleans-Bragança was the chief of the imperial house until his death in 1981.
He and his wife, Princess Maria of Bavaria had 12 children:
- Prince Luís Gastão
of Orléans-Bragança (1938), the present Head of the Imperial House of Brazil.
- Prince Eudes
Maria of Orléans-Bragança (1939). Renounced his rights of succession to the Brazilian throne for himself and his descendants on 1966
- Prince Bertrand
Maria of Orléans-Bragança (1941), second in line
- Princess Isabel
Maria of Orleans-Bragança (1944), eighth in line
- Prince Pedro de Alcântara
Henrique of Orleans-Bragança (1945) renounced his rights of succession to the Brazilian throne for himself and his descendants on 1972
- Prince Fernando
Diniz of Orleans-Bragança (1948) renounced his rights of succession to the Brazilian throne for himself and his descendants on 1972
- Prince Antônio João
of Orleans-Bragança (1950), third in line
- Princess Eleonora
Maria of Orleans-Bragança (1953-), ninth in line
- Prince Francisco
Maria of Orleans-Bragança (1955) renounced his rights of succession to the Brazilian throne for himself and his descendants on 1980
- Prince Alberto Maria
of Orleans-Bragança (1957), renounced his rights of succession to the Brazilian throne for himself and his descendants on 1980
- Princess Maria Teresa
of Orleans-Bragança (1959), renounced his rights of succession to the Brazilian throne for himself and his descendants on 1995
- Princess Maria Gabriela
of Orleans-Bragança (1959), renounced his rights of succession to the Brazilian throne for himself and his descendants on 2003
Prince Luís Gastão
de Orléans e Bragança (1938): he is the present Head of the Brazilian Imperial House.
Since his naming as Chief of the Imperial House all his time is dedicated, although discreetly, to Brazilian issues. He is a great-grandson of Princess Isabel and great-great-grandson of Pedro II.
Prince Bertrand Maria
José de Orléans e Bragança is the designated successor of Prince Luís Gastão, since he isn't married and didn't have any kids. He also isn't married and doesn't have any kids. He and his brother work together.
Prince Antônio João
de Orléans e Bragança is the third in line in the succession as head of the Imperial House.
He is married to Princess Cristina de Ligne and they have four kids:
- D. Pedro Luís de Orléans e Bragança (1983), Prince of Brasil, Prince of Orléans e Bragança. It's the fourth in line to the succession.
- D. Amélia Maria de Fátima de Orléans e Bragança (1984), Princess of Brasil, Princess of Orléans e Bragança, nascida em Bruxelas, Bélgica, em 1984. It's the sixth in line to the succession.
- D. Rafael Antônio Maria de Orléans e Bragança (1986), Prince of Brasil, Prince of Orléans e Bragança. It's the fifth in line to the succession.
- D. Maria Gabriela Fernanda de Orléans e Bragança, Princess of Brasil, Princess of Orléans e Bragança. It's the seventh in line to the succession.
Maria Josefa de Orléans e Bragança is the eighth in line. She doesn't have descendants.
There's another branch in the family, that is called the Petrópolis Branch
. It consists of the members of the Imperial Family that are descendants of D. Pedro de Alcântara de Orléans e Bragança. They'd originally be the first in line, but they've lost the right because D. Pedro de Alcântara renounced his rights to the throne in order to marry Countess Elisabeth de Dobrzenicz.
The children of D. Pedro and the Countess were:
Maria Amélia de Orléans e Bragança (1911–2002)
Married her cousin Henri d'Orléans, pretender to the French throne, thus becoming the Countess of Paris by marriage. They had 11 children:
- Isabelle d'Orléans (1932–);
- Henri d'Orléans (1933–) - Count of Clermont;
- Hélène d'Orléans (1934–);
- François d'Orléans (1935–1960) - Duke d'Orléans;
- Anne d'Orléans (1938–);
- Diane d'Orléans (1940–) - Duchess of Wurtemberg;
- Michel d'Orléans (1941–);
- Jacques d'Orléans (1941–) - Duke d'Orléans (from 1960);
- Claude d'Orléans (1943–) - Duchess d'Aosta;
- Chantal d'Orléans (1946–) - Baroness of Sambucy de Sorgue;
- Thibaut d'Orléans (1948–1983) - Count de la Marche.
Pedro de Alcântara
Gastão de Orléans e Bragança married the Spanish princess D. Maria de la Esperanza de Bourbon (1914-2005). They had six children:
- D. Pedro Carlos de Orléans e Bragança (1945–);
- D. Maria da Glória de Orléans e Bragança (1946–);
- D. Afonso Duarte de Orléans e Bragança (1945–);
- D. Manuel de Orléans e Bragança (1949–);
- D. Cristina Maria do Rosário de Orléans e Bragança (1950–);
- D. Francisco Humberto de Orléans e Bragança (1956–)
D. Maria Francisca
de Orléans e Bragança (1914–1968), married D. Duarte Nuno, Duke of Bragança and head of the Portuguese Royal House. They had three sons:
- D. Duarte Pio Nuno João Miguel Henrique Pedro Gabriel Rafael (1945) — is the current head of the Portuguese royal house.
- D. Miguel Rafael Gabriel Xavier Teresa Maria Félix (1946) — Duke of Viseu and Infante of Portugal.
- D. Henrique Nuno João Miguel (1949) — Duke of Coimbra and Infante of Portugal.
D. João Maria
de Orléans e Bragança (1916–2005) married Fátima Scherifa Chirine. D. João Maria and Fátima Chirine got divorced in 1971. They had a son:
- D. João Henrique de Orléans e Bragança (1954–)
Teodora de Orléans e Bragança.
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