07-03-2008, 08:57 AM
What Titles Did Napoleon Create?
I stumbled over this list on wikipedia, explaining some of the titles that Napoleon created. There should be more though, in total he created around 2200 new titles:
As Napoleon I Bonaparte, the founder of the dynasty and only ruler (be it twice, interrupted by his Elba period, still with the protocollary rank of Emperor) of France as premier Empire, owed his success, both his personal rise and the growth of his empire, above all to his military excellence, it is hardly surprising that he bestowed most gratified honours on his generals, mainly the impressive number that got raised to the supreme army rank of maréchal (marshal).
The revival of the original victory title, created for a specific victory, was an ideal form, and all incumbents were victorious marshals (or posthumously, in chief of the widow).
The highest of these titles were four nominal principalities, in most cases awarded as a 'promotion' to holders of ducal victory titles:
Next in rank were ten dukedoms:
- Marshal Davout, Prince d'Eckmühl – 1809, (extinct 1853) – also duc d'Auerstaedt (see below)
- Marshal Masséna, Prince d'Essling – 1810 – also duc de Rivoli
- Marshal Ney, Prince de la Moskowa – 1813, (extinct 1969) – also duc d'Elchingen – Bataille de la Moskowa is the French name for the Battle of Borodino
- Marshal Berthier, Prince de Wagram – 1809, (extinct 1918) – also duc de Valengin, and Prince de Neuchâtel (a sovereign title granted in 1806), neither of which were victory titles.
- Marshal Ney, duc de Elchingen – 1808, (extinct 1969) – also Prince de la Moskowa
- Marshal Lefebvre, duc de Dantzig – 28 May 1807, (extinct 1820) – Dantzig was then still a city republic, which became part of Prussia after Napoleon's defeat, and is now Gdansk in Poland
- Marshal Junot, duc d'Abrantès – 1808, (extinct 1859 but extended in female line in 1869, again extinct 1985)
- Marshal Davout, duc d'Auerstaedt – 1808, (extinct 1853, extended to collaterals) – also prince d'Eckmühl
- Marshal Augereau, duc de Castiglione – 1808, (extinct 1915)
- Marshal Lannes, duc Montebello – 1808
- Marshal Marmont, duc de Raguse – 1808, (extinct 1852) – present-day Dubrovnik, on the Croatian coast; conquered as part of Napoleon's own Italian kingdom, soon part of France's imperial enclave the Illyrian province
- Marshal Masséna, duc de Rivoli – 1808 – also Prince d'Essling
- Marshal Kellermann, duc de Valmy – 1808, (extinct 1868)
- Marshal Suchet, duc d'Albufera – 1813.