But you don't have this document? The English don't have it. In Portugal is the same as Spain but we called it "Bilhete de Identidade". The translation of the web.
60 YEARS OF IDENTITY MEMBERSHIP CARD
DNI: Franco has the 1; the King, the 10 FRANCo reserved number one. To the Royal Family it was assigned from the 10 to the 99. The 13 it was annulled by pure superstition and for that reason to Prince Felipe it corresponded the 15 to him. The identity membership card, that has turned this week 60 years from its creation in March of 1944, hoards a history filled with curiosities
JAVIER HORSEMAN. DANIEL IZEDDIN
It takes enrolled the most intimate secret of folkloric and famous. Informer for looked for by Justice and the impossible challenge into the hands of falsifiers, travels in the portfolio of almost 30 million Spaniards. Also in the one of His Majesty the King, whose excelso lineage does not exempt to him of its possession. In fact, Don Juan Carlos I shows number 10. It could have the one, but that number was reserved for the then head of the State, Frank Francisco Bahamonde, as it illustrates the document to which it has had access CRONICA in exclusive right.
The DNI, the membership card of identity, papela that would say chelis, have turned this week 60 years and commemorate that distant decree of 2 of March of 1944 that illuminated its birth. Today since then he has been reflected of the social and political evolution of España.Nadie like him to show us to the iron control of the dictatorship, to airs of freedom of the transition, to the democratic normalization and that technological revolution that young person maintains to him and on approval of falsifiers. On the contrary that his possessor, the DNI does not age. He has renewed his clothes periodically. But until arriving at its flaming design that will be released in 2005, - which it includes chip and thousand shields -, the identity membership card as an older person seals types typewriter and red Chinese, its own intrahistory.
Their direct ancestors are born with the discovery of América.Muchos of the Spanish sailors who went and came from the Indians carried the call composition certificate, official document that gave faith of the identity of nauta. In the days of a incipiente ultramarine commerce, the Administration noticed itself of the obligation to know who was who. During centuries, the method with great difficulty worked in the middle of fiddles, componendas and chaos administrativo.No was until century XIX when the subject of the identity would take naturalization paper. In 1824, Fernando VII created the Police in our country and he granted the exclusive power to him to create registers that included age, sex, state, profession, and nature of the vecindario. "This one was his first attribution, competition that has stayed until the present time and that there is tie historically to the National Body of Police with the identity membership card", comments Jose Santiago Sanchez, commissioner commander of the Unit of Documentation of Spaniards of the National Police and maximum person in charge of the framework of the DNI.
After the regal order, the presses began to make identity cards and letters of security, direct antecedents of the DNI."Eran documents without much direct ascending identificativo value where name was included and. The majority went without photography and caused the picaresque one ", remarca Sanchez. "These certificates were issued by city councils and delegations for all those that made managements with official organisms", add the commissioner.
The decline of these certificates happened after the Civil War, fight that left a nation without name nor last names. The creation became necessary of a new document that started up through a decree in 1944. The reason? Fundamentally, the control, to have more and better controlled the Spaniards. The initiative left from Presidency of the Government, that is, of very same general Franco, in spite of which it had to hope until 1951 to release his own membership card of identity.
First forced to formalize it they were the prisoners and those that remained in parole. Secondly, the masculine personnel who by its profession or business changed with address assiduity. Thirdly, the resident men in cities of more than 100,000 inhabitants. Soon, the men in localities between 25,000 and 100,000 inhabitants, later the women who traveled by reasons for work and so on until completing with the years the set of the society.
The worse thing of this initiative was not in the machismo or the sexism, but that the membership card included a square to classify to the citizen according to economic his estatus. Those of first category were great potentados and the rural caciques. Those of second and third hoarded, gradually, less of great volume and possessions modestas.Por last, those of fourth were grouped in the poor calls "of solemnity", so miserable people that she was ruined to pay the rates of the DNI. One was not remote feudales eras. This pyramid stratified socially to Spain until year 1981.
Zaragoza was the first capital of province where the DNI was sent. One capital neither too populated nor excessively small turned out perfect to present the citizens its new identity. Everything worked without greater frights and the test extended later to Valencia. From the capital of the Turia, the method propagated to the rest of the large cities to completing 59 distributed stationary equipment in all the cities except Navarre.
Prior to its arrival, this traveling equipment decided with the mayor a particular previous appointment. Agreed to the day, a side communicated to the countrymen the arrival of the DNI insisting to take with himself any type to them of document sent by the Delegation or the City council, as well as a photography reciente.Algunos village not even counted on papers that authenticated their roots. Then as much the regidor, as the priest or the secretary of the villa presented faith of the identity of the subject to him all the life.
By surprising that seems nowadays, until 1962 also the DNI to all the resident foreigners in Spain was granted. As of this date, and by Real Decree 357 with date 22 of February, the DNI was exclusive for Spaniards.
DANCE OF I NUMBER
From a principle, and with a still effective method, the numbers of the DNI were assigned by lots to the expedition equipment. Thus, each police station or movable equipment who transacts the DNI, counts on a sufficient margin of free numbers. If it exhausts that fitted, a new lot, not necessarily corelative to anterior.Se is granted to him exiles therefore a false belief. The short numbers of the DNI did not correspond in the past to people who already are fallecido.Nadie shows "the number of a dead" as she affirms unfounded in bar conversations. The Unit of Documentation of Spaniards of the Police has mattress sufficient not to resort to that technique. In 54 years, 60 million membership cards have been sent about and still there are other 40 free million until the number of 99,999,999 sent membership cards is reached. No fario.Cada is reason for badly the españolito one releases number and it is not necessary to revive the figure of anybody. Because the number of the DNI is perpetual by reasons legales.Además is personal and intransferible. Be enough with thinking about transmissions of goods, testaments, bank loans and suplantaciones of personality. In people who die and return from the other world by the grace to have the same number of the membership card. "the DNI is like the Valiant Cid. It continues winning battles after dead ", indicates between smiles the commissioner head Jose Santiago Sanchez.
So and as they say old books of first inscription, - jealously guarded by the Police -, the numeration assigns by provinces and equipment. The police station of Santa Engracia in Madrid had the privilege to transact the first membership cards. Throwing a look to the first volume of registry, patent has left the cult to the personality of the Generalissimo. Number one adjudged for himself Frank Francisco to it Bahamonde. Question of gallons. The second took the name of its woman, Carmen Polo and Martinez Valdés. For its Frank Carmen daughter Pole went to stop number three. Of the quarter to ninth they have been vacant. Of the 10 in ahead and until number 99, they were blocked for the Spanish Royal Family. Number 10 was assigned to His Majesty the King, the 11 for Doña Sofía of Greece, the 12 for Infant Elena and the 14 for Infant Cristina.La superstition left the square of the 13 empty. The DNI of Their Height Real Prince Felipe shines the number 15, or pretty girl, an unexpected wink of the destiny now that sounds bells of real wedding. It is logical to think that small the Felipe Juan Froilán, Federica Victory, Juan Valentin, Pablo Nicholas and Miguel, - last grandson of the monarchs until the moment -, happens to their uncle the Prince in the correlation of numbers.
Democratic like few documents, the DNI does not know of monarchies nor rancid ancestries. By virtue of a 1985 decree, no longer the nobiliarios titles register that end at interminable last names. Therefore, they were avoided so much the clasismo, as a leafy genealogical tree that did not fit in the squares nor with most imaginative of the abbreviations. Kill not long time and in the occasion of the update of his DNI, Luis Alfonso de Borbón, son of the spoiled Duke of Cadiz, had to stop to continue shining the nobility of his origin in the membership card.