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Old 07-15-2016, 08:31 PM
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The title topic is discussed in a number of other threads in passing, but I have decided to start this thread to specifically discuss the colonels dictatorship 1967-1974, with specific reference to the role of King Constantine and the GRF in general.

This covers involvement with the actual colonels, the policitans, the December counter coup and the eventual abolition of the monarchy in December 1974, as well as events that lead up to the coup and the longer term aftermath to the extent they relate to the immediate title topic.

NB/ the title was also meant to include "the Greek royal Family" - their role is part of he discussion as well.

Some background (the following was originally posed in the "Juan Carlos path to the Spanish crown" thread and has been edited so i don't have to retype everything) to get the ball rolling

Greece in the late 1960's was still predominantly rural, industrialization and the shift to the cities (in 1967 at least 25% of the population lived in Athens alone) had only really begun in the 1950's. Greece also had greater perceived threats to its territorial integrity both within (the Slavic minorities) and on the outside (its then communist Balkan neighbors), along with a tradition of military intervention in civilian politics to protect its own privileged status in society, one of the overlooked factors in the 1967 coup was proposed cuts to military spending. Politics was based on clan ties and patronage - the only party that had any real ideology was the communist party. First Britain, than the USA, had major influence over governments of the day, at one point any potential prime ministerial appointments had to be approved by the US embassy in Athens.

Constantine was only 23 when he succeeded his father. Constantine did not get this luxury and was unable in the time-frame he had to establish a political identity separate to that of his parents, something was to be a major disadvantage in attempting to reach out to the non-communist left and Greece's liberals during the junta years. Constantine was less paternalistic and more liberal than his father but he still picked up many of his fathers more unlovable approaches to kingship and it was commented on at the time and was a major factor in the eventual abolition.Paul was not what I would call a good royal role model. Despite the general trend of throwing all mistakes at Freddy's feet, Paul had strong authoritarian instincts and often ignored and snubbed politicians who attempted to move in on what he considered his turf eg Plastrides and Karamanlis and his interventions caused a great deal of unnecessary political trouble (Freddy's contribution was small by comparison). He was not a good role model for Constantine -and I really can't help wondering what might have happened if Constantine had had more time to spend around his father in law Frederik... The ambassadorial reports , foreign correspondents of the time and government ministers despaired of Paul's high handedness, seemingly arbitrary interventions, and bad habit of disregarding the official advice of ministers in favour of unofficial (and unaccountable) court channels; He was also unwilling to really delegate powers when needed. James Edward Millers The United States and Greece has a lot to say about this as does most standard histories of modern Greece. Even Paul's main biographer half admits this was a problem. There were mitigating factors: the slow and corrupt bureaucracy often made direct intervention necessary for getting past red tape and graft, and an unclear constitutional set up regarding the exercise of exec power meant that a lot of this was justified at least in theory. A lot of this was really the result of the King coming to believe his own propaganda during the civil war of the 1940s along with his early experiences in the Venizelos years.

BUT, there is also a second point, the main reason why monarchies collapse is not due to public popularity (if that was the case than the Queen and the entire BRF would have all been guillotined in Piccadilly Square in 1997), but elite support, and in particular, whether these monarchs are capable of protecting their status and property, something that is not easy when society and economy are undergoing rapid transformation, Dominic Lieven's Bio of Nicholas II of Russia has more on this phenomenon and Samuel Huntington has also written about the problems of democratisation and traditional authority. In Greece, their politicians and wealthy were looking for a fall guy for a political failure and embarrassment that was of their own making, it did not take much to set Constantine up as the patsy - because its not like much in Greece really changed over the last 40 years as recent events have shown.
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Old 07-17-2016, 07:10 PM
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C L Sulzberger, New York Times Foreign Correspondent in "An Age of Mediocrity" (a selection of Sulzberger's diaries for the years 1963-1971) says that Prince Michael was granted permission to live in Greece during the Junta years - he relocated to France after the monarchy was abolished. Sulzberger also goes on to say that Michael believed that Constantine's decision to leave was a bad one and that he should have stayed in Greece to act as a moderating influence on the Colonels. Sulzberger also claims that Juan Carlos held similar views.


I don't have the page number at hand but I will post the fuller quotes and reference info in a later post.
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Old 07-18-2016, 06:07 AM
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[Michael] said the junta had given him permission to return to Greece provided he lived incognito and said nothing - which suites him to a tee. He thinks he junta are going to be here for years. Had Constantine stayed on here he might have had some chance of influencing and softening the junta; no more"
Cyrus Sulzberger, An Age of Mediocrity: Memoirs and Diaries 1963-1972, New York, MacMillian, 1973, P 463
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Old 07-22-2016, 07:24 AM
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If anyone else wants to share their theories, views or research about the GRF and the Colonels Dictatorship feel free to do so

There are two points I want to make quickly

1) why on earth was C being called on to perform the functions that rightly have been that of the opposition, a party caucus and of parliamentary process?

2) there is only so much you can do on limited resources in terms of organising political opposition esp when others have their own agendas they were following.
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Old 07-22-2016, 08:36 PM
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I would like to talk about this in detail, this is a summary, it is very long, I can not put the details, my English is very bad. The truth is that this story takes several days.
I think that this are the facts more relevant to understand and explain all.

Greece was a very strategic country to control the communist bloc. Greece was receiving much economic investment from countries like USA, but USA also influenced in politics. It was the era of the Cold War.

At political:
Two people, in my opinion, essential to end the monarchy, Karamanlis and Andreas Papandreou.

Karamanlis, his political party was said that it was very influenced by the United States, was very conservative political party.

Andreas Papandreou, he was an advocate of a socialist state, he was of lefts, he hates monarchy and he had sympathy for the Communists.

1963, Karamanlis was the Primer Minister, he was very arrogant man, (I think that the people had no sympathy for him, much of the social support he had was for his support of the monarchy, it was said that he was "a man of Palace", he was intelligent but very arrogant).

In 1962, he had lost his political credibility by political scandals, and his management, one year before, George Papandreou had created a political party, the Union of Centre, George was the father of Andreas.

This party politician joined to people of different ideology, under the idea of Center. The goal was to win the elections, adding votes. It was said that the age of George was very important for attaining the union, because everyone within the party, thought in the open of the succession . Everyone looked with chances of succeeding.
when Karamanlis saw he had lost the credibility of the people, went to the palace to ask for public support to King Paul, to regain support, and win elections but the king said, no.
Karamanlis changed his behavior toward the monarchy.
George won the elections and Karamanlis was self exile(very arrogant).

George was the last primer minister appointed by King Paul , after obtaining the confidence of Parliament (majority of seats). He was 74 years old.
In the political party of George, EK, his son was polemic for his ideologies. Many within the party, feared to be used by George to place his son Andreas of Primer Minister. In the political party the presence of Andreas was always a reason for confrontation between their members, for example Constantine Mitsotakis.

When his father won the election, and appeared the ASPIDIA affair , was a plot to replace the military leadership (and put others militars less monarchists), it was investigated the Defense minister, and the name of Andreas appeared.
The party of George was split, Konstantinos Mitsotakis and others abandoned it, they felt betrayed, they believed that George protected to his Andreas son, and that they had been deceived, because George had used to win elections and then put successor Andreas his son........
To say that in this controversy the Papandreou launched heavy attacks against the king and members of his party who had abandoned to them (they forgot to talk about the case ASPIDIA). George was outvoted, and did not want to leave. He resigned...................................................................................

In short, this led to political instability, because no politician proposed by the king to parliament obtained the confidence of parliament.
and research on the plot continued.

United States, Britain, even the people of Greece feared a coup left. it was very unstable.
the Political instability, made that the king held meetings discreetly to politicians in the Palace of Tatoi. To the meetings attended George. They made the decision to call new elections in May. They would undertake to respect the result. But in april, a part of the army, led by three officials, Georgios Papadopoulos,Stylianos Pattakos, Nikolaos Makaresos, gave a coup by surprise ..

they took to the streets of Athens with weapons of war, tanks and combat weapons,... They took control of the buildings of state institutions, Parliament, the royal palace....and the residence of the Queen Federica, took control of television and radio and telephone service

Colonels justified their action on the existence of a plot of a communist coup ( ASPIDIA affair...). Greece has been much talk about participation in this coup of USA, which wanted to avoid a leftist government.
The coup was quite intelligent, they occupied the streets of Athens with weapons of war to intimidate ..... With control means, they guaranteed that there would be no response of the military leaders loyal to the king .
King constantine was in palace of Tatoi, he was informed by his secretary, and was to Athens, he thought that it could be one communist coup. Colonels ordered to move him to the royal palace and enclose in the office. He heard shots inside the palace but he did not know to who they shot it is believed that it was to intimidate him. Colonels did not talk to him.

The army was divided,the loyal to the King was the military leadership of the state, and the Colonels, they had taken to the streets, with weapons of war. The Colonels knew that their military graduation was less to the military leadership of King, to prevent the reaction of the military leadership represented by the king occupied the streets of the cities, because they knew that with weapons of war in the streets, the King would not have the courage to give the order to the military leadership to draw out to the colonels of the streets.This would have been a slaughter.
King Constantine did not want a military conflict. He did the right thing he accept the junta, it was presented with exceptional character and in response to a pro-Communist coup that they had frustrated.

Constantine had no good relationship with Georgios Papadopoulos, Stylianos Pattakos, Nikolaos Makaresos.

King believed that the Colonels had infringed the military hierarchy, and must apply the military code.

Colonels never had sympathy for the king, they had no loyalty to King Constantine,King was 27 years and less experience in the army than them(in the Greek army, the age and experience were essencial to ascend), they not feel obliged to obey to the King.
Constantine did not want a civil war in Greece.

The military junta had an exceptional character
When was transcurred time and the King saw that they were not going to restore order, he confronted them, but Constantine was left alone.
King started to prepare a counterattack, he stopped several times on the counterattack, because he was afraid to one civil war, and end in December decided that he no longer had option.

it was a failure
the king desisted 24 hours after .

he was taken to a plane accompanied by his family, Rome direction, the plane was low on fuel.
Stylianos Pattakos, was very concerned because he feared that the Greek navy and part of the army to rise up against them, so here he traveled to Rome to propose a deal to king, but when he arrived to Rome, , the king gave a manifesto, in where demanded to the colonels restore constitutional democratic order.
The colonels did not accept the request of the king.

The colonels had the direct support of USA, was for them the only way to ensure stability in this area of ​​the Mediterranean.
After the colonels received large investments and made important works such as roads, railways and people looked with sympathy, had avoided a communist coup and made many public works.

Many people think that the King made the mistake of not supporting the colonels. However Constantino no regrets , he avoided a civil war.
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Old 07-22-2016, 10:12 PM
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Thank you very much stef. Please don't apologise for your English, it's fine

Precisely, so many people, many of whom either ran away, hid, or weren't even born in that time have taken C to task over "not standing up tithe colonels" - uh, excuse me what was the counter coup about? Going all Rambo on the 21st of April would not have achieved anything.

The real problem is that the narrative has been dominated by supporters of either the Greek left or of Karamanlis esp in the academy and they have too much vested interest in overlooking their mistakes and flaws to really ask the tough questions.

What really interests me though is the thought process of the average person on the street and how their views of the kings role were formed - it can't all be down to sloppy media performance and political malevolence, also taking into account that there were and are a variety of views held too.
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Old 07-23-2016, 03:54 AM
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Indeed, your English is perfectly fine stef. Thank you for the summary. And a thanks to wreathoflaurels for starting this thread, it is an interesting topic.
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Old 07-23-2016, 04:06 AM
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Thanks to Stef. Is my impression correct that there is still a very negative opinon on King Constantine and his family, and if yes, what exactly do the Greeks blame him for? In comparison with the Colonels, the disastrous regimes after them and the current reigning Syriza, the era under Constantine looked better. For me as an oursider it is surprising that it was no leftist coup which toppled the monarchy, no... it were the armed forces, usually a bastion of law and order and standing behind the monarch.
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Old 07-23-2016, 08:44 AM
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Originally Posted by Duc_et_Pair View Post
Thanks to Stef. Is my impression correct that there is still a very negative opinon on King Constantine and his family, and if yes, what exactly do the Greeks blame him for? In comparison with the Colonels, the disastrous regimes after them and the current reigning Syriza, the era under Constantine looked better. For me as an oursider it is surprising that it was no leftist coup which toppled the monarchy, no... it were the armed forces, usually a bastion of law and order and standing behind the monarch.
they blame him for "not standing up to the junta" more effectively and for "dismissing" George Papandreou in 1965 - at least the leftish ones do. At a deeper level it's really about a desire to find a single cause for what went wrong in the 1960s - you must keep in mind that the right and the left blame C for a different set of reasons. The left for being too involved and the right for not being involved enough. In reality it's easier to blame the King than it is for yiannis and maria lunchpail to ask "what did we do wrong?"

one of the dirty secrets of this period is that the junta was actually pretty popular in the start once everyone got over the shock of the coup. I do concede that opposition was hard to organise due to limited communications, but that does not explain away a very large amount of both elite and grassroots support. Taki (the gossip columnist) back in his days as a serious journalist wrote one of the better books about the dictatorship called The Greek Upheavel: Kings, Demagouges, and Bayonets - it's a little hit and miss as Taki was one of the few authors who tried to defend the junta or at least understand them on their own terms, is very useful for understanding why the colonels were able to stay in power and were supported for the length of time they were. If they had resisted the temptation to get mixed up in Cyprus than they could have carried on for a lot longer.

I myself am inclined to point the finger at Greeces social climate (similar to Iran prior to its revolution), the legacy of the civil war (punitive measures against many ex communists although somewhat justified at the time left a very bitter legacy), and Greeces vulnerable position in the Cold War. C was a victim of these problems - he didn't create them and therefore it's wrong to blame him for them.

the one person who bears responsibility more than anyone for encouraging such a climate is A-Pap whose instringance, influence over his father, and breathtaking recklessness was probably the deciding factor in all this - most contemporary reports from the ambassadors and many foreign correspondents blame him not the king for many of the problems of the period.
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Old 07-24-2016, 05:58 PM
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the antipathies by King Constantine has its origin in politicians and the media related with these political ideologies, (these means were/and are financed by shipowners, businessman, identified with those political ideologies that would like to see in power).

The Leftist political ideologies, I speak of Andreas Papandreou,during the 60s, with his appearance in politics, he and his supporters who began campaigns against the monarchy, in order to discredit and delegitimize and introducing to the sympathies of leftist ideas.

After, in 1981, he won elections and was Prime Minister, (you can imagine as Primer Minister..), in the history books, the leaders of leftist and communist were heros, and the kings were represented like as bad people, and foreign, who had invaded Greece .

Andreas Papandreou is the creator of "Glücksburg" in 1983 to name to Constantine and his family. His campaigns were successful because it arrive until today , "they are danish,.."" Glücksburg...") .In 1994,he deleted by law the personality of the King and his family in Greece, confiscated their property, removed their nationality, and their name . The obsession of the PASOK.

Andreas Papandreou always had the support of the people, because he gave the people the way of life they wanted, early retirements, a large public sector, low taxes ... these policies are very critiqued today , are the cause of the high indebtedness of the state. Today are critiqued like cause of crisis but before, no.

Andreas was involved in more serious cases of corruption, but it did not affect his popularity, the people voted to him.

In the Greek right: I speak of Karamanlis, during the 60s. He was conservative, he thought the King had to be conservative Politic ideology . In 1962 he asked for help to the King to regain his political credibility and can win the election, the king said no.
he start a campaign against the monarchy, when George win the elections, he self exile saying he was the victim of a political persecution and accusing the king of his self-exile .

Karamanlis and his followers were angry with the king, they thought the monarchy was a conservative political party. Also foreign media, United States criticized the king Paul and supported Karamanlis, they believed that he was a warranty in the area,
I think Karamanlis confounded the monarchy, he believed that kings were conservative political .

His political party was heavily influenced by the United States

In 1973 he contacted with King Constantine in exile in London. Karamanlis had contact with the new leaders of the colonels (the Colonels fought among themselves for power, and there were changes in the leaders, now was Phaedon Gizikis). Karamanlis did to believe to the king that he had hopes of restoring the democratic and monarchy, King collaborated with him even provided him information, but really, Karamanlis was controlling and subtrahend information for Colonels. He returned to Greece but never called the King.He convoked a referendum with little time, and did not allowed to the king's followers and King to campaign in favor of the monarchy.

In the Republic , he was Primer Minister of 1974-1980 . In the early days of the republic, being Prime minister Karamanlis, the press inveighed against the monarchy, it was criticized all, .... was not published informations about the greek royal family, and no interviews. King could not travel to Greece his passport had not been renewed by the state.

I think that this was because the referendum was not fair (in the process of summoning). I explain this, before the referendum with the Colonels, 1973, had been a campaign against the monarchy, and in favor of the Republic, the referendum was summoned with very little time, it did not allow campaigning for the monarchy and not allowed that the King did campaign in favor of the monarchy.

If the referendum would had summoned enough time, if the king would had been allowed to participate on equal , what would have been the result? .Never we know , but it is obvious that the campaign against the monarchy followed by Karamanlis from 1974 to 1980 is to consolidate the results of the referendum , it is to convince people, like saying, "and even if I would had convoked the referendum with one year ahead and the King would had participated in it........, the result would had been the same ". This was, in my opinion the purpose of the campaign of Karamanlis.

During the years of Karamanlis, Papandreou, Simitis in Greece was very difficult to find information about the King, you could see reviews, insults, ..... of politicians, but always avoided putting the statements of the king. Constantine seemed to had no right to be heard. The first time I read an interview of the king of Greece in a newspaper, was 17 years after formation of the Republic, in TO BHM, its publication was very controversial.

BUT, now it is changing .Because political dynasties have lost all credibility by the crisis, and now people want to hear what the king thinks. The autobiography of King was one of the best selling books of 2015, and his interviews has many followers. People, today do not see Constantine as a danger. The Press of lefts as usual, criticizing, but with the difference that there are now newspapers in Greece, in paper, digitals, that are not linked to political party and these publish news of the King, magazines talk about his family, his sons, of prince Nikolaos and Tatiana ..., are published interviews in television, has many followers.......

Now, the King and Queen permanently are living in Greece, they are invited to events, they collaborate with solidarity organizations, even some people who have traveled to Spetses to make a photo with them haha, and Nikolaos and Tatiana also live in Greece.
I think this is because now you can read interviews, statements king in Greek and to greek people . The Wedding Nikolaos and Tatiana in Spetses had much impact in the international media, and in the Greeks, now many people know locate on the map the island of Spetses and Porto Heli are very famous. Last year with the referendum , capital controls, the image of greece was very concerning
, however see the ancient king of Greece in Porto Heli and his family summer vacation it was great because it was very quiet to tourists.

Many people would like to see Nikolaos in politics and Constantine, but the king said in a recent interview that it was not true that they went to meddling in politics. One King is not politician . he rule out this possibility, but ,open the way for the monarchy, he said, that the people can change of thought, , the monarchy is not part of the past, it is possible
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Old 07-24-2016, 05:59 PM
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I will summarize. In Greece in the decade of the 60, ideologies were very pronounced, the left = Communists and right. The monarchy never had sympathy of the left, that's obvious,.

When Karamanlis went to ask the king for political support, the people of right-wing ideology believed that the King had to support him, as King did not this, they began antipathies. When the colonels gave the coup, they were to avoid a coup or the rise to power of leftist ideologies.(The Coronels was right-wing,extreme right) The people of Greece reproached the King that he did not supported to colonels, the people believed that the solution to the problem of instability and the only way to prevent the left in power, the people thought was a coup as the Colonels.
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Old 07-26-2016, 04:21 AM
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There has long been talk that there was a "generals coup" involving the King being planned to counter the possibility of a leftist victory, was this the case or was it simply wishful thinking and paranoia? For the generals coup I see four possibilities:

1) it was exactly what it said in the tin. C and the senior members of the army were planing to forestall the possibility of a leftist victory in the 1967 election.

2) there was a coup being planned but it wasn't the coup many assumed it to be. The generals coup was in fact a soft coup that would give C the chance to ride in on a figurative white horse, save the day and have an excuse to purge the army and government of seditious elements. Charles de Gaulle did something very similar in France and there has been rumours that 23-F in Spain was in fact this as well - Google "operation armada" for more information

3) there were plans but they were contingency plans in case of a possible left coup/rioting/prolonged disorder

4) there was no generals plot - it was simply wishful thinking/paranoid rumourmongering.

Any thoughts? I plump for a combination of options 2 and 3 myself but what does everyone else think?
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Old 07-26-2016, 07:37 PM
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the option 4)there was no generals plot - it was simply wishful thinking/paranoid rumourmongering.
King met in the palace of Tatoi to political leaders. At these meetings was George, it was difficult to convince him, but attended. It is said, George had not good relations with his son, Andreas(in this period) . George asked them that agreements were kept secret, it is said that he did not wanted that his son would know of the agreements. In the agreements it was established that elections would be held at May, and George was committed to that, his son would not be submitted to elections. This was a guarantee.

I do not think it was preparing other coup , to address threats left wings, and testing are these meetings.

However that, the creation of the military Junta would be a solution to the problem of instability in Greece, I think it was insinuated by many politicians and international leaders, for example, Harold Wilson(Great Britain) and his advisers, the United States. There were many who believed that this would be the solution to the problem, a Junta of the military leadership. Many were those who thought it would be a good solution

However, I think that if the meetings held by the king, would had not attended George (EK) and Panagiotis Kanellopoulos (ERE, the political party of former Prime Minister Karamanlis) then, I think this solution would have to be seriously considered.
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Old 07-26-2016, 09:24 PM
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Thank you stef - there isn't an English version of C's memoirs yet and I don't know any Greek so thanks for your view.
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Old 07-27-2016, 06:39 PM
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King Constantine's autobiography will be published in English, because I read in February that it has assigned editor for its English version, so it is possible that before the end of the year will be translated and published in English.
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Old 08-13-2016, 05:47 AM
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An article about Constanine and the Coup from RoyalChronicles

http://www.royalchronicles.gr/21-apr...intagmatarxon/

I pares this link in google chrome so it should run googlr translate in that
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Old 09-12-2016, 06:04 AM
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A passage from the memoirs of Soviet ruler Nikita Khrushchev (he of shoe-banging fame) about Constantine, Anne Marie and the Coup, from when he made a state visit to Denmark in 1964;

Quote:
The princesses were young. The youngest [Anne-Marie] was just a little girl, but I would say a very pretty one. Of course there can be various points of view in estimating the beauty of little girls, but she made an unforgettable impression on our entire delegation. The older daughter [Margarethe?/Beneditke? - no indication in the text] was also elegant ad lovely as a flower. They told us she [AM] was already engaged and there was soon to be a marriage. She was going to marry the King of Greece [Constantine]. When I heard that, I was barely able to restrain myself from expressing my sympathies. I so much wanted to tell her that kings were now out of fashion and that the Royal throne in Greece was quite shaky. As a human being I simply felt sorry for this young woman: she was going to have to suffer a lot of unpleasantness when she became Queen of Greece. Again people might say: "how come you, a former worker, were feeling sympathy for a Queen?"Well, I sympathised with her not as a queen but as a young woman. After all, I know what kind of surprises life can dish out. Even as a worker I would find it more pleasant to marry whoever she wanted and didn't have to marry a King. But she was a princess and therefore the only worthy suitor was a King. When a coup d'etat was carried out by the "Black Colonels" in Greece [in 1967] the King was forced to flee. As far as I recall, he fled to Denmark.*
Nikita Sergeevich Khrushchev, Memoirs of Nikita Khrushchev Volume 3: Statesman, ed. Sergei Nikitorovich Khrushchev, trans. George Shriver, Supplimenary material trans. Stephen Shenfield, University Park PA, Pennsylvania State Universtiy Press, 2007 pp 367-368

* NSK was mistaken - C&AM went to Italy in December 1967
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Old 09-12-2016, 07:06 AM
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I am impressed that one communist leader like Nikita, he liked so much talk about monarchies and royal weddings(A fan of monarchies???) ....

But seriously now, it is curious that a Communist leader was interested in the political instability in Greece and especially, he was interested in the impact, that it would had about the monarchy.
Greece was a strategic country in the Mediterranean to control of the Communist bloc. In 1965, in the ASPIDA plot, it was a conspiracy of militaries and politicians, of " left ideologies" whose purpose seemed to be to a coup in Greece, it was said that Russia was involved in this conspiracy
The contacts between ASPIDA and Russia alerted TO USa, which was the main investor in Greece.
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Old 09-12-2016, 08:36 AM
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Khrushchev was writing (dictating actually) his memoirs in 1968-1970 after he had been overthrown in a palace coup in October 1964, when Leonid Brezhnev replaced him as Soviet leader. These comments in his memoirs were all in retrospect - and hindsight is 20/20 as we all know. **

Honestly, the Russian archives have been picked over post glasnost and post communism; and there's very little evidence of soviet involvement in the political problems of this period in question. The USSR had very little interest in Greece in that period, if at all. There was some ideological duty to support fellow socialists in distress but it didn't go beyond a denouement on the UN and some gestures of support for soviet public consumption. There was never any concerted to overthrow the government in Greece by the USSR.

The warmer relations of the 1980s was mostly the handiwork of A-Pap and even that was more apparent than real as he and Gorby couldn't stand each-over; A-Pap was the only non-warsaw pact socialist leader to denounce Solidarity and Lech Wasela and was against both perestroika and glasnost. Any soviet support for the KKE was usually limited to the odd gesture and platitudes.* For the same reasons, I personally don't put much stock in the current Russia-Greece love-in either, the Russians have little to gain and already have enough problems to deal with than add another unreliable client state to their books.

*the accusation that the USSR was backing the KKE in the civil war has been debunked many times over and KGB involvement in Greece, although real, was not on the same level as CIA involvement - the attitude that the USSRhad towards Greece in this period amounted to stark indifference. Any improvements in Russo/soviet-Greek relations was motivated by the Greek governments desire to find new trade partners and to diversify their political links. And the Pontic Greeks, can't forget the Pontic Greeks.

** That said, do read Kh's memoirs if you get the chance, there's a lot about other royalties and is one of the best insider accounts of the soviet system in its heyday, and so I would consider a 'must' for anyone interested in the Cold War and its effects. They're also very readable and very entertaining.
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Old 09-13-2016, 06:58 AM
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Join Date: Dec 2008
Location: Athens, Greece
Posts: 444
No no no....

I do not say that the USSR was creating a conspiracy in Greece.... .

In 1966 when it was discovered more data on Aspida, it was began to publish that members related to this plot, had traveled and had contacts with Russia ( buy weapons, search for support ....).
in the plot appeared names of persons related to the clandestine Communist party .
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