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Old 12-10-2010, 06:10 PM
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Principality of Wallachia

Wallachia (Valachia)
(Ţara Românească)

Principality of Wallachia
1317-1859

Ottoman vassal (1415–19th c.)
Russian protectorate (18th–19th c.)
Part of modern-day Romania





Flag of Wallachia
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Old 12-10-2010, 06:11 PM
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Coat of Arms of Wallachia
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Old 12-10-2010, 06:12 PM
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Walachia.svg‎ (SVG file, nominally 1,048 × 687 pixels, file size: 348 KB)
SOURCE
File:Walachia.svg

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
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Old 12-10-2010, 06:14 PM
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Wallachia

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This article is about the region in what is now Southern Romania. There are other regions called Wallachia, such as the Moravian Wallachia and the Thessaly Wallachia; see Vlachs. For the antagonist of Melty Blood, see Night of Walachia. For the micronation, see Kingdom of Wallachia.
Ţara Românească
Цѣра Рȣмѫнѣскъ
Principality of Wallachia
Ottoman vassal (1415–19th c.)
Russian protectorate (18th–19th c.)1317–1859
FlagCoat of arms

Map of present-day Romania, with historical Wallachia in redCapitalCâmpulung, Curtea de Argeş, Târgovişte, BucharestLanguage(s)Romanian (commonly used, later official), Church Slavonic (in early official use)GovernmentPrincipalityPrinces of Wallachia (voivodes, hospodars) - 1310–52 (first)Basarab I - 1859–62 (last)Alexander John CuzaHistory - Voivodships unified
under Basarab I1317 - Mehmed I restored
Ottoman suzerainty
1419 - Long and Moldavian
Magnate
wars
1593–1621 - Treaties:
- Küçük Kaynarca
- Erdine
21 July 1774 (10 July OS)
14 September 1829 (2 Sept OS) - Regulamentul Organic1834–35 - Unions:
- with Moldavia
- with Transylvania
5 February 1859 (24 Jan OS)
26 March 1881 (13 Mar OS) 1859Wallachia or Walachia (Romanian: Ţara Românească or Valahia, archaic: Ţeara Rumânească, Cyrillic: Цѣра Румѫнѣскъ / Цѣра Рȣмѫнѣскъ) is a historical and geographical region of Romania. It is situated north of the Danube and south of the Southern Carpathians. Wallachia is sometimes referred to as Muntenia (Greater Wallachia), through identification with the larger of its two traditional sections; the smaller being Oltenia (Lesser Wallachia).
Wallachia was founded as a principality in the early 14th century by Basarab I, after a rebellion against Charles I of Hungary. In 1415, Wallachia accepted the suzerainty of the Ottoman Empire; this lasted until the 19th century, albeit with brief periods of Russian occupation between 1768 and 1854. In 1859, Wallachia united with Moldavia (the other Danubian Principality), to form the basis of the modern state of Romania, with Transylvania joining 61 years later to form the new Kingdom of Romania which was first established 1881.
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Old 12-10-2010, 06:15 PM
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Name
The name Wallachia, generally not used by Romanians themselves (but present in some contexts as Valahia or Vlahia), is derived from the ethnonym Valach, a word used originally by Germanic peoples to designate their Romance-speaking neighbours, or foreigners in general, and subsequently taken over by Slavic-speakers to refer to Romanians, with variants such as Vlach, Blach, Bloc, Bloh, Boloh etc.—see also: History of the term Vlach.
In the early Middle Ages, in Slavonic texts, the name of Zemli Ungro-Vlahiskoi (Земли Унгро-Влахискои)or "Hungaro-Wallachian Land") was also used. The term, translated in Romanian as "Ungrovalahia", remained in use up to the modern era in a religious context, referring to the Romanian Orthodox Metropolitan seat of Hungaro-Wallachia, in contrast to Thessalian Wallachia, or Great Wallachia in Macedonia, a medieval state, or Small Wallachia (Mala Vlaška) in Serbia.[1] Official designations of the state were Muntenia (The Land beyond the Mountains) and Ţeara Rumânească (Terra Romana, or The Romanian Land).
For long periods after the 14th century, Wallachia was referred to as Vlaško (Влашко) by Bulgarian sources, Vlaška by Serbian sources and Walachei or Walachey by German-speaking (Transylvanian Saxon) sources. The traditional Hungarian name for Wallachia is "Havasalföld", or literally "Snowy Lowlands" (the older form is "Havaselve", which means "Land beyond the snowy mountains"). In Ottoman Turkish and Turkish, "Eflak", a word derived from "Vlach", is used.
SOURCE WIKIPEDIA
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Old 12-10-2010, 06:16 PM
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Geography

The present-day counties comprising Wallachia


Wallachia is situated north of the Danube (and of present-day Bulgaria), east of Serbia and south of the Southern Carpathians, and is traditionally divided between Muntenia in the east (as the political center, Muntenia is often understood as being synonymous with Wallachia), and Oltenia (a former banat) in the west. The division line between the two is the Olt River.
Wallachia's traditional border with Moldavia coincided with the Milcov River for most of its length. To the east, over the Danube north-south bend, Wallachia neighbours Dobruja (Northern Dobruja). Over the Carpathians, Wallachia shared a border with Transylvania; Wallachian princes have for long held possession of areas north of the line (Amlaş, Ciceu, Făgăraş, and Haţeg), which are generally not considered part of Wallachia-proper.
The capital city changed over time, from Câmpulung to Curtea de Argeş, then to Târgovişte and, after the late 16th century, to Bucharest.
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Old 12-10-2010, 06:22 PM
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Foundation of Wallachia

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The foundation of Wallachia (Romanian: Descălecatul Ţării Româneşti), that is the establishment of the first independent Romanian principality, was achieved at the beginning of the 14th century, through the unification of smaller political units that had existed between the Carpathian Mountains, and the Rivers Danube, Siret and Milcov.[1][2][3]
Prior to the consolidation of Wallachia, waves of nomadic peoples – the last of them being the Cumans and the Mongols – rode across the territory.[4][5] The territory became a frontier area between the Golden Horde (the westernmost part of the Mongol Empire) and the Kingdom of Hungary after 1242.[6] The Romanians in Muntenia, east of the Olt River, had to pay tribute to the Mongols; and west of the river, in Oltenia, they were oppressed by the Bans of Severin, appointed by the Kings of Hungary.[7] The Golden Horde’s domination decreased in the region at the end of the 13th century, and at that time the Kingdom of Hungary also underwent a strong political crisis.[8] These events enabled the incipient states of the territory to consolidate their autonomy.[8]
One Romanian tradition records that Wallachia was founded when a certain Radu Negru (‘Radu the Black’) arrived from the Făgăraş region in the 1290s after crossing the Transylvanian Alps with “a great many following him”.[5][9] More credible is the report that some Romanian lords in the Olt and Argeş valleys chose as leader one of their number, a certain Basarab.[5]
It was Voivode Basarab I (c. 1310–1352) who broke off with the Kingdom of Hungary and refused to accept the king’s suzerainty.[1] Basarab I received international support and the recognition of the autonomy of Wallachia due to his great military victory over King Charles I of Hungary (1301–1342) at Posada on November 12, 1330.[1][10][11] The Metropolitan See of Wallachia, directly subordinated to the Ecumenical Patriarchate of Constantinople, was set up during the reign of Basarab I’s son, Nicolae Alexandru (1352–1364).[12][13] The first silver and bronze coins were minted in Wallachia in 1365.[14]
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Old 12-10-2010, 06:24 PM
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Creation
Main article: Foundation of Wallachia

Wallachia between XIIIth - XVIth centuries, overlayed with current national borders


One of the first written pieces of evidence of local voivodes is in connection with Litovoi (1272), who ruled over land each side of the Carpathians (including Făgăraş in Transylvania), and refused to pay tribute to the Hungarian King Ladislaus IV. His successor was his brother Bărbat (1285–1288). The continuing weakening of the Hungarian state by further Mongol invasions (1285–1319) and the fall of the Árpád dynasty opened the way for the unification of Wallachian polities, and to independence from Hungarian rule.

The Battle of Posada in the Chronicon Pictum



The seal of Voivode Mircea the Elder from 1390, depicting the coat of arms of Wallachia


Wallachia's creation, held by local traditions to have been the work of one Radu Negru, is historically connected with Basarab I (1310–1352), who rebelled against Charles I of Hungary and took up rule on either side of the Olt River, establishing his residence in Câmpulung as the first ruler in the House of Basarab. Basarab refused to grant Hungary the lands of Făgăraş, Amlaş and the Banat of Severin, defeated Charles in the Battle of Posada (1330), and extended his lands to the east, to comprise lands as far as Kilia (in the Bujak, as the origin of Bessarabia);[8] rule over the latter was not preserved by following princes, as Kilia fell to the Nogais ca.1334.[9]
Basarab was succeeded by Nicolae Alexandru, followed by Vladislav I. Vladislav attacked Transylvania after Louis I occupied lands south of the Danube, conceded to recognize him as overlord in 1368, but rebelled again in the same year; his rule also witnessed the first confrontation between Wallachia and the Ottoman Turks (a battle in which Vladislav was allied with Ivan Shishman of Bulgaria).[10] Under Radu I and his successor Dan I, the realms in Transylvania and Severin continued to be disputed with Hungary.[11]
[edit] 1400–1600

Main article: Romania in the Middle Ages
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Old 12-12-2010, 06:00 PM
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As the entire Balkan Peninsula become an integral part of the emerging Ottoman Empire (a process which concluded with the fall of Constantinople to Sultan Mehmed II in 1453), Wallachia became engaged in frequent confrontations and, in the final years of Mircea the Elder's reign, became an Ottoman tributary state.

SOURCE :
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Old 12-12-2010, 06:12 PM
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Mircea I of Wallachia or MIRCEA THE ELDER , ruled between 1355 – 1418,and was the son of voivede RADU I of Wallachia and Lady CALINICA , descendant of THE HOUSE DE BASARAB
FROM WIKIPEDIA ;" He was the father to Vlad II Dracul and grandfather of Mircea II, Vlad the Impaler (Dracula), Vlad Călugărul and Radu the Handsome. All of these would at one time or the other rule Wallachia, with Mircea II and Vlad Ţepeş both being able military commanders (the latter would eventually become one of the most notorious leaders in history, and the inspiration for the novel Dracula by Bram Stoker).'
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Old 12-12-2010, 06:15 PM
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WALLACHIA, under MIRCEA THE ELDER
sourceWikimedia Commons,File:Tara Rumaneasca map.png - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
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Old 12-12-2010, 06:22 PM
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Mircea's reign is considered to have brought stability to Wallachia, which was in. a volatile region of the world,but during Mircea's rule, WALLACHIA controlled the largest area in its history: from the river OLT till thje DANUBE and the BLACK SEA
source:http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mircea_I_of_Wallachia:
"Mircea strengthened the power of the state and organized the different high offices, promoted economic development, increased the state's revenue, and minted silver money that enjoyed wide circulation not only inside the country but also in neighboring countries. He gave the merchants of Poland and Lithuania trade privileges and renewed those his predecessors had given to the people of Braşov. As a result, Mircea was able to afford increasing his military power. He fortified the Danube citadels and strengthened "the great army" made up of townspeople and of free and dependent peasants. He also proved to be a great supporter for the Church.[4]"
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Old 12-12-2010, 06:30 PM
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source :http://people.famouswhy.com/mircea_cel_batran/;




Because he wanted to keep the independenc
e of the country he formed alliances with Vladislav the II of Poland in 1389 and Sigismund of Luxemburg, king of Hungary. He needed them to fight against the Ottoman Empire.

In October 1394 he fought with Baiazid I at Rovine and even if his army was four times smaller that the Turk's he won the battle. After that and with the help of Sigismund of Luxemburg he got rid of Vlad Uzurpatorul who was supported by Ottomans.

In 1397 and 1400 he won again battles against the Ottomans who were returning from Transylvania after they had gone there to steal.

Timur Lenk beat Baiazid I in Ankara in 1402 and Mircea organized with a Hungarian emperor a campaign against the Turks. In 1404 he was again ruling over Dobrogea and he helped Musa to occupy the Ottoman throne.

Leunclavius, a German historic called him "the bravest and ablest of the Christian princes". Mircea had reigned for 32 years. He won many battles against the Ottoman Empire and is known also like an art lover. He had built the Cozia Monastery and other beautiful monuments.

At the end of his reign he had signed a treaty with the Ottoman Empire in which they recognized Valahia as a free and independent territory in return of 3000 gold pieces annually.

He passed away on January 31, 1418 and was buried in Cozia Monastery. The throne was given to his son, Mihail II.


Read more: Mircea cel Batran Biography, Pictures, Videos - FamousWhy
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Old 12-12-2010, 06:53 PM
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WALLACHIA

This is a file from the Wikimedia Commons.
This image (or other media file) is in the public domain because its copyright has expired.
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Old 12-12-2010, 06:56 PM
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Visit, please the link, interesting pictures reguarding MIRCEA THE ELDER
Mircea cel Batran
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Old 12-12-2010, 06:59 PM
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Quote:
Originally Posted by anastasia ana View Post
Visit, please the link, interesting pictures reguarding MIRCEA THE ELDER
Mircea cel Batran
Thank you! Great!There will be a lot of topics to discuss for sure!
Will you continue with Transylvania,just wondering?
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Old 12-12-2010, 07:01 PM
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SOURCE ;Wikimedia Commons

Commons is a freely licensed media file repository.

The seal of Voivode Mircea the Elder from 1390, depicting the coat of arms of Wallachia.

File:MirceaCelBatranSeal1390.png - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
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Old 12-12-2010, 07:03 PM
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Yes, dear lenora, i will try

To continue with TRANSILVANIA, if my computer allows me, lol,
thank you for visitng my threads, you are very kind, i appreciate you very much, thank you again,
wishing a nice week ahead,
kind reguards
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Old 12-12-2010, 07:14 PM
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monastery COZIA, where MIRCEA THE ELDER was burried
source:File:Cozia.JPG - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
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Old 12-13-2010, 07:04 AM
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After MIRCEA THE ELDER there were the following ruling:
Vlad I the Usurper 1394-1397
Mihail I,from family BASARAB, son of MIRCEA THE ELDER, who ruled between 1418-1420
DAN II ,from the family DANESTI, ruled1421 - 1423
VLAD II,from DRACULESTI family,illegitimate son of Mircea cel Bătrân; member of ORDER OF THE DRAGON (thus Dracul) ruled 1436 - 1442,1443-1447
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