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  #1  
Old 07-03-2015, 02:54 PM
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Summary of Succession Rules For European Monarchies

I am compiling a summary chart of basic Crown succession rules in the major surviving European monarchies. There is, however, some missing and unverified infornation. Please feel free to contribute.


1) United Kingdom and Commonwealth Realms

Eligibility to the throne: legitimate Protestant descendants of Sophia, Electress of Hanover. In addition, the monarch must be in communion with the established (Anglican Episcopal) Church of England.

Order of Succession: equal primogeniture for persons born after October 28, 2011; otherwise, male-preference cognatic primogeniture.

Grounds for exclusion from the line of succession: conversion to the Roman Catholic faith (previously, also marriage to Catholics); entering into marriage without the consent of the monarch declared in Council (note: the latter rule applies only to the first six persons in line to the throne and the exclusion extends to all legitimate descendants of the marriage).

Minimum age to assume the royal prerogative: 18; until then, the royal prerogative is exercised by a regent who must be the next person in the line of succession who is of "full age", is a British national resident in the United Kingdom, and is not disqualified from succeeding to the Crown.

Vacancy of the throne: ?

2) Kingdom of the Netherlands


Eligibility to the throne: legitimate descendants of King Willem I, Prince of Orange-Nassau, who are not removed from the current monarch by more than three degrees of consanguinity (i.e. children, grandchildren, siblings, nephews/nieces, aunts/uncles, and, if any, great-grandchildren of the monarch).

Order of Succession: equal primogeniture.

Grounds for exclusion from the line of succession:
entering into marriage without the consent of the Dutch parliament given in the form of a law passed by both houses of parliament in a joint session (note: the exclusion in that case extends to any children born of that marriage and their respective issue). Exceptionally, one or more individual persons may be also excluded from the hereditary succession by Act of Parliament if exceptional circumstances require and such exclusion is approved by two-thirds of the votes cast in a joint session of the two houses of parliament.

Minimum age to assume the royal prerogative: 18 ; until then, the royal prerogative is exercised by a regent appointed by an act of parliament passed in a joint session of the two houses.

Vacancy of the throne: if there is no person qualified to succeed, the current monarch may propose his successor in the form of a bill introduced in parliament. The two houses of parliament are subsequently dissolved and the newly convened houses meet in joint session in order to decide on the bill. The bill is accepted only if at least two-thirds of the votes cast are in favor.

3) Kingdom of Sweden

Eligibility to the throne: currently, only legitimate descendants of King Carl XVI Gustaf. In addition, the monarch must be a member of the (Evangelical Lutheran) Church of Sweden.

Order of Succession: equal primogeniture.

Grounds for exclusion from the line of succession
(extending to the excluded person's descendants): entering into marriage without the consent of the Swedish government given upon application by the monarch; becoming the head of state or government of a foreign country without the consent of the monarch and the parliament of Sweden; not being a member of the (Evangelical Lutheran) Church of Sweden; and not being raised in Sweden.

Minimum age to assume the royal prerogative: 18 ; until then, the royal prerogative is exercised by a regent appointed by the parliament of Sweden.

Vacancy of the throne: if the Royal House becomes extinct, the parliament of Sweden elects a regent to perform the duties of Head of State until further notice; parliament is no longer required though to elect a new royal house to replace the former one upon its extinction.

4) Kingdom of Norway

Eligibility to the throne: legitimate descendants of the current monarch; siblings of the current monarch; and legitimate descendants of siblings of the current monarch. In addition, the monarch must profess the Evangelical Lutheran religion.

Order of Succession: agnatic primogeniture for persons born before 1971; male-preference cognatic primogeniture for persons born between 1971 and 1989; equal primogeniture for persons born in or after 1990.

Grounds for exclusion from the line of succession
(extending to all descendants): entering into marriage without the consent of the monarch; becoming the head of state or government of a foreign country without the consent of the monarch and two-thirds of the members of the Norwegian parliament.

Minimum age to assume the royal prerogative: 18 (?); if the monarch is under age, the Council of State summons the parliament to make provisions for the government of the kingdom during his/her minority.
Vacancy of the throne: f there is no prince or princess entitled to the succession, the monarch may propose his/her successor to parliament, which has the right to make the choice if the King's proposal is not accepted. If the Royal Line has become extinct and no successor to the throne has been previously designated, then a new Queen or King must be necessarily chosen by parliament . Meanwhile, the royal prerogative is exercised temporarily by the Council of State.

5) Kingdom of Spain

Eligibility to the throne: currently, only legitimate descendants of King Juan Carlos I of Borbon.

Order of Succession: male-preference cognatic primogeniture.

Grounds for exclusion from the line of succession: entering into marriage against the explicit prohibition of the monarch and the Spanish parliament. Voluntary renunciations of succession rights are possible only if ratified by organic law.

Minimum age to assume the royal prerogative:
18 (?) ; until then, the surviving mother or father, or relative of legal age who is nearest in line to the throne immediately assumes the office of Regent. If there is no person who can exercise the regency, a council of regents is appointed by the parliament consisting of one, three, or five persons.

Vacancy of the throne: if there are no legally qualified persons to ascend the throne, the parliament shall provide for the succession to the Crown in a manner which, according to the constitution, must be "the best for the interests of Spain".

6) Kingdom of Denmark


Eligibility to the throne: legitimate descendants of King Christian X and Queen Alexandrine. In addition, the monarch must belong to the established (Evangelical Lutheran) Church of Denmark.

Order of Succession: male-preference cognatic primogeniture for persons born before June 2009 (?); equal primogeniture for persons born after June 2009.

Grounds for exclusion from the line of succession: entering into marriage without the consent of the monarch expressed in a Council of State; when consenting to the marriage, , the monarch can impose conditions that must be met in order for any resulting offspring to have succession rights (e.g. being raised in Denmark).

Minimum age to assume the royal prerogative: 18; provisions relating to the exercising of sovereign power in the event of the minority of the King shall be laid down by Statute.

Vacancy of the throne: if, on the vacancy of the throne, there is no qualified successor, the parliament of Denmark shall elect a monarch and establish the future order of succession to the throne.

7) Kingdom of Belgium

Eligibility to the throne: legitimate descendants of King Leopold I of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha.

Order of Succession: equal primogeniture for descendants of King Albert II; otherwise, agnatic primogeniture.

Grounds for exclusion from the line of succession: entering into marriage without the consent of the monarch expressed by royal decree (hence, with ministerial countersignature). The exclusion may be reversed though by the monarch with the approval of the two houses of the federal parliament.

Minimum age to assume the royal prerogative: 18 ; until then, the royal prerogative is exercised by a regent appointed by the federal parliament in a joint session of the two houses.

Vacancy of the throne: if there is no person available to succeed, the monarch may name his/her successor with the approval of both houses of the federal parliament, which can only adopt a resolution to that effect if two-thirds of their members are present and upon a two-third majority vote. If the throne is vacant, the two houses meet in joint session to provide for a temporary regency; following an election, the two newly convened houses meet again in a joint session to provide permanent cover for the vacancy.
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Old 07-03-2015, 04:36 PM
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Great idea Mbruno!

A small explanation for the Dutch situation: the constitution talks about the descendants of Willem I. But in 1954 a statute was added that limited the succession to descendants of Queen Juliana.

In 1922 the rule about the three degrees of consanguinity was added; basically to exclude the Saxe-Weimars etc.

For the succession, the unborn child of a pregnant woman is considered as born. When the pregnancy results in a stillborn, this baby is supposed never to have existed.
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  #3  
Old 07-03-2015, 05:15 PM
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Quote:
Originally Posted by Mbruno View Post
I am compiling a summary chart of basic Crown succession rules in the major surviving European monarchies. There is, however, some missing and unverified infornation. Please feel free to contribute.


1) United Kingdom and Commonwealth Realms

....
Vacancy of the throne: ?
If you have more than five thousand in the line of succession you don't worry about vacancy of the throne
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Old 04-23-2017, 07:22 PM
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Many thanks for compiling these rules. Just a few small corrections and additions:

Kingdom of the Netherlands

Children born to a king or queen after an abdication and their descendants are excluded from the succession.

The three degree limit in 1922 covered only princesses and their descendants and then was expanded to the male line in 1963.

Kingdom of Sweden

The Act of Succession does not expressly exclude illegitimate descendants of Carl XVI Gustaf from the line of succession.

The members of the Royal House are not required to be members of the Church of Sweden, though they must "profess the pure evangelical faith, as adopted and explained in the unaltered Confession of Augsburg and in the Resolution of the Uppsala Meeting of the year 1593".

If a prince(ss) is removed from the line of succession for not professing the Lutheran faith or for being raised outside the realm, the exclusion does not seem to extend to her or his descendants.

Kingdom of Norway

The minimum age to assume the royal prerogative is 18.
http://lovdata.no/dokument/NL/lov/1921-05-13-2

Kingdom of Spain

The crown of Spain is "inherited by the successors of H.M. Juan Carlos I de Borbon"; there exist different interpretations of "successors".

The age of majority is 18 in Spain.

If a successor is excluded for marrying against the explicit prohibition of the monarch and parliament, their descendants are also excluded from the succession.

Kingdom of Denmark

The Constitution requires the King to be a member of the "Evangelical Lutheran Church" rather than the "Church of Denmark".

If a successor is excluded for marrying without the consent of the monarch, their legitimate children, and their descendants, are also excluded.

Absolute primogeniture covers persons born at any time.
http://www.retsinformation.dk/Forms/...aspx?id=123644
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Old 04-23-2017, 08:47 PM
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I'll add that the Danish monarch is formally the head of Lutheran Church in Denmark, simply because the Lutheran Church is the official religion of Denmark.
And has to sign a pledge to obey the Constitution.

The position of the heir, i.e the Crown Prince/ss of Denmark is fixed. The heir cannot be stripped of his/her position by the monarch, but if he/she marries without consent from the Monarch (and as an almost certain consequence the State Council as well) then the Parliament may intervene and strip him of his position. - That has never happened though.
Everybody else can in theory be stripped of their title and position in the Line of Succession by the Monarch.
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Old 04-23-2017, 10:03 PM
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Every person who is entitled to succeed to the throne is treated equally by the Danish Act of Succession (§ 5); the crown prince(ss) will also forfeit his or her succession rights (titles are not regulated by the Act of Succession or the Constitution) if he or she marries without the monarch's consent.


Quote:
§ 5
(1) Only children born in lawful wedlock are entitled to succeed to the throne.
(2) The King or the reigning Queen shall not marry without the consent of the Folketing.
(3) If a person who is entitled to succeed to the throne decides to marry without the King’s or reigning Queen’s consent which shall be given during a meeting of the Council of State, he/she forfeits his/her right to succeed to the throne and so do his/her children born in lawful wedlock and their issue.
Quote:
§ 5
Kun børn født i lovligt ægteskab har arveret til tronen.

Til kongens eller den regerende dronnings indgåelse af ægteskab udfordres Rigsdagens kræves Folketingets samtykke.

Indgår en til tronen arveberettiget person ægteskab uden kongens eller den regerende dronnings i statsrådet givne samtykke, mister den pågældende arveretten til tronen for sig og de i ægteskabet fødte børn og disses afkom.
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Old 04-24-2017, 04:58 AM
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Quote:
Originally Posted by Tatiana Maria View Post
Many thanks for compiling these rules. Just a few small corrections and additions:

Kingdom of the Netherlands

Children born to a king or queen after an abdication and their descendants are excluded from the succession.

The three degree limit in 1922 covered only princesses and their descendants and then was expanded to the male line in 1963.
Thank TM, I never knew. I suppose the latter was done to prevent a scenario where the Reuss-family would be forced upon us, as seemed an option before the birth of Juliana.

Do you know from when the abdication rule dates?

Thanks to Mbruno for compiling the clear overview.
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Old 04-24-2017, 06:42 AM
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Quote:
Originally Posted by Marengo View Post
Thank TM, I never knew. I suppose the latter was done to prevent a scenario where the Reuss-family would be forced upon us, as seemed an option before the birth of Juliana.

Do you know from when the abdication rule dates?

Thanks to Mbruno for compiling the clear overview.
The rules have been adapted in 1887, 1922 and 1983 and it is interesting that these become more specific with every change:

1887
For the hereditary succession an abdication of the throne has the same effect as a death.

1922
For the hereditary succession an abdication of the throne has the same effect as a death. Children born after an abdication are excluded from the hereditary succession.

1983
An abdication of the kingship leads to changes in the hereditary succession as regulated by the articles beforementioned. Children born after an abdication, and their descendants, are excluded from the hereditary succession.

https://www.denederlandsegrondwet.nl...r/vi7jjhgtb4y1
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