The history of the Sultanate of Deli and also the Sultanate of Serdang is closely related to the heyday of the Sultanate of Aceh Darussalam during the administration of Sultan Iskandar Muda (1607-1636). Aceh Darussalam started its expansion in 1612 by invading the cities along the East Coast of Sumatra (Denys Lombard, 2007:134). Deli harbor was conquered just in six weeks, while the Kingdom of Aru surrendered in early 1613 AD. In some other sources, the Kingdom of Aru, located in East Sumatra, was called the Kingdom of Haru, as in the works Tuanku Luckman Sinar Basarshah II who frequently writes about the history of the kingdoms of East Sumatra.
Sultan Iskandar Muda granted Aru territory to Sri Paduka Tuanku Gocah Pahlawan as a retribution. In 1632, Sri Paduka Tuanku Gocah Pahlawan was appointed the vice of Sultan Iskandar Muda to rule the former territory of Aru successfully subjugated to Aceh (Tuanku Luckman Sinar Basarshah II, 2003:2). Acehnese interests in the occupation of the former Kingdom of Aru territory are
(1) To destroy the remaining resistance of the Kingdom of Aru which was aided by Portuguese;
(2) Spread the teachings of Islam into interior areas, and
(3) Set the rule that was part of the Aceh Darussalam (Basarshah II , nd: 49).
Shortly after being appointed ruler of Aru territory representing the Sultan of Aceh, Sri Paduka Tuanku Gocah Pahlawan was appointed by the four kings of the Batak Karo urung (country) as a Datuk Tunggal or Ulon Janji, which was a position with an authority equivalent to the position of prime minister or grand vizier (Basarshah II , nd: 50). In the coronation, an oath to obey was pronounced by the Orang-orang Besar and people for Sri Paduka Tuanku Gocah Pahlawan. At the same time, Lembaga Datuk Berempat was also established that served as an advisory council for the government of Sri Paduka Tuanku Gocah Pahlawan. The four Batak Karo kings became members of this institution.
The four kings of Batak Karo were the leaders of the four kingdoms in the Batak Karo region that had accepted the teaching of Islam and conquered by the Sultanate of Aceh Darussalam in the conquest led by Sri Paduka Tuanku Gocah Pahlawan. One of the four Batak Karo kings is King Undo Sunggal who is also father-in-law of Sri Paduka Tuanku Gocah Pahlawan. In 1632, Sri Paduka Tuanku Gocah Pahlawan married King Undo Sunggal`s daughter, named Princess Nang Baluan Beru Surbakti.
Sri Paduka Tuanku Gocah Pahlawan died in 1641, and the control over Deli was bequeathed to his son, Tuanku Panglima Perunggit titled Panglima Deli. Meanwhile, Sultan Iskandar Muda had died in 1636 AD in Aceh. The leadership of Sultanate of Aceh Darussalam was passed to Sultan Iskandar Muda son-in-law, Sultan Iskandar Thani, who was on the throne until 1641 (Djoened Marwati Poesponegoro & Nugroho Notosusanto, 1982:70).
Aceh Darussalam weakened after Sultan Iskandar Thani died. His successor was also his wife and the daughter of Sultan Iskandar Muda, Sultanah Safi al-Din Taj al-Alam (Puteri Sri Alam). The unstable Aceh Darussalam was an opportunity for Tuanku Panglima Perunggit. In 1669, Tuanku Panglima Perunggit proclaimed independence from the Sultanate of Aceh Darussalam and established a connection with the Dutch in Malacca (Basarshah II, nd: 50). Thus, officially the Sultanate of Deli established a sovereign government with the capital in Labuhan, located approximately 20 kilometers from Medan, the capital of North Sumatra province today.
After Indonesia gained its independence in 1945 and continued with the recognition of sovereignty by the Netherlands in 1949, the Sultanate of Deli, which was originally included in the territory of East Sumatra, since 1950 had been merged into the province of North Sumatra until now. On the other hand, in those days situation in Deli and North Sumatra have not been in a truly peaceful state. Royal families in northern Sumatra, including the Deli family, were threatened because of the opposition from the parties which declared as anti-royalties. The royal family at that time was considered as Dutch stooges and belonging to the feudal class.
Still in the same book, Tengku Luckman Sinar also writes that the rebellion incitements had been rumored since June 1942 during the era of Japanese occupation in Indonesia. The rebellion was started when the farmers harvested the rice, which was done with mutual cooperation and ended with the harvest feast (Sinar, 2007:121).
Acts of violence against the nobility reached its peak during the bloody incident known as the Social Revolution in 1946. Many kings and royal family in North Sumatra were murdered and robbed of property and belongings, including Tengku Amir Hamzah, the Indonesian poet who was beheaded in Kuala Begumit. The family of the Sultanate of Deli and Serdang survived thanks to the preservation of the Allied soldiers who were on duty in the field to accept the surrender of the Japanese (KESULTANAN ASAHAN). After the tragedy of the Social Revolution ended in 1946, the family and heirs of the Sultanate of Deli occupied Maimoon Palace as a residence since almost all the palace there had been destroyed or burned. Maimoon Palace was the only remaining palace because at the time of the Social Revolution it was guarded by Allied soldiers.
At the time of independence, Physical Revolution, and the next periods, the Sultanate of Deli still exists despite no longer have the political authority because it has become part of the Republic of Indonesia. Entering the New Order era, the sultanate was ruled by Sultan Azmy Perkasa Alam Alhaj who was on the throne from 1967 until 1998. Since 5 May 1998, Sultan Otteman Mahmud Perkasa Alam served as functionary of the sultanate. However, the 13th sultan of Deli who was a lieutenant colonel in Indonesian Army died in an Army CN235 plane crash at Malikus Saleh Airport, Lhokseumawe, Aceh, on 21 July 2005. On 22 July 2005, the Crown Prince inherited the throne as the 14th sultan of Deli and assumed the title as Sultan Mahmud Lamanjiji Perkasa Alam.
The lineage of the kings
Here are the names of the leaders of the Sultanate of Deli since its inception until now:
Tuanku Panglima Gocah Pahlawan (1632-1669).
Tuanku Panglima Parunggit (1669-1698).
Tuanku Panglima Paderap (1698-1728).
Tuanku Panglima Pasutan (1728-1761).
Tuanku Panglima Gandar Wahid (1761-1805).
Sultan Amaluddin Mangendar (1805-1850).
Sultan Osman Perkasa Alam Shah (1850-1858).
Sultan Mahmud Al Rashid Perkasa Alam Shah (1858-1873).
Sultan Ma`mun Al Rashid Perkasa Alam Shah (1873-1924).
Amaluddin Sultan Al Sani Perkasa Alam Shah (1924-1945).
Sultan Osman Al Sani Perkasa Alam Shah (1945-1967).
Sultan Azmy Perkasa Alam Alhaj (1967-1998).
Sultan Otteman Mahmud Perkasa Alam (5 May 1998-21 July 2005).
Sultan Mahmud Lamanjiji Perkasa Alam (since July 22, 2005).
1.Maimoon Palace,The Second Palace Of Sultan Deli.the Palace is Still Exist
2.The Sultan and his good people
3.H.R.H Seripaduka Baginda Tuanku Sultan Mahmud Arya Lamantjiji Perkasa Alam (Sultan Deli 14th reign from 2005-NOW)
4.The Coat of Arm of Sultanate of Deli
5.Puri Palace,the first Palace of Kesultanan Deli was attacked by the people who hate the Sultan in that era
6.the Great Hall of Maimoon Palace,2nd Palace of Sultan Deli
7.the Great Hall of Maimoon Palace,2nd Palace of Sultan Deli
Your introduction post was so interesting, and i had only just recently left a post on returning Sultans in Indonesia in the "Other Non-Reigning Royals" section, in "The Malay and Indonesian Sultanates & Royals" thread.
You may enjoy this Link on Returning Indonesian Sultans article that my friend in Canada recently sent me: -